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주택은 인간이 안주하기 위한 필수적인 공간 이며 일상적인 생활을 영위하는 장소로, 인간 생활과 사회적 환경에 민감한 속성을 지닌다. 따라서, 주택은 시대의 변천 속에서 새로운 환경에 맞게 점진적으로 개선되고 발전되어 오고 있다. 우리나라의 근대 대중 주거변천은 가족생활 문화를 바탕으로 하는 일반 거주자 의 요구에 의한 주거 형태라기보다는 주택의 효율적 공급에 초점을 맞춘 기술 중심의 변천 이라 볼 수 있다. 따라서 우리나라의 근대 주 택 유형의 변천은 사회적 변화에 의한 대중들 의 주거 문화에 대한 선행 연구를 바탕으로 개발되어온 주거 유형이라기보다는 소위 선진 서구개념의 주거 형태를 지향하며, 수구형 주 거가 급속히 대중들에게 도입되었다. 근대 주 거의 변천은 거주자들의 생활 변화에 의한 내 적 주요구에 기인하기보다는 사회 외적 요인 의 영향이 크다고 볼 수 있다. 한편으로는 이러한 물리적 환경의 변화는 공 간 사용자들의 가치관에 영향을 주며, 다시 새로운 공간 요구를 생성하게 하며, 이에 따 라 물리적 환경은 새로운 주 요구를 바탕으로 변천을 지속하게 된다. 다시 말해 물리적 환 경과 공간 사용자들의 가치관은 상호 순환관 계를 띄고 있다는 점이다. 주거 환경이 여성 들의 공간으로 인식되어 있는 우리나라와 같 은 가부장적인 문화권에서는 주거의 변천은 남성들보다는 여성 주부들의 주 의식, 가치관 에 큰 영향을 미치게 된다. 주생활에 있어 가 장 중요한 가사노동의 형태는 근대화를 통해 크게 변모하였으며, 이에 부엌의 공간적 위계 를 향상시켰고 과거 여성전용의 단순한 가사 노동 공간에서 벗어나 가족 모두의 중심적인 생활공간으로 탈바꿈하는 계기를 마련하였다. A house is a space essential to humans' comfortable life, and a place to lead an everyday life. And so it has an attribute sensitive to human life and social environment. Consequently, houses have been gradually improved and developed so that they might fit in the new environment in the ups and downs of ages. We can see that the vicissitudes of the houses of the modern masses of our country are the changes centering around the efficient supply of houses rather than the dwelling pattern demanded by general dwellers on the basis of the culture of family life. Therefore, the changes of the modern dwelling type of our country has been directed toward the dwelling pattern of the so-called advanced western residence type rather than the residence type that has been developed upon the basis of the prior investigation concerning the dwelling culture of the masses caused by social change, so that the houses of conservative pattern has rapidly been introduced to the public. We can see that the changes of modern residences have been greatly affected by the factor extraneous to the society rather than the internal demand caused by the changes of the living of dwellers. On the one hand, these physical changes of environment influences the view of value of the users of space, and it comes to create the demand for new space again. Consequently, physical environment continues to change upon the basis of the new and main demand. In other words, what I mean by here is that physical environment and the view of value of the users of space has mutual circulation relations. In Patriarchal sphere of culture like that of our country where residential environment has been recognized as the space of women, residential changes come to exert a great influence female homemakers' residential consciousness and the view of value rather than males. The Pattern of the domestic labor which is the most important in the residential life has been greatly transformed through modernization, and this has improved the spatial hierarchy of kitchen, and provided the occasion of getting out of simple domestic labor only women were in charge of, and of transforming it into the living space for all the family members.
Recent design changes in the existing research on the factors and issues of design changes and analysis, responsible for analyzing the relationship, procedural issues, and issues of research that can be active. However, changes in the design of problems are essentially designed to complement the book is for the procedure. Methodology for dealing with design changes in the characteristics of the country and to reflect more realistically, and various design changes and looked at trends in related research. the design Change of this study to examine the domestic status and problems, identify the status of the country about the design changes, and in suggesting the direction to the development of the design changes.
