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2014년 이상의 편지가 발굴되었다는 소식이 여러 언론을 가득 메웠다. 이 보도 이후 그 편지는 이상의 편지로 자리매김하게 되었다. 그런데 이 편지는 2001년 이미 이현욱의 편지로 소개되었던 것이다. 동일한 편지가 먼저는 이현욱의 편지로, 나중에는 이상의 편지로 소개된 것이다. 육필 편지가 적힌 편지지는 1940년에 문을 연 ‘梧文出版社’의 원고지이다. 그리고 편지봉투에 1940년 12월 26일자 소인이 찍혀있다. 그러므로 1937년에 죽은 이상이 이 편지를 쓸 수는 없다. 그리고 서명, 필체 및 문체의 측면에서 이상과 거리가 있다. 하지만 그 편지는 이현욱이 최정희에게 보낸 또 다른 육필 편지와 서명, 필체 및 문체의 측면에서 같으며, 1940년 당시 발표된 이현욱의 「편지」, 「일기」, 「결별」등과 문체의 측면에서 차이가 없다. 또한 육필 편지의 내용은 이현욱의 당시 상황과 그대로 일치한다. 궁극적으로 이 육필 편지는 이현욱의 편지로 보는 것이 적절하다. 이 편지에서 이현욱은 최정희에 대한 애증관계를 가감 없이 표현하였으며, 자신의 글쓰기가 최정희의 권유로 시작되었다는 점, 그리고 최정희와 결별할 수밖에 없는 상황을 그대로 전해주고 있다. 이 편지는 이현욱, 곧 지하련 연구에 좋은 자료가 될 것이다. The news about discovering Lee Sang’s letter filled many newspapers in 2014. After this report, the letter has been established as Lee Sang’s letter. However, this letter has already been introduced as Lee Hyeon-uk’s letter in 2001. The same letter has been first introduced as Lee Hyeon-uk’s and later as Lee Sang’s. The letter paper of handwritten manuscript is the manuscript paper of 'Oh-Mun Publisher' which opened in 1940. And It’s envelope has a postmark dated December 26, 1940. Therefore, no longer can this letter be written by Lee Sang who died in 1937. And it is far from Lee Sang in terms of signatures, handwriting and style. However, this letter is the same as Lee Hyeon-uk's another letter to Choi Jeong-hee in terms of signature, handwriting and style. And it is the same style of Lee Hyeon-uk's works such as “Letter”, “Diary” and “Separation”. Also, the content of the letter is identical to Lee Hyeon-uk’s situation. Ultimately, it is reasonable to see the letter as Lee Hyeon-uk’s. In this letter, Lee Hyeon-uk expressed love and hate relationship with Choi Jeong-hee. This letter shows the fact that Lee Hyeon-uk began writing due to Choi Jeong-hee’s recommendation and she has no choice but break up just like the novel “Separation”. This letter will be a good material to research Lee Hyeon-uk, that is to say Ji Ha-ryeon
In 1789, King Jeongjo moved Yeong’wu-weon(永祐園), the mausoleum of his father, who was the late Crown Prince Jang’heon(“Jang’heon Seja, 莊獻世子”), from its original location which was the Baebong-san(拜峯山) Mountain of the Gyeong’gi-do province’s Yangju(楊州) area, to a new location which was the Hwa-san(花山) Mountain of Su’weon. The new mausoleum for his father was entitled “Hyeon’ryung-weon(顯隆園).” And there were two reasons for the moving: Yeong’wu-weon was damaged and had to be repaired, and a new location for the late Crown Prince was arranged out of a hope for King Jeongjo to have a child. General process for the moving of a mausoleum was established for the first time inside 『Supplemental Version to the Dynasty’s Five Rituals(“Gukjo Sok-O-Rye’eui, 國朝續五禮儀”)』, which was published in 1744. From the opening of an old mausoleum(“Gye’weon, 啓園”) to the insertion of the coffin(“Jae’gung, 梓宮”) into the new mausoleum, all steps were observed, and with the Wu’je(虞祭) memorial service, the process was completed. Jeongjo tried to find a couple of meanings from his effort to move his father’s mausoleum. It was a huge triumph for him, as he wanted to build a platform for reinstating his father’s honor for a very long time, and also reinforce the ruling authority of himself.
