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본 연구는 전라남도 환경산업체의 실태조사를 위해 설문조사를 실시하고 그 분석을 토대로 환경산업육성방안을 제시하였다. 설문조사의 결과를 통해 전라남도 환경산업은 다음과 같은 진단되었다.: (1) 환경규제 및 지원 정책에 대한 위기의식을 기회로 전환할 수 있는 환경기업가 정신 확립의 필요성, (2) 국내·외 경쟁력에 도전할 기술력 강화의 필요성, 그리고 (3)그 기술력을 최적화 할 수 있는 경영능력 향상의 필요성. 전라남도 환경산업체의 해외진출을 추진하기 위해서는 환경산업체가 갖는 영세성을 극복하고 환경시장의 특수성을 고려한 정보를 습득할 육성방안이 요구되었다. 환경산업육성방안은 전라남도 환경산업진흥원과 전라남도 환경산업협회를 활성화시켜 협력체제의 환경산업을 구축하기 위한 네트워크를 구성하고 새로운 환경시장을 개척하고 발굴할 수 있는 환경 산업육성체계화이다. 향후 연구는 수요자 중심의 환경산업육성정책을 마련하기 위해서 본 연구에서 제안된 육성방안인 환경산업육성체제화의 기본 틀을 구축하고 모니터링할 것이다. This study conducted a survey for researching real conditions of environmental industries (EIs) in Jeollanamdo and provided a promotion plan of EIs. Based on the results of the survey, this study examined small and medium-sized company of EIs in Jeollanamdo as follows: the necessity of (1) entrepreneurship to change the crisis into the opportunity due to environmental regulation and support policy, (2) environmental technology(ET) enhancement for national and international competition, and (3) business management improvement for optimizing the competition among EIs with their own ET. Also, the promotion plan for new market creation and overseas expansion is required as overcoming their weakness and obtaining environmental market information. The promotion plan of EIs is to establish a promotion system of EIs for activating Jeollanamdo Environmental Industries Promotion Institute(JEIPI) and Jeollanamdo Environmental Industries Association(JEIA), which organizes network to build a cooperative system among EIs in Jeollanamdo and to discover a new environmental market. To arrange the demand side the promotion policy of EIs, our future study will focus on constituting and monitoring the basis of the promotion system designed by the promotion plan of this study.
본 연구는 부산지역 환경오염물질 배출업소의 환경관리 특성을 파악하여 환경관리를 효율적으로 지원할 수 있는 방안을 도출하기 위한 기초연구를 제공하기위해 수행되었다. 부산지역의 환경오염물질 배출업소가 밀집된 지역으로 신평· 장림산업단지, 사상전용공업지역, 녹산국가산업단지를 중심으로 설문조사를 실시하였다. 설문은 통계프로그램 SPSS Win 12.0K을 이용하여 표본의 일반적 특성을 분석하기 위해 기술통계분석을 실시하였다. 그리고 산업단지별 특성을 파악하기 위해 각 문항의 독립성과 관련성을 분석하기 위해 카이제곱분석을 통한 산업단지별 교차분석을 실시하였다. 부산지역의 산업단지에 입주한 배출업소의 종사원 규모는 10명 이내가 45.6%를 차지하고 있으며, 전년도 매출액기준으로 10억 미만이 46.6%를 차지하고 있어 대부분 영세한 중소기업으로 분포되어 있다. 환경시설에서 대기배출시설이 45.7%를 차지하고 있으며, 폐수배출시설은 49.5%를 차지고 있는 것으로 대부분의 환경오염물질 배출업소에서 대기 및 폐수배출시설을 설치하고 있는것으로 나타났다. 환경시설의 환경전담 부서 및 전담인력에서 담당자만 있는 경우가 71.6%이며, 환경전문 자격증이 없는 환경업무 경력만 가지고 있는 경우가 89%를 차지하고 있다. 환경업무의 중요도에서는 77.4%가 중요한 업무로 인지하고 있으며, 환경규제 제도에서는 53.4%가 높다고 인식하고 있다. 부산지역의 환경오염물질 배출업소의 영세한 사업장의 비율이 높은 점을 가만하면 환경 인적자원이 부족하기 때문에 나타나고 있는 현상으로 판단된다. 환경시설을 개선하는 데 있어 애로사항으로는 자금조달이 59.2%로 환경시설을 개선하는 데 애로점인 것으로 나타났으며, 정부의 지원 부족은 66.4%로 높게 나타나고 있다. 또한 기술정보의 애로점으로 46.4%의 응답을 하였으며, 환경전문 인력 수급에 51.2%로 어려움을 느끼고 있었다. 중소기업의 경영사항이나 환경시설에 대한 투자 여력이 부족해 나타나는 부분으로 판단된다. 