Purpose : This study was carried out to identify the factor of decisional balance for exercise. This was composed of a set of variables at the level of decision making when the elderly decide to do exercise. It was used to classify and identify the characteristics of the stages of change for exercise to which the elderly belong, and was used to identify the variables of decisional balance which influence the stage of change for exercise in the elderly. Methods : Convenient samples of 198 subjects over age 60 in Seoul(mean age=70) were selected from community living, mentally competent older adults and the data was collected from April 1, 1999 to May 31, 1999. The research instrument was the Decisional Balance Measure for Exercise(Marcus & Owen., 1992), Stage of Change Measure(Marcus et al, 1992). The data was analyzed by SAS Program. Results: 1. According to stage of change measure, without missing data, 191 subjects were distributed in each stage of change for exercise : 50 subjects(26.1%), 7 subjects(3.6%), 52 subjects(27.2%), 4 subjects(2%), and 78 subjects(40.8%) belonged to the pre-contemplation stage, contemplation stage, preparation stage, action stage and maintenance stage. 2. Factor analysis identified 3 factors of decisional balance as appropriate factors for excise of the elderly and named by researchers; 1)'Perceived Physical-psychological benefit', 2)'Perceived Physical-psychological burden', and 3)'Perceived time burden'. 3. The analysis of variance showed that the two components Perceived Physical - psychological benefit(F=45.95, p=.0001), and Perceived Physical-psychological burden(F=26.52, P=.001) were significantly associated with stage of change. 4. Through the discriminant analysis, it was found that both 'Self Perceived Physical-Psychological benefit' and 'Perceived Physical-Psychological burden' were the influential variables in discriminating the three stages of change(pre-contemplation, preparation, and maintenance). Conclusion: Results are consistent with the application of the Transtheoretical model, which has been used to understand how people change health behaviors. Even though this study is a cross-sectional, not a longitudinal study, the findings of this study give useful information for exercise intervention about especially the factors relating to decision making for exercise of the elderly in the different stages of change of exercise.
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Purpose: Rapid changes of view on social value require businesses to obtain a new corporate legitimacy for their survival. It implies that the simple activities of companies, such as making donations as part of corporate social responsibility (CSR) schemes, cannot work anymore for obtaining corporate legitimacy. Therefore, companies are proactively responding to these changes in social value by leveraging on the new management strategies concerning the social economy. This study confirms the effectiveness of the company s performance through green management and creating shared value for companies to respond to changing environment. Composition/Logic: This study describes the changes in the business environment according to the needs of the social economy, and examines the possibility of coexistence of green management and shared value creation. It analyzes various cases to confirm that corporate legitimacy is achieved through the subsequent practice of creating shared value of social enterprise by green management. In conclusion, based on the results of this case study, we consider the strategic implication of creating shared value, which includes securing new markets and corporate legitimacy at the same time. Findings: Creating shared value through the green management approach is confirmed as a valued business strategy. Corporate legitimacy is secured by solving social problems through the application of green management on a company's core competencies. Subsequently, businesses are equipped to gain new competitive advantage by creating shared value. Eventually, the establishment of a system for facilitating stakeholder cooperation is most crucial for creating shared values over the business. Originality/Value: The requirements for the social economy and corporate legitimacy will continue to grow in future. One of the top priorities of a company for its survival would be to undertake efforts to respond to these changing demands. Through a case study on creating shared value through green management, this research presented a new perspective on recognizing the market environment and proposed a management strategy that can take advantage of the possibility to respond to rapid changes in the market now.