이 논문은 英祖 초기에 안동 지역 남인의 정치활동을 규명한 것이다. 시기적 범위는 영조 즉위 이후부터 대략 辛酉大訓을 전후한 시기까지이며, 지역적 범위는 安東을 중심으로 하되 禮安·英陽·寧海 등 안동 주변 지역 또한 그 대상으로 삼았다. 여기서 지역적 범위는 곧 李玄逸 門人 집단 내 핵심인물들의 거주 범위와 일치한다. 영조는 즉위 이후 탕평책을 추진하였는데, 신유대훈으로 국왕 주도의 탕평 정국이 설립되기까지 乙巳換局, 丁未換局, 戊申亂, 己酉處分, 十九下敎, 混沌開闢, 庚申處分 등 많은 정치적 사건이 발생하였다. 그러나 영남 남인의 경우 숙종 대 甲戌換局 이후로 실각하여 재기하지 못하였고, 이로 인해 영조 초기 정국에서는 중앙 정계에서의 역할이 미미하였다. 더구나 무신란에 연루되면서 지역 전체가 ‘逆鄕’으로 규정될 위험에 처하였다. 이에 통상적으로 영남 남인의 정치적 명분은 무신란으로 인해 완전히 붕괴된 것으로 이해되었다. 그러나 무신란 이후 영조의 배려로 안동을 중심으로 한 일부 영남 남인 인사의 등용이 있었다. 김성탁은 이를 대표하는 인물이다. 하지만 당시 안동 지역 남인들은 이현일의 문인집단으로 서로 얽혀있었고, 이현일의 伸冤이 이루어지지 않는 이상, 언제나 ‘己巳年의 餘黨’으로 낙인될 가능성이 존재하였다. 1737년(영조 13)에 김성탁이 이현일을 伸救하다가 영조의 분노를 사 유배 간 사건은 안동 지역 남인의 취약한 정치적 기반을 단적으로 보여 준다. 김성탁 사건의 파급으로 인해 안동 지역 내에서는 김상헌 서원 건립을 둘러싸고 南·老 간의 향전이 벌어졌다. 안동 지역 내에서 열세에 처했던 노론 측은 官의 지원 아래에 서원 건립을 추진했으나, 남인들이 물리력을 동원하면서 저지하여 서원 건립이 좌절되었다. 영조는 이 사건에서 남인들에게 상대적으로 관대한 처분을 내렸다. 이러한 영조의 태도는 黨論 위에서 君師로 군림하려는 영조의 의도를 보여주는 것이었다. 그러나 이러한 영조의 의도와 배려에도 불구하고 1740년대가 되면 안동 지역 남인의 정치활동은 침체되었고, 이것은 곧 영남 남인의 정치활동의 침체를 의미한다. This study identifies the political activities of Namin in Andong in the early days of King Yeongjo. The period ranges from the time of King Yeongjo's accession to the throne to around the time of Sinyu Daehun. The regional range was centered on Andong and around Andong such as Yean, Yeungyang and Yeunghae. The regional range is in line with the extent to which key figures reside within the Lee Hyeon-il’s followers. King Yeongjo promoted Tangpyeong policy(蕩平策) after his ascension, and many political events took place, including the Eulsa Regime Change in 1725(乙巳換局), Jeongmi Regime Change in 1727(丁未換局), Musin Revolt(戊申亂), Kiyucheobun(己酉處分), Sibguhagyo(十九下敎), Hondongaebyeok(混沌開闢), Gyeongsincheobun(庚申處分), until the establishment of the King-led Tangpyeong regime. However, in the case of Namin group of Yeongnam, he failed to recover after Gabsul Regime Change in 1694(甲戌換局), and thus had little role in the central political circle in the early days of King Yeongjo. Furthermore, relevant to Musin Revolt put the entire region at risk of being defined as "Rebellion." In general, it was understood that the political cause of Namin group of Yeongnamwas completely destroyed due to Musin Revolt. However, Namin group of Yeongnam centered on Andong was appointed because of King Yeongjo's consideration after Musin Revolt. Kim Seong-tak was a representative figure. However, Namin in Andong were intertwined with Lee Hyun-il's followers at that time. If Lee Hyun-il is not innocent, They were always likely to be branded as ‘the remnants of the year of Gisa’. In 1737, Kim Sung-tak's banishment due to Yeongjo's anger while explaining Lee Hyun-il shows the weak political foundation of Namin in Andong. Due to the ripple of the Kim Seong-tak's banishment, there was confrontation between Namin and Noron over the construction of Hagdong Seowon in Andong. Noron, who had a weak power in Andong, pushed for the construction of the Seowon under the support of the government office, but the construction of the Seowon was thwarted by Namin's physical force. King Yeongjo gave relatively lenient treatment to Namin in this case. King Yeongjo's attitude showed King Yeongjo's intention to reign as ‘Master King(君師)’ on the party platform. However, despite King Yeongjo's intentions and consideration, the political activities of Namin in Andong began to stagnate in the 1740s, which meant that the political activities of Namin group of Yeongnam had stagnated. (Department of History, Kyungpook National University / email@example.com)
It is difficult to use the conventional fixed sampling pulse-width modulation (PWM) method in a motor drive system due tothe harmonics and beat phenomenon when the number of switchings is low. Synchronous PWM is a solution to overcomethese problems. However, it is difficult to implement a closed-loop current controller, since synchronous PWM only hasmerits when the switching frequency is synchronized with the operation speed. This paper proposes a closed-loop currentcontroller for synchronous permanent magnet machines which are driven by synchronous PWM. The proposed controlleruses the concept of variable time step control. The control variables are the sampling time interval and the output voltagemagnitude. The proposed controller dynamically controls the dq-currents, while the steady-state merits of the synchronousPWM are maintained. This paper presents the design procedures and a dynamic analysis of the proposed current controller. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by experimental results.