이러한 결과를 토대로 부산지역의 환경오염물질 배출업소는 환경시설에 대한 전담인력이 비전문가가 운영하고 있어 위기사항에 대한 대처가 부족할 것으로 나타나, 이에 대한 환경정책적 지원제도로 환경인력에 대한 채용이나 인턴제도를 지원하는 방안을 강구하여 환경시설에 대한 올바른 인식과 안정적인 운영이 될 수 있도록 제도적인 지원이 필요할 것으로 판단된다. This study derives methods for the efficient environmental management by better understanding the characteristics of it at the environmental pollutant emission sites in Busan region. There are a high density of environmental pollutant emission sites, so this study has conducted a survey centered on the Sinpyeong-Jangrim Industrial Complex, Sasang Industrial Complex, and Noksan Industrial Complex in Busan region. For the survey, the statistical program SPSS Win 12.0K was used to conduct a technical statistical analysis to analyze the general characteristics of the sample. Also, to understand the characteristics of the each individual industrial complex better, a cross-analysis of each industrial complex was conducted by using thechi-square method and the independence and correlation of each question was analyzed. In Busan`s industrial complexes, 45.6% of the companies that were responsible for emissions have less than 10 employees. Nearly 46.6% of the companies recorded sales of less than one billion won in the previous year, which means that majority of the companies were small and medium-sized enterprises. Among environmental facilities, 45.7% were atmospheric emissions facilities and 49.5% were waste-water discharge facilities, which shows that atmospheric and waste-water emissions/discharge facilities were mostly installed at the environmental sites. In 71.6% of the cases, only one representative was in charge of addressing the environmental needs of the facilities, and in 89% of the cases, the representatives had only environmental work experience without any certified professional qualifications. Nearly 77.4% of the companies admitted that environmental work was important, and 53.4% identified environmental regulation systems as being highly important. Given the higher number of small-sized enterprises in the industrial complex in Busan region, inadequate human resources was cited as the primary reason for insufficient focus on the environment. Nearly 59% of the companies complained that funding was required to improve the environmental facilities and 66.4% complained about the lack of the government support. Also, 46.4% responded that the lack of availability of technical information was an obstacle, and 51.2% felt that the supply and demand of professional environment-related manpower was a challenge. The lack of margins for investing in management issues and environmental facilities among small and medium-sized enterprises was also regarded as a part of this challenge. Based on these results, we found that enterprises that were responsible for emissions in Busan region and suffered from unprofessional management from their environmental personnel. The companies also lack a means for dealing with a crisis; we believe that a plan needs to be devised to support an employment or an internship system for the environmental work through its policy support systems. Companies need systematic support to build awareness about environmental facilities as well as stable managements.