As demand regarding a recent energy-saving rises, the using ratio of the aluminum plate in manufacturing of a railroad vehicle has been increasing. The aluminum structure to be applied to a railroad vehicle is divided to single skin and double skin, and the main aluminum product is mainly Al 6005 extrude and Al 5083 rolled in domestic market. The Al 6005 alloy is applied heat treatment in order to improve the strength of material. Therefore there is the disadvantage that the strength of welding zone decreases compare with base material's if you apply to fusion welding like MIG(metal inert gas) welding. In this paper we tried to apply friction stir welding to solve these problems. In this study we investigated how tensile strength and fatigue strength were changed in case of changing the shoulder diameter of thread tool.
This paper analyzes the changes of total factor productivity(TFP) of 29 Chinese provinces during the period of 1995-2008. For doing this, the Malmquist productivity change index decomposed into efficiency change index and technical progress change index is used in comparing productivity performances prior to and after China`s 2001 entry into the World Trade Organization(WTO). Furthermore, 29 Chinese provinces are separated into three regions, eastern, middle, and western ones, to analyze productivity performances among these regions. In addition, GDP as output variable and fixed capital stock and number of employed workers as input variables are used in estimating the Malmquist productivity change index. The empirical results of this paper are as follows: First, although technical progress after China`s WTO entry was remarkably improved, efficiency after China`s WTO accession was continuously decreased. As a result, improvement of technical progress dominated deterioration of efficiency in China. Second, eastern region of China including Shanghai played very important role in increasing both China`s TFP and technical progress. Third, efficiency of eastern, middle, and western regions of China was all decreased so that improving efficiency will become one of the most important things for sustainable growth of Chinese economy. One of main reasons for deterioration of efficiency would be overinvestment in these three regions. Fourth, among the innovation provinces of China, the majority was coastal regions including Shanghai. Thus, it is necessary that tightening up the regional technical capability to reduce the gap between eastern and other regions of China. Finally, according to the empirical results of the determinants of TFP, market openness, FDI share, market transaction of technology and patent application play a positive role in improving TFP in China.
The plasma atrial naturiuretic polypeptide (ANP) was repeatedly measured in each clinical phases in 20 patients (20.8±7.2yr) with Korean Hemorrhagic Fever (KHF). The study purpose was to see whether there is any relationship between the clinical course of KHF and the changes of plasma level of ANP. In three patients the plasma ANP could be repeatedly measured from the early oliguric to diruetic phases. In these three patients the plasma level of renin activity and aldosterone were very high in the early oliguric phase. Then the plasma renin activity and aldosterone level decreased steeply in remarkable degree to near normal level while the patient is still in oliguric phase and stayed at this level during the diuretic phase. The plasma ANP level was low (30-80pg/ml) in the early oliguric phase. Then with the sudden remarkable decrease of plasma renin activity and aldosterone the plasma ANP increased rapidly to high level (230-280pg/ml), then was decreased to near normal level (90-190pg/ml) making a narrow peaked plasma ANP concentration curve, and then the level stayed at near normal level during the diuretic phase. Around the time when the plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentrations were decreased to their low level and the plasma ANP was increased to it's peak level the oliguric phase was changed to the diuretic phase. The changes of plasma cortisol level followed the pattern of changes of plasma renin and aldosterone. It is possible that the increase of plasma ANP level might have had some role in the initiation of diuretic phase in these patients. It is not certain whether these changes are the unique changes seen only in patients with KHF or the changes seen also in patients with acute renal failure of other causes.
The purpose of this study is to suggest a method to improve the current building construction change order process, which has been a major cause of inefficiency and cost increases. Due to the non-standardized nature of design and construction projects, it is inevitable that design changes will occur frequently. Through a case study, the reasons for design changes and the elements of such changes were derived. Using the suggested assessment techniques, an objective and reasonable approach to design changes can be realized to support the design and construction process.