Background Coptisine is a natural alkaloid compound and is known to have multiple beneficial effects including antioxidant activity. However, whether it can protect lung fibroblasts from oxidative damage has not been studied yet. Objectives To investigate the potential inhibitory effect of coptisine against oxidative stress in V79-4 lung fibroblast cells. Methods V79-4 cells were treated with H2O2 (1 mM) in the presence or absence of coptisine (50 µg/ml), N-acetyl cysteine (NAC, 10 mM) or zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP, 10 µM) for the indicated times. The alleviating effects of coptisine on cytotoxicity, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, DNA damage, mitochondrial dynamics, and inhibition of ATP production against H2O2 were investigated. Western blot analysis was used to analyze the expression levels of specific proteins. Results Coptisine inhibited H2O2-induced cytotoxicity and DNA damage by blocking abnormal ROS generation. H2O2 treatment caused cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase accompanied by increased expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1 and decreased expression of cyclin B1 and cyclin A. However, these effects were attenuated in the presence of coptisine or NAC. Coptisine also prevented apoptosis by decreasing the rate of Bax/Bcl-2 expression in H2O2-stimulated cells and suppressing the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and the cytosolic release of cytochrome c. In addition, the activation of nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was markedly promoted by coptisine in the presence of H2O2. However, zinc protoporphyrin IX, a potent inhibitor of HO-1, attenuated the ROS scavenging and anti-apoptotic effects of coptisine. Conclusions Based on current data, we suggest that coptisine can be used as a potential treatment for oxidative stress-related lung disease.
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
This paper presents a brief sketch of the content and background of Hunmin jeongeum research. Pre-1940 and post-1940 research are divided and considered separately.
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
Kang, Hyeon-Seok. 1999. The Ongoing Monophthongization of 'ii' in Seoul Korean: A Sociophonological Account. Studies in Phonetics, Phonology and Morphology 5, 25-58. This paper examines the current status of 'ii', the only remaining one among the six Middle Korean falling diphthongs. Supporting the suggestions by Kim-Renaud (986) and Y.C. Chung (1991), this article shows that this diphthong is also monophthongizing following the paths of the other falling diphthongs. It is also shown through quantitative evidence that the monophthongization of this diphthong involves not one diachronic change but three different changes. It is suggested that the monophthongization of 'ii' was mainly triggered by the structural pressure to eliminate the only remaining falling diphthong in contemporary Korean. This structural explanation is phonologically formalized within the Optimality Theory expanded by the notion of 'variable ranking' (Reynolds ]994). The phonological account also shows why the changes are under way as they are. (Kaya University)
‘Future Dream of the Earth’(1909) was published in the Korea Daily News in Korean language. Since he was fully aware of the positive effect of Korean novels on mass, Danjae wrote it in Korean native language to enlighten Korean people. In ‘Future Dream of the Earth’ Danjae brought the device of dream that was one of the main characteristics that the traditional narratives had. In his work, he accepted the discussion type that was wildly known as social discourse at that time and he embraced the travel structure to reach the awaken subject. Poetry was utilized to disclose the author’s intention more clearly. Additionally, in his work the reality was described as “not being different from the hell.” That shows that Danjae’s world view was based on the realistic world. He worked hard to raise the national consciousness and spread out the spirit of independence. Likewise, this work was accomplished through the national historical spirit. In this sense, this work played an important role to connect ‘Euljimundeok’ to ‘Dream Heaven’. This work bears some important meanings in the literature of Shin Chae -ho. First meaning is that Danjae wrote novels by himself to enlighten Korean people. Secondly, this work made it possible to confirm the genealogy of Danjae’s fantasy novels ranging from ‘Future Dream of the Earth’ and ‘Dream Heaven’ to The Fierce Battle of Two Dragons. Lastly, even though it was not completed, the novel has a great significance in that it shows the viewpoint of Danjae who enhanced the national consciousness and pursued the independence through the novels at the patriotic enlightenment period. Therefore, it is necessary to identify ‘Future Dream of the Earth’ as one of his novels at the enlightenment movement period.