본 연구에서는 경남 거제시 구천 천을 대상으로 생태하천 조성공사의 시공 성을 분석하고 평가하였으며 다음과 같은 결론을 얻을 수 있었다. 첫째, 구천 천 생태하천 조성공사의 시공 성 평가를 위한 평가지표를 설정하였다. 일반적인 공사품질 평가항목에 본 연구대상지의 공사특성을 감안하여 설계품질과 건설행정부문을 더하여 평가지표를 설정하였다. 크게 대 분류로 공사 품질, 설계품질, 건설행정으로 나누었으며, 중분 류로는 식 재, 시설물, 포장, 급배수공사, 설계 전 문성, 설계도서, 기술시방서, 공사기간, 적정 비용, 참여자인식 등 10개 유형으로 구분하고 소 분류의 평가항목은 해당공사의 세부적 내용으로 구성된 총 20가지로 구성하였다. 둘째, 시 공성 평가결과, 평가항목별로는 급 배 수공사, 석재공사, 포장공사, 식재공사 순으로 시 공성 개선의 필요성이 제기되었으며, 평가 대 상으로는 묵논습지 조성공사와 완경사 저수 호 안공사에서 시 공성이 낮게 평가되었고 수달서 식 처와 자연경관보전 구간은 비교적 적정한 것으로 평가되었다. 설계도면의 누락과 기술시방 의 문제, 시공참여자의 인식문제에 대해서는 개선필요성이 다소 있는 것으로 나타났으나, 설계 개념의 적정성 부문은 참여기술자의 대부분이 적정한 것으로 평가하였다. 셋째, 문제점에 따른 개선방안 제시로서, 품 질 관리에 의해 개선될 수 있는 사항으로 무논 습지조성에서의 유입 수, 유출 수 연결 관의 마감 처리, 논흙처리에 대한 방안과 하천에서의 저수 호 안 돌 쌓기 시공성과 석재공사의 마감처리 등 이 있으며, 동 분야의 기술적 한계점으로서 연 구가 필요한 부분으로는 생태수로의 돌 쌓기 이 음 새 부분의 콘크리트 몰탈처리와 천변수림대 의 폭 원 설정 등을 들 수 있다. 하천 코 리더의 생태적 역할을 수반하는 천변수림대의 폭 원 및 식생의 기능에 대한 연구는 향후 하천 변 생태 복원공사의 기술력 향상을 위한 현실적 대안이 될 수 있을 것이라 판단된다. 그 이외에도 시공 과정에서 설계자와 지속적인 논의와 피드백 과 정이 필요한 속성을 가진 공사라고 판단되며 향후 생태복원공사의 전반에 걸친 시공 성 평가 의 기법이 지속적으로 개발되어야 하겠다. In this study, constructability of ecolog ocal stream restoration process was evaluated and improved approaches for habitat were suggested. The study site is Gucheon River in Geoje city where conducted ecologocal restoration work within maintaining its flood control function. Application of ecological design factors and constructability in the process from planning to construction was analyzed and its results are as follows: In the process of planning and designing, it was focused more on the naturality of Gucheon River rather than the human convinience and ecological design factors were applied within the ecological capacity of the site. First, the indexes for constructability evaluation is selected. It was classified into three major categories as construction quality, design quality and construction administration system. Each index has details, so there are twenty sub indexes for contractibility evaluation. Second, the evaluation results shows that the index most in need of improvement was plumbing construction, followed by Stone construction and pavement construction. design concept was evaluated as appropriate in entire categories. Finally it is suggested that it can be improved in both process of design to enhance the technology and process of construction to enhance the quality management. The constructability of ecological stream needs adaptive management and it must be discussed with its designing which is at the stage before construction. Also it needs discussion with its designer constantly and feed-back process.
The vascular plants in the Ohseosan and the Bongsusan, Chungnam were listed 439 taxa (9.0% of all 4,881 taxa of vascular plants); 95 families, 268 genera, 339 species, 5 subspecies, 75 varieties and 20 forms. Furthermore, the Ohseosan were listed 339 taxa and the Bongsusan were listed 306 taxa. So, Hemicryptophytes (H) were 107 taxa (24.4%), Therophytes (Th), Geophytes (G) same as were 82 taxa (18.7%) showed high proportional ratio in life form. Based on the list of rare plants, 4 taxa; Aristolochia contorta, Viola albida, Scutellaria insignis (LC) and Scrophularia koraiensis (DD) and endemic plants, 8 taxa; Aconitum pseudolaeve, Ajuga spectabilis, etc. Based on the list of specific plants, 35 taxa; Wisteria floribunda for. floribunda in class Ⅳ, 5 taxa (Scutellaria insignis, Scrophularia koraiensis, etc.) in class Ⅲ, 5 taxa (Acer triflorum, Cymopterus melanotilingia, etc.) in class Ⅱ, 24 taxa (Pyrus ussuriensis var. ussuriensis, Campanula punctata, etc.) in class Ⅰ. Based on the list of naturalized plants, 9 families, 20 genera, 24 taxa (Persicaria orientalis, Carduus crispus, etc.) and ecosystem disturbing plants were Rumex acetocella, Ambrosia artemisiifolia. Naturalization rate was 5.5% of all 439 taxa of vascular plants and urbanization index was 7.5% of all 321 taxa of naturalized plants. In particular, for rare plants, in and ex-situ conservation of genetic resources must surely be done, by preserving present natural habitats, discovering additional natural habitats and securing seeds. Moreover, ecosystem disturbing plants require long-term monitoring and consistent management, since not only do they disturb the ecosystem in competition with Korean native species, but damage humans, too.
