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We have studied characteristics of community structure on the benthic macro-invertebrates at twelve selected sites in upstream, midstream and downstream of Paemsagol, Piagol, Chilseongol and Daeseonggol, major streams of Jirisan Mountain, for three years from April 2008 to September 2010. As a result, 2 phyla, 3 classes, 11 orders, 41 families, 119 species and 4,449 individuals of benthic macro-invertebrates have been collected and classified in this study. Among them EPT group (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera), commonly appearing taxa in clean stream ecosystem, was found most frequently. The highest species number of benthic macro-invertebrates were collected in 2008, the year with lower climatic influence including heavy rain. In almost all of survey sites 80% or over of EPT group were counted, and St. 1 scored highest rate of EPT group at 92.59%. Most dominant species was Ecdyonurus kibumensis at 12.83% of dominance index, and subdominant species was Goerodes KUb at 6.81% of dominance index. The investigation of the feeding function group indicated that gathering-collectors were dominant with 26 species and 1,334 individuals, while the number of filtering-collectors was lowest with 11 species and 230 individuals. This result represents that the feeding function group of Jirisan Mountain is mountainous stream-specific one. Both diversity index and richness index were lowest at the midstream of Chilseongol (St. 5), while the midstreams of Daeseonggol (St. 11) and Piagol (St. 8) were highest in diversity and richness indices respectively. The analyses of linear regression and correlation were performed in order to investigate and to predict the appearance aspect of EPT group by altitude. The results showed that the ratio of Plecopteran species number has increased by the elevation of the altitude at 0.05 significance level. Cluster analysis was also carried out for evaluating environmental similarities among survey sites. As a result, upper regions of Paemsagol (St. 1) and Piagol have clustered as most similar sites each other, while the midstream of Piagol (St. 8) has separated with lower similarity value than other sites in species composition.
본 연구에서는 김천시의 습지 유형별 담수 무척추동물의 다양성 비교를 하였다. 채집된 담수 무척추 동물의 평균 종수는 광기습지28.50(±0.71)<sup>a</sup>, 도곡리보습지28.00(±2.83)<sup>a</sup>, 길지습지15.00(±4.24)<sup>b</sup>, 동부습지4.50(±0.71)<sup>c</sup> 순이었고 Duncan의 다중범위 검정 결과, 하천형, 호수형, 소택형 등 습지의 유형별로 차이가 있었다. 하천형 습지인 광기습지와 도곡리보습지의 종구성은 하루살이목, 날도래목등 전형적인 유수생태계의 특성을 나타내었으며 호수형 습지인 길지습지와 소택형 습지인 동부습지의 종 구성은 노린재목, 딱정벌레목 등이 우세하게 분포하는 전형적인 정수생태계의 특성을 보였다. 집괴분석 결과, 정수성 습지와 유수성 습지가 다른 두 그룹으로 묶이는 것을 확인 할 수 있었는데 이는 정수생태계에 적응하여 서식하는 분류군(노린재목, 딱정벌레목 등)과 유수생태계에 적응하여 서식하는 분류군(하루살이목, 날도래목 등)이 서로 상이하기 때문에 나타난 결과라고 판단된다. In the present study, we compared the biodiversity of freshwater invertebrates by wetland types in Gimcheon city. The average number of species of the collected freshwater invertebrates are Gwanggi wetland 28.50(±0.71)<sup>a</sup>, Dogokri wetland 28.00(±2.83)<sup>a</sup>, Gilji wetland 15.00(±4.24)<sup>b</sup>, Dongbu wetland 4.50(±0.71)<sup>c</sup>. As a result of Duncan's multiple range test, we reached the conclusion that the results depend on wetland types such as Riverine, Lacustrine and Palustrine. Gwanggi and Dogokri wetlands, which are Riverine, show typical attributes of Lotic ecosystem that we could find Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera. Meanwhile, Gilji and Dongbu wetlands, which are Lacustrine and Palustrine respectively, have characteristics of Lentic ecosystem that Hemiptera and Coleoptera inhabit dominantly. As a result of Cluster analysis, we could classify Lentic and Lotic wetlands into two different groups because the species which adjusted to Lentic ecosystem(Hemiptera, Coleoptera) and the ones that adjusted Lotic ecosystem(Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera) are different.