우리는 선(禪)이란 단어를 흔히 사용하고 그 개념을 어렴풋이 느낌으로 알고 있다. 하지만 선을 정확하게 이해하고 한마디로 표현하는 것은 쉽지 않다. 선에 관해 공부한 사람이라 할지라도 선 사상의 역사와 정신에 대한 질문에 대답은 할 수 있지만, 선을 한마디 말로 정의 하기는 쉽지 않을 것이다. 왜냐하면 선은 스스로의 체험에 의한 깨우침이기 때문이다. 더욱이 불교에서는 ``문자를 앞세우지 않는다`` 라는 뜻의 불입문자(不立文字)를 논하고 있으며, 선이 ``말로 표현이 될 때,그것은 이미 선이 아니다`` 라고 한다. 우리가 명상을 통해 알수 있는 선(禪)은 무엇이며, 명상이란 무엇인가? 명상이란 생각이 멈추거나, 생각하지 않고 있을 때시작된다고 하는데, 언제나 끊임없이 모든 것에 생각을 하며 살고 있는 우리에게, 생각을 멈추라는 말에 의문을 갖게 된다. 서양에서는 선(禪)의 뜻을 명상(meditation)으로 번역하고, 일본식 발음을 따라 젠(zen)으로 사용하고 있다. 또한 선은 종교적인 의미보다는 철학적인 의미로 해석되며, 프랑스의 일상 생활 속에서, ``soyez zen(쑤와이에 젠)``은 ``침착해라``라는 뜻으로 사용된다. 철학적인 의미에서, 명상과 선이 예술 작품과 어떠한 관계가 있는지 알아보기 위해, 선의 의미와 그 선의 근원인 디아나(dhyana)를 구성하고 있는 삼매, 사마타(samatha)와 비파샤나(vipasyana)의 의미를 살펴본다. 우리를 편안하고 고요하게 해주며, 생각을 잠시 멈추게도 해주는 제임스 튀렐(James Turrell)의 작품, <몰입(Mol-Ip)>과 김현숙의 작품, <고요(Calm)>에서 우리는 사마타의 의미를 살펴보고, 수행하는 사람들이나 내면의 세계를 연상시키는 Giusseppe Penone의 작품, <베르사이유의 삼나무(Versailles di Cedre)>에서 비파샤나의 의미를 해석해 본다. 또한 명상하는 사람들을 연상케하는 필립 라메트(Philippe Ramette)의 작품, <비이성적인 관조(Comtemplation irrationnelle)>에서는 선(禪)과 예술 작품, 그리고 명상과 예술 행위와의 연관성에 대해 생각해 본다. 선(禪) 사상처럼 말로 표현되지 않는 여러 쟝르의 예술 작품들은 우리에게 다양한 의미를 전한다. 때로는 작품의 의미들은 선 사상이 전수되었던 방식처럼 마음과 마음을 통해 (이심전심 以心傳心) 그 의미가 전달 되기도 하고, 이해할 수 없는 선사들의 선문답이나, 혹은 달을 가리키는 부처님의 검지를 바라보는 것 처럼,우리의 생각보다 훨씬 앞서 가는 작가의 의도를 우리가 알아채지 못할 때도 있다. 선은 명상을 통한 스스로에 대한 공부이며, 매 순간마다 새로움을 인식하는 것이다. 그래서 예술가들이 개인적으로 불교의 영향을 받지 않았다 하더라도, 그들의 작품이 현실 자체, 있는 그대로의 실체를 바라 볼 줄 아는 현명함을 담고 있다면, 그 예술 작품들은 선 사상과 비교될 수 있다. 더욱이 디아나(dhyana)의 의미처럼, 묵상과 몰입 속에서 이뤄지는 작품 제작과 순간적인 직감에 의한 예술창작 행위는 어딘가 선 사상과 닮아있다. We usually use the word Zen (禪) and we know vaguely about the sens, but it is not easy to accurately describe in short words to express the sense of Zen. Even we study of the Zen, be able to answerthe history and spirit of Zen, but it will not be easy to define the thought of Zen in simple words. Because the Zen is enlighten by our own experience. Moreover Buddhist saying 불입문자 burip munja (不 立文字) which means ``the word can``t precede the Zen`` and also they say ``when Zen represents by words, it``s not already Zen``. What is Zen through we know by meditation, and what is meditation? Thismeditation is thinking stops, starts when you are stops or not thinking. We will have a question about stops thinking, because we live in a constant thinking status about all of the things. In the West, the meaning of Zen is translated meditation, and used as Zen according to the Japanese pronunciation. Also Zen interprets a philosophical sense rather than a religious significance. In daily life in French, ``soyez Zen (be Zen)`` is used to mean ``calm down``. In a philosophical sense, to learn whether there is any relationship with a work of art and Zen, meditation, we search the meaning of Zen and the origin (source) of Dhyana, and we are explored a signification of configure the Dhyana that Samatha and Vipasyana. We look at the meaning of the Samatha in the works, Calm of Hyeon-Suk Kim and Light leading of James Turrell that makes us comfortable, quiet and also stopping to think. And we interpret the meaning of Vipasyana in the works Versailles di Cedre of Giusseppe Penone that evoke inner word, and Also we think about the relationship between the Zen and artworks, the meditation practices and the acts of the artists, in the works Comtemplation irrationnelle of Philippe Ramette that reminds those who meditate and perform. Like Zen, diverse genres of artworks