This study was carried out to investigate the soil characteristics and propose the management for the Monument Beobsoo Marsh, Korea. The soil properties of O.M, Ca2+, Na+ and CEC were higher and the soil properties of pH1:5 and P2O5 were lower the studied sites than other marsh sites in Korea. Although the Heavy metals such as Pb, Hg, Cd, Cu, Zn, Cr and As were lower compare to the safety standard of soil pollution in Korea, the overall conservation management plan based on long-term monitoring should be considered just because it varied by the point and non-point source pollution within the studied marsh. The source of water pollution varied due to non-point polluting origins such as sewage inlet, degraded terrain for agriculture, fishing sites, sites of removed water grasses, pesticides, chemical fertilizers, as well as fallen leaves. The creation of an artificial marsh is recommended due to the soil environment of the studied sites may be changed owing to the accumulated contaminants from the sources of both of point or non-point contaminants. The establishment of the zones of core, buffer and transition which is basic management structure of the UNESCO MaB could be applied to manage the studied site. Simultaneously the promotion of voluntary participation and education of the local residents are needed.
Generally, the radioactivity from NPP (Nuclear Power Plants) operation can be released below 3% of DRLs(Derived Release Limits) to environment. It was tried to understand which plant was efficient for absorbing radioactivity in this study. Pinus thunbergii Parl. and Viburnum awabuki K. KOCH were analyzed for radioisotope absorption. The samples were collected at three different locations depending on the distance from NPP at the vicinity 10km away, and 30km away. Gamma radionuclide was not detected from the samples, which means that the direct transition into the plant was not significant. Meanwhile, the very low level of radioactive tritium was detected in the samples. One remark was that every plant has different ability for tritium absorption. These results are expected to be applied to propagation and transplanting in radioactively contaminated area or reducing radioactivity in the soil and water near the plants.
The unmanaged abandoned concrete roads are vulnerable toward the issues on soil and water pollution, which requires flexible managing method such as eco-corridor after the process of ecological restoration. Among various alternations of abandoned concrete-paved roads, ecological restoration technique may be the most suitable method in sites including high quality of natural environment. Therefore, as in Young dong province, GyungBu express highway (227.24~229.04km), which is near to Hwang-gan IC, the survey to measure its effect of soil under the paving and water pollution by abandoned concrete roads was discussed. Then, the restoration method of plantings of landscape trees and hydro-seeding methods of artificial soil media was appraised through consecutive monitoring. The soil adequacy analysis shows lower percentage of heavy metal substance in each depth level compared to standard limit stated by the Ministry of Environment, along with low concerns raised after the analysis on heavy metal content of the spilled water on the concrete roads. Meanwhile, Korean Weigela (Weigela subsessilis L.H. Baily) was found to be withered in small-scale landscape trees planting sites. Among the seeding plants. the family of leguminosae, Silene armeria, Dendranthema boreale, Caryopteris incana and Aster yomena show good establishment results. Overall studies on planting of small and large landscape trees, planting method of container plants, planting method of ground cover plants, and germination and development trend of seeding plants of the experimental restoration site on abandoned concrete roads are revealing specific trends in the way landscape woody plants establishment and growth. Finally, this study suggests further studies and survey on varied plant restoration methods on abandoned concrete-roads for developed design guidelines of their methods.
