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Logarithmical increase of the longitudinal resistivity (rxx) between 10 K and 80 K and its saturation at low temperature were observed in the graphene synthesized by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with various applied gate voltage. In the two-dimensional system, it is considerably difficult to identify the origin of the logarithmic temperature (Log-T) increase of the resistivity, because there are three corrections to exhibit the Log-T behavior: the weak localization, the electron-electron interaction (EEI) in the disordered system and the Kondo effect. In order to distinguish the origin of the Log-T behavior, we contrived a new method utilizing the magnetotransport property in tilted magnetic fields. As a result, we have assigned the Log-T behavior in the CVD graphene to the correction of the EEI.
This report will take up the following three subjects. The first is the description of a background and a principle posture concerning National Defense Program Outline formulated in 1996 as principle policies for the defense of Japan. The second is to analyze the nature of Japans conventional forces indicated in the (Mid-tern) Defense Build-up Program which has been implemented under the Outline. The last is to explain the content of so-called military Emergency Bills brought up in the Diet, and to consider the implication of it. Certainly, Japan extends its defense from the simple repulse of direct aggression against Japan to the flexible action against various threats occurring in and out of Japan more and more conspicuously after the end of the Cold War as envisaged in National Defense Program Outline in 1996. Moreover, in the latest Mid-tern Defense Build-up Program, the emphasis of defense is being placed on the southern area of Japan including isolated islands. The Outline, however, retains its defense posture of defending Japan and its surrounding areas in principal. The equipment of the Self-Defense Forces is also prepared according to this posture. Japans defense posture today has two basic thoughts. The first one stems from the concept of Basic Defense Force in 1976. It mainly aimed to equip necessary functions over the defense and take balanced postures in its organization and deployment including the logistical support, for the purpose of putting on the sufficient alert in peacetime and repelling limited and small-scale aggression. Under this thought, Japan made an attempt to possess the minimum defense capabilities necessary for an independent county so that it would not turn into a power vacuum and become an unstable factor in Japans neighboring region, instead of building up an adequate capabilities of its own to counter directly a military threat to Japan. Japan has retained this posture, whether explicitly or implicitly, until today. After the Cold War, Japan made a total review of the Defense Program during the mid 19905. It responded to the altered strategic landscape in East Asia. As the result of this review, Japan decided the New National Defense Program Outline in 1996. The concept of Basic Defense Force continues. On the other hand, the new Outline have new roles, dealing with large-scale disasters and other emergencies and contribution to create more stable security environment along with the main mission of the Japans defense. These are, however, limited to MOOTW, the military operations other than war. The features of the defense capabilities under National Defense Program Outline of 1996 are as follows. Generally, Japan aims to enhance its capability in its quality, but tries to reduce it in quantity. The new system of GSDF is started. Some divisions are replaced and new brigades are placed. It is the transition of the military strategy from armored divisions to mobility. And also its strategic posture reoriented toward south, Kyushu and Okinawa. The Maritime Self-Defense Force is transferring its emphasis from anti-submarine warfare to maritime surveillance capability by patrol aircraft. Its shift would contribute to strategic stability in Western Pacific, with the presence of U. S. Navy. In the 1980s, Japan developed a defense capacity to protect the Asia-Pacific sea lanes extending 1,(0) nautical miles outward from Japan. Around the same time, Japan accepted a special mission to develop an incomparable antisubmarine warfare capability. One of the outcomes of these two programs is that Japan has a considerable store of expertise and equipment applicable to surveillance and interdiction of targets in the mid-ocean and coastal areas. By many measures, the MSDF is now the worlds second-most powerful maritime force, counting among its assets an aerial armada of 100 P-3C Orion patrol aircraft. The Air Self-Defense Force is planning to modernize and remodel F-15 Fighters under the Mid-Term Defense Buildup Program. It also started to deployment the domestic made F-2 Fighters produced based on F-16. The equipments of long-distance transport aircrafts are also arranged for international operation. These transport aircrafts will have functions as refueling ones. It would contribute to strengthen the ASDF operational capabilities for both air warfare and MOOTW missions. Regarding the Military Emergency Bills, the purpose of the Legislation is to create a legal framework enabling the Self-Defense Forces to fight exclusively in Japan, and is not same as the law to declare a state of emergency that is usually written in constitutions or legislated in other advanced nations. The government of Japan gave a priority to a law to exercise the Self -Defense Forces over military emergencies that appeared rather easy to define, and arranged the legislation. The Government plans to pass a legislation to deal with such cases of terrorism caused by non-state actors, criminal acts on a larger-scale and serious disasters that seem to happen more probable, within two years after the law is legislated. Japan will in any case require much more time to realize the legislation of more comprehensive law for emergencies. There are some oppositions saying that the government has its own way and it may infringe the rights of citizens, but I may say that I have no concerns about the government, if people realize the real meaning of the democracy and have actions independently.
Study Design: Retrospective follow-up study on the result of surgical treatment for patients with degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis (DLS) using cortical bone trajectory (CBT) technique. Purpose: To evaluate the capability of CBT to manage patients with DLS. Overview of Literature: CBT is a recently advocated, novel, less-invasive technique of lumbar pedicle screw, which provides enhanced screw purchase by maximizing the thread contact with higher density bone surface. Despite the frequent use of CBT technique in the lumbar spine surgery, little is known of the capability of this technique to manage patients with DLS. Methods: Thirty two consecutive patients (5 males, 27 females) surgically treated with single-level DLS in our institute using CBT were included. All patients were followed up at least 12 months (mean 24 months). Their clinical and radiological features were measured. Results: Good leg pain relief was achieved in all patients. The mean postoperative percentage slip demonstrated significant reduction with significant neurological recovery when compared with preoperative percentage slip, and it was maintained until the latest follow-up. Loss of correction of more than 3 mm during the follow-up period was observed in 3 cases. Surgical site infection was observed in one case; however, pull-out of PSs or neurological deterioration was not found. No patient needed additional surgery during the follow-up period. Conclusions: These preliminary results confirmed that CBT is useful for the treatment for patients with DLS. This technique allows good reduction of spondylolisthesis and neurological improvement.
Osteoid osteoma (OO) is a benign osteoblastic tumor. Its curative treatment is complete removal of the nidus, where intraoperative localization of the nidus governs clinical results. However, treatment can be difficult since the lesion is often invisible over the bony surface. Accordingly, establishment of an ideal less invasive surgical strategy for spinal OO remains yet unsettled. We illustrate the efficacy of a computed tomography (CT)-based navigation system in excising OO located adjacent to the facet joint of spine. In our 2 cases, complete and pin-point removal of the nidus located close to the facet joint was successfully achieved, without excessive removal of the bone potentially leading to spinal instability and possible damage of nearby neurovascular structures. We advocate a less invasive approach to spinal OO, particularly in an environment with an available CT-based navigation system.