The purpose of this study is to clarify design purposes required by project characteristics, sizes, and order methods for “Design Adjustment Examples” that incurred in construction projects, this study proposes an example case that applies an evaluation method called “Multiple Weighted Value” which reflects review of similar cases of design adjustment process, alternative design adjustment creation, and expert review and opinions while considering participating entities' influences. The purpose is to apply the cases to assess “A Study on Process Improvement of the Building Design Change Support by Case Studies” applicability, which can generate objective results that reflect participating entities' intentions accurately to select the final alternative for design adjustment through the “Improvement Process for Building Design Change Support” which is the result of the study paper “A Research on Actual Design Adjustment Improvement Process.”
본 연구는 산림에서 나타나는 수종의 분포 패턴을 해석하고 예측하기 위한 목적으로 수행되었다. 국내에서 처음으로 시도된 전국 규모의 체계적 산림조사라할 수 있는 NFI (National Forest Inventory)의 수종별 출현 정보와 출현지점별 풍부도를 기반으로 소나무의 현존분포도를 작성하였다. 생태적 지위 모형의 하나인 GARP (Genetic Algorithm for Ruleset Production)를 이용하여 소나무 현존분포와 연관성이 높은 환경요인변수들을 선정하였고, 선정된 변수들을 설명변수로 하는 소나무 잠재분포 모형을 작성한 후 기후변화 시나리오를 적용하여 미래의 잠재분포를 예측하였다. 기후, 지리·지형, 토양·지질, 토지이용 및 식생현황 등27개 환경요인변수를 각각 설명변수로 하여 모형을 구동함으로써 소나무 현존분포와의 연관성을 평가한 결과 1월 평균기온이 최상위를 차지하였고 연평균기온, 8월평균기온, 연교차 등도 영향을 미치는 것으로 분석되었다. NFI 정보로부터 추출하여 소스개체군으로 선정된 조사지점들을 소나무의 최종출현정보로, 환경요인변수 간의 연관성 분석을 통해 최종적으로 선정된 변수 세트를 설명변수로 하여 모형을 구동함으로써 최적의 모형을 선정한 후 잠재분포도를 작성하였다. 현재 시점의 환경요인변수들에 의해 트레이닝 된 잠재분포 모형에서 기후관련변수들을 RCP 8.5 기후변화시나리오에서 산출한 변수들로 대체하여 2020년대, 2050년대, 2090년대의 소나무의 예측 잠재분포도를 작성하였다. 최종적으로 작성된 소나무 잠재분포모형의 평가통계량인 AUC (Area Under Curve)는 0.67로 다소미흡하였으나 향후 기후변화 환경 하에서 소나무림의 보전 및 관리를 위한 최소한의 실마리를 제공할 수있을 것으로 판단되었다. We employed the ecological niche modeling framework using GARP (Genetic Algorithm for Ruleset Production) to model the current and future geographic distribution of Pinus densiflora based on environmental predictor variable datasets such as climate data including the RCP 8.5 emission climate change scenario, geographic and topographic characteristics, soil and geological properties, and MODIS enhanced vegetation index (EVI) at 4 km2 resolution. National Forest Inventory (NFI) derived occurrence and abundance records from about 4,000 survey sites across the whole country were used for response variables. The current and future potential geographic distribution of Pinus densiflora, one of the tree species dominating the present Korean forest was modeled and mapped. Future models under RCP 8.5 scenarios for Pinus densiflora suggest large areas predicted under current climate conditions may be contracted by 2090 showing range shifts northward and to higher altitudes. Area Under Curve (AUC) values of the modeled result was 0.67. Overall, the results of this study were successful in showing the current distribution of major tree species and projecting their future changes. However, there are still many possible limitations and uncertainties arising from the select of the presence-absence data and the environmental predictor variables for model input. Nevertheless, ecological niche modeling can be a useful tool for exploring and mapping the potential response of the tree species to climate change. The final models in this study may be used to identify potential distribution of the tree species based on the future climate scenarios, which can help forest managers to decide where to allocate effort in the management of forest ecosystem under climate change in Korea.