The present study elucidated the growth properties of Sasa borealis communities distributed in the lower layer of deciduous broadleaf forests in temperate zones and analyzed the correlation between the growth properties of S. borealis and positional environmental factors. The higher the culm height of S. borealis was, the higher the values of the leaf number, leaf area, and foliage layer thickness became. This might be because as the culm height of S. borealis increased, the acquisition of light sources became easier so that the biomass of leaves increased simultaneously for smooth anabolism. S. borealis seem to change their growth mode for smooth acquisition of light resources. The culm density of S. borealis and the leaf number, leaf area and foliage layer thickness of S. borealis did not show any clear correlation. The values of the culm height, leaf number, leaf area, and foliage layer thickness of S. borealis as the above altitude of the location of S. borealis increased. It seems like that growth conditions such as temperatures and winds are deteriorated as the above altitude of the location of S. borealis increased so that S. borealis becomes smaller. No clear correlations were shown between the physiochemical properties of soil and S. borealis` growth properties. It seems like that the growth of S. borealis complexly intertwined with diverse environmental factors and that due to the physiological integration of S. borealis, certain physiochemical properties do not unilaterally affect S. borealis` growth properties.
The purpose of this study is to offer the raw data for establishing the management and restoration plan by objective surveying and analysing the flora distributed in Seoak District, Gyeongju National Park, Korea. The flora summarized as 411 taxa including 92 families, 285 genera, 363 species, 2subspecies, 41 varieties and 5 forms. The rare plants designated by Korea Forest Service were 2 taxa including Exochorda serratifolia and Potentilla discolor. The Korean endemic plants were 3 taxa including Philadelphus schrenkii, Lespedeza maritima and Weigela subsessilis. The specific plants by floristic region were 16 taxa including Asplenium sarelii, Pyrrosia petiolosa, Vitex negundo var. incise and so forth. The target plants adaptable to climate change were 2 taxa including Lespedeza maritime and Carpesium macrocephalum, and the plants with approval for delivering oversea were 4 taxa including Exochorda serratifolia, Glycine soja, Lespedeza maritima and Weigela subsessilis. The naturalized plants were 51 taxa including Phytolacca americana, Viola papilionacea, Lamium purpureum and so forth. The invasive alien plants were 3 taxa including Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Aster pilosus and Lactuca scariola. NI(Naturalized Index) was 12.4% of all 411 taxa of surveyed flora in this study and UI(Urbanized Index) was 15.9% of all 321 taxa of naturalized plants in Korea. Potentilla discolor in rare plant, Philadelphus schrenkii in endemic plant and Dictamnus dasycarpusin specific plant were established the conservation plan. Whereas, invasive alien plants such as Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Aster pilosus and Lactuca scariola should be removed as soon as possible. The damaged sites in Seoak District were divided between wildfire area and farmland. To restore a forest fire site, we will have to apply a natural renewal and community planting. In case of farmland, we will have to do ecological planting using native species and constrcut a forest wetland.
In South Korea the need of sustainably managing development on forest lands has required to develop a new approach to estimating environmental impacts on forest surrounding development sites in a scientific manner. As for forest-related development, two types of development were selected: golf courses and industrial complexes. Using Fragstats 4.2, the fragmentation effects and patterns of each type by forest area within project sites and buffer zones ranging from the outside of project sites up to 2,000 meters were analyzed. As a result, golf courses were strongly related to a group of fragmentation indexes: CA, NP, PD, TE, LSI, TCA, NDCA and CONNECT, whereas industrial complexes were associated with CA, NP, PD, TE, LSI and CONNECT. Among them, NP, LSI, TCA and NDCA of golf courses were considered as representative indexes reflecting the average impact ranges of each sub-group by forest area, and focussing on the size of core areas. In the case of industrial complexes, PD, TE and LSI were the representatives, vulnerable to the composition of given landscape. For two case studies, one for golf courses and the other for industrial complexes, they showed there existed a difference between the average of a group and the individual results. Therefore, to minimize the variations in impact range within a group, it is needed to analyze more individual cases. This study proved there was a distinction between project types in terms of the range of environmental impact. To effectively and comprehensively manage forest development, further research on analyzing other development types related to forests with more cases is needed.