본 논문은 한류에 의한 관광(팬덤관광)을 팬덤이론의 관점에서 분석하고자 하였다. 팬덤관광은 상호 연관성을 지니고 있는 영상관광과 명사에 의해 유발된 관광이라는 두 가지 형태의 관광으로 세분화 되었다. 또한, 본 논문에서는 현재 국내에서 진행되고 있는 이 두 가지 범주에 포함된 관광상품들이 지니고 있는 문제점들을 파악하고, 이러한 문제점에 대한 적절한 대안을 파악하기 위해 영국, 리버풀에서 진행되고 있는 비틀즈 관광을 사례연구로 소개하였다. 사례분석 결과, 향후 팬덤관광 개발을 위해 필요한 세 가지의 전략은 1) 과도한 상업화에 대한 제한, 2) 이해 관계자들 사이의 전략적 협력관계의 형성, 3) 팬덤 관광의 개발에 있어 팬의 지속적인 참여 보장이라고 요약할 수 있다. 팬덤 관광의 지속적 성공 가능성은 이러한 세 가지의 전략을 적절하게 조율하는 데 있다. This paper attempts to analyze the current practices of the Korean Wave tourism(fandom induced tourism) from the perspective of fandom. It is suggested that the fandom induced tourism can be divided into two forms that are interconnected to some extent. These are labeled in this paper as screen tourism and celebrity induced tourism. The case of Beatles tourism is introduced as an example of fandom induced tourism, which helps illustrate three important strategic efforts in the development process. These include 1) restricting against over-commercialization, 2) establishing a strategic collaboration among the stakeholders, and 3) maintaining fans' participation in constructing fandom induced tourism. This paper concludes with the contention that the long-term viability of fandom induced tourism in Korea lies in coordinating such strategic needs.
본 연구는 한옥체험업 관리자들이 인식하는 전통체험프로그램 운영상의 제약요인들을 이해하기 위해 진행되었다. 이를 위해, 한옥체험업에서 전통체험프로그램을 직접 운영하는 14명의 관리자들을 대상으로 그들이 인식하는 체험프로그램 운영상에서 나타나는 제약요인들에 관한 심층면접이 이루어졌다. 심층인터뷰를 통해 수집된 인터뷰 내용은 주제분석방법에 기초하여 분석이 이루어졌다. 분석결과에 따르면, 체험프로그램 운영과정에서 발생하는 제약요인들은 크게 외부적 요인과 내부적 요인으로 분류되는 것으로 나타났다. 외부적 운영제약요인을 구성하는 하부 요인들에 포함되는 것은 “수요의 부족과 불안정성”, “이해관계자들의 네트워크 및 지원 부족” 두 가지로 밝혀졌다. 내부적 요인을 구성하는 하부요인들은 “공간적 제약”, “운영인력의 부족과 전문성 결여”, “홍보능력 및 인식의 부족”의 세 가지로 나타났다. 이러한 본 연구의 결과에 따라 결론에서는 운영자들이 인식하는 체험프로그램 운영상의 제약요인들을 극복할 수 있을 것으로 기대되는 효율적인 경영전략을 제시하였다. This study explores managers`` perceived constraints in providing Hanok-based tradtional cultural experience programs. An in-depth interview was conducted to the total of 14 managers who run traditional cultural experience programs in Hanok about various constraints they perceive in operating such programs. Data were analyzed in accordance with thematic analysis process. The results show that the prominent management constraints fall into external and internal categories. External constraints include “lack of consistent demand” and “deficiency in stakeholder network and support”. Internal constraints encompass “spatial limits”, “lack of operating personnels and professionality”, and "lack of promotion skill and information". The results of this study pertain to developing efficient managerial strategies to cope with the revealed management constraints.