which does not express in words, propose a variety of signification to us. Sometimes, the meaning of artworks allows to deliver us the way of transmission of Zen, through 이심전심 isim junsim (以心傳心heart to heart, mind and mind). And sometimes, such as the baffling dialogue of Zen Master, or such as looking at the index finger of Buddha pointing to the moon, we are also unable to perceive the intentions of the artists, because their thoughts go too far ahead than our thought. The Zen is studied for themselves through meditation, to recognize the now, at the moment and newness of each moment. So even if artists were not affected personally by the Buddhism, if their works contains a wise mind that know to look at the reality and reality as they are, artworks can be compared to Zen. Moreover, as significance of Dhyana, artistic creations that are produced through contemplation, and concentration, and, act of creation artistic by momentary intuition are similar somewhere to a Zen.
This research discovered some of unexcavated Lee Gwangsu’s work presumably written during his stay at Shanghai. I found “The Opening Speech,” one editorial and two pieces of poetry within the Korean version of The Young Korea’s first issue, and one editorial in the Chinese version. In the same issue, “Declaration of Korean Youth Association of Independence,” also known as “2.8 Declaration” and written by Lee Gwangsu, was published. From the second issue of the same magazine, “the Need and Method of Preserving and Propagating Korean” was found to be written by Lee Gwangsu. It is confirmed that Lee Gwangu authored “New Determination”, “People and Government”, “Self-awareness of the Citizen”, and “Citizen, Introspect,” all of which were originally published anonymously. Next, this research also found Lee Gwangsu’s work published in Hyeogsingongbo. The existence of Lee Gwangsu’s talk in Hyeogsingongbo adds importance to his newly discovered work in the same collection. Finally, this research discovered and determined that Lee Gwansu authored “an Absolute Independence” and “the Kando Incidence and the Course of Future in Independence Movement,” also published anonymously in Dongnipsinmoon. This research has uncovered a number of works, contributing significantly to understanding Lee Gwangsu’s works during his stay at Shanghai. Lee Gwangsu revealed the act of brutality that the Japanese committed in the 3.1 Movement of Independence and expressed the national determination and promise to achieve independence in two pieces of poetry, “a Girl with cut arms”, and “Hurrah”. Additionally, he emphasized the importance of our language and the necessity of preserving and propagating it in “the Need and Method of Preserving and Propagating Korean”. Newly discovered works, including “the Price of Freedom”, “Future of Korean”, “People and Government”, “an Absolute Independence”, “the Kando Incidence and the Future Course of Independence Movement,” and others, were mostly pertinent to the independence movement. Lee Gwangsu stressed preparing independence through education, well evidenced in his statement, “prepare and endure for a long time.” Lee Gwangsu also advised Chinese intellectuals to join the independence movement in his work, “China will Regain its Power When it Beats Japan.” Such works embody Lee Gwangsu’s thoughts on language, literature, contemporary world, and independence movements.