The changes on community structures of benthic macroinvertebrates, relevance to the environment and interrelationship between benthos were studied over two years in stream with large environmental disturbance, which caused by localized heavy rain during Typhoon Chaba in October 2016. As a result, the number of species and individuals were increased after localized heavy rain, especially numbers of individuals of Ephemeroptera and Plecoptera were greatly increased. On the contrary, those of Semisulcospira libertina and Semisulcospira forticosta of Mesogastropoda were greatly decreased. Dominant species was Baetis fuscatus of Ephemeroptera, numbers of species and individuals of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera(EPT group) were dramatically increased from 26 species, 110 individuals to 32 species, 365 individuals respectively. This suggests that the change of river bed and flow velocity due to heavy rain provided a suitable environment for the EPT group that preferred the rift of a stream. In the functional feeding group, only gathering collectors and filtering collectors were identified in autumn of 2017 because some functional groups preferentially adapted to the changed environment. The interspecific competition and environmental condition were the worst in autumn after heavy rain due to the increase individuals of some species. The ecological score of benthic macroinvertebrate community(ESB) was higher after the heavy rain than before. Results of the Group Pollution Index(GPI), Korean Saprobic Index(KSI) and Benthic Macroinvertebrate Index(BMI) were similar to those before and after heavy rainfall. Therefore, ESB was the most discriminating method for estimating the biological water quality in this study. Some species that are sensitive to water quality changes still appear or increase individuals in the area under investigation after the heavy rain. On the other hand, the individuals of some pollutant species decreased. This is thought to be because the habitat fluctuation caused by heavy rainfall has improved the water environment.
This study examines tourists visiting the Bongha village, the residence of former president of Korea Roh Moo Hyun, as to their perceptions and experiences at this culturally unique destination. Drawing upon a fandom theory, it is suggested that fans tend to view the object of fandom as an extension of self through a projection and introjection process, which underlies the causal linkage between the degree of fandom and self-image congruity. Also, the self-reflective nature of fandom consumption indicates that the degree of self-image congruity can be an effective predictor of tourists` satisfaction at Bongha village. Data were collected from 212 visitors of the village on November 2008. Results support the causal linkage between the degree of fandom and self-image congruity, which in turn positively affects on-site satisfaction at the Bongha village. However, these hypothesized relationships are corroborated only when the direct measure of self-image congruity is used. Theoretical implications of this exploratory study are discussed in relation to the growing power of popular icons and a phenomenon of fandom.
This study examines a structural model to assess main factors affecting residents' perceptions of cultural impacts of tourism development and how these perceptions influence their support for further development. Drawing on existing literature, community attachment and perceived level of community participation in the development process were incorporated as key factors affecting residents' perceived cultural impacts of tourism. Data were collected at the northen area of Gyeongsangbuk-Do where a large scale of Confucian cultural development project is under progress since 2000. Overall, both community attachment and community participation influence significantly on the perceived level of cultural benefits and disbenefits, which in turn affects their support for tourism development. Theoretical implications associated with the results were discussed along with future research suggestions.
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It is extreamly important to understand the correct anatomical position of mandibular foramen in surgery of maxillofacial anomalities. The study has been conducted on 66 dried mandibles of Korean adults to determine the anteroposterior relation ship of the mandibular foramen and the location of the inferior alveolar canal. The following results were obtained. 1. The mandibular foramen was found to be located in the third quderent anteposteriorly. 2. The mean dimension from the anterior herder of the mandible to the anterior position of foramen was 16.80㎜, and from the posterior border of mandible to the posterior position of foramen was 8.90㎜. 3. The mean width of the mandibular foramen was 8.50㎜ with the range from 14.30㎜ to 3.30㎜. 4. The mean anterior demension from the midpoint of foramen was 20.66㎜ with the range from 9.20㎜ to 30.20㎜, and the mean posterior demension was 13.43㎜ with the range from 8.10㎜ to 25.10㎜. 5. The midpoint of mandibular foramen was located in posterior to the index line with mean demension of 1.01㎜. In 132 cases, 88 oases(66.6%) were located posteriorly, and only 44 cases(33.33%) were located anteriorly to the index line. 6. The inferior alveolar canal runs nearly midpoint of the buccolingual demension at predetermined index line. The mean distance from the inferior alveolar canal to the medical surface of mandible was 7.26㎜, and to the lateral surface of mandible was 7.67㎜.