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Temperature increases due to climate change are affecting various sectors of agriculture. Elevated temperatures can affect the growth and yield of crops and can also affect the utilization efficiency of nutrient input materials such as soil nutrients, chemical fertilizers, and compost. The outflow of non-point pollutant sources from farmlands is strongly influenced by physical factors such as rainfall, rainfall intensity, and slope of agricultural land. In order to simulate the outflow of non-point pollutant sources due to climate change, it is necessary to find out not only the physical factors but also the changes in the biological factors induced by the elevated temperature in detail. Temperature is one of the most important environmental factors controlling the growth and yield of plants, and the rate of reaction depends on temperature in all biological processes. Elevated temperatures increase nitrogen mineralization and net nitrification rate. The degradation, absorption, utilization, and outflow of the variety of nutrient input materials for crop cultivation can differ due to temperature rise. This study was carried out to investigate the changes of nitrogen in the nutrients of the cultivated waters by cultivating rice and maize in pots after simulating climate change and by establishing an elevated temperature environment with the chemical fertilizer and livestock compost. The elevated temperature environment was established using the modified medium open-top chamber whose width is 6m and height is 3m. The medium open-top chamber has a merit of increasing only temperature while maintaining the environmental factors such as rainfall, wind, and sunlight intensity similar as those in the field. The maximum temperature in the open-top chamber measured on the 15th of May, 2018 was higher by 2.7℃ than the field, while the average temperature was higher by 0.4℃ so that the elevated temperature could be applied to the rice and maize throughout the growth period. The rice and maize were planted in Wagner pots filled with sandy loam and clay loam, and then placed in a medium open-top chamber and grown at elevated temperatures. The analysis results of nitrogen by periodically collecting the cultivation water from the Wagner pots during the cultivation period of the rice and maize showed that the NO<sub>3</sub>―N concentration in the paddy cultivation water was decreased in the no-fertilization block, chemical fertilizer treated block, and cow dung compost treated block in the paddy cultivation sandy loam under elevated temperature compared to those in the field. Meanwhile, the NH<sub>4</sub>― N concentration was increased in the rice cultivation clay loam soil in all the treated blocks compared to the field. The NO<sub>3</sub>―N concentration in the cultivated water was decreased in all the treatment blocks in the maize cultivation clay loam soil by the elevated temperature than that of field. However, NH<sub>4</sub>―N concentration in the water from the maize cultivation sandy loam soil, as well as the clay loam soil with the chemical fertilizer, was increased by elevated temperature compared to the field. The results indicate that the nitrogen changes in the water of the paddy field and upland are induced under the elevated temperature. The outflow of the non-point pollutant sources towards the water system near the cultivation fields also can be changed by rainfall.
The Jeonbuk region is an area with high concentration of particulate matter. Due to environmental changes in the Saemangeum reclaimed land with an area of 219 ㎢, it is necessary to evaluate the impact of the particulate matter in the Jeonbuk region. Particulate matter was measured from June in 2020, the Jangjado island the westernmost region, was set as the background concentration, and three measurement station were installed around the Saemangeum reclaimed land area. In addition, the concentration of particulate matter and air pollutants were measured by installing an intensive air quality measurement station in the Kehwa rice experiment station nearby Saemangeum reclaimed land. The concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were highest in the order of Gimje, Buan, Gunsan, and Jangjado(background concentration) area in June. However, it has changed seasonally. The total suspended particle(TSP) was high in Gimje and Buan, where compartment and leveling work are actively underway. The concentration of PM10, PM2.5, NO<sub>2</sub>, SO<sub>4</sub>, O<sub>3</sub> were measured lower than that of the urban air quality monitoring station located in the nearby area. It was needed that longer-term air quality monitoring was necessary for accurate impact assessment.
권창일 ( Chang Il Kwon ),최기현 ( Ki Hyun Choi ),고은향 ( Eun Hyang Ko ),이지현 ( Ji Hyun Lee ),송영준 ( Young Jun Song ),고광현 ( Kwang Hyun Ko ),홍성표 ( Sung Pyo Hong ),박필원 ( Pil Won Park ) 대한소화기학회 2007 대한소화기학회지 Vol.49 No.1
Complicating intramural hematoma is an interesting, relatively unusual condition. Various etiologic factors have been described, with the most common being blunt trauma, anticoagulant therapy, Henoch-Schonlein purpura and blood dyscrasias. Most intramural hematomas resolve spontaneously with conservative treatment, and the prognosis is good. However, if the abdominal pain or obstruction does not resolve with medical management over seven to ten days, complications such as infarction or peritonitis may occur, and surgical intervention might be required. We report a case of intramural hematoma of duodenum treated with percutaneous drainage and embolization of bleeding focus which was complicated with acute pancreatitis after anticoagulation treatment in a patient with recurrent history of deep vein thrombosis. In addition, we reviewed reports of intramural hematoma of the duodenum and treatment strategies. (Korean J Gastroenterol 2007;49:45-49)
권창일 ( Chang Il Kwon ),이지현 ( Ji Hyun Lee ),최기현 ( Ki Hyun Choi ),고광현 ( Kwang Hyun Ko ),홍성표 ( Sung Pyo Hong ),황성규 ( Seong Gyu Hwang ),박필원 ( Pil Won Park ),오도연 ( Do Yeun Oh ),임규성 ( Kyu Sung Rim ),김세현 ( Se 대한소화기학회 2006 대한소화기학회지 Vol.48 No.6
목적: 항암화학치료 중 또는 후에 간 기능 이상이 흔히 동반되며, 특히 바이러스에 감염되어 있는 경우 바이러스 재활성화나 증식에 의해 중증 간 기능 이상이나 전격간염이 발생하기도 한다. 그러나 우리나라 바이러스 보유자의 항암 화학치료 후 간 기능 악화에 대한 연구가 미흡하다. 이에 저자들은 단일기관에서 항암화학치료를 받는 악성종양 환자에서 B형 또 C형 간염바이러스 감염의 유병률과 간 기능 이상 발생률, B형 간염바이러스 재활성화율과 만성 B형 간염 환자에서 예방적인 라미부딘 투여 효과 등을 알아보고자 하였다 대상 및 방법 : 2000년 1월부터 2005년 6월까지 포천중문의대 분당차병원에 내원하여 악성종양을 진단받고 항암화학요법을 시행 받은 환자 1,477명을 대상으로 의무기록을 통한 후향 분석을 시행하였다. 바이러스 검사나 간기능 검사가 제대로 시행되지 않았거나 만성 간염에 의해 유발된 간암 환자 등 668명을 제외한 총 809명을 대상으로 분석하였다. 결과: 간염바이러스 유병률은 6.6%였으며, 바이러스 보유자에서 aminotransferase 수치가 유의하게 증가하였다. 그러나 다른 간 기능 수치나 두 군 간에 간 기능 이상 발생률은 유의한 차이가 없었다. B형 간염 환자 40명 중, 항암치료로 인해 바이러스 재활성화가 된 환자는 6명(15%)이었으며, 모두 라미부딘 투여로 HBV DNA 음전과 간기능의 정상화가 유지되었다. 결론: 항암치료를 받는 환자에서 바이러스 보유 상태가 중증의 간기능 이상 발생에 큰 영향을 미치지 않았으며, 이의 원인으로 간 기능 악화에 대한 라미부딘 투여의 예방 및 치료 효과가 영향을 주었을 것이라 추측한다. 향후 바이러스 보유의 영향과 라미부딘 예방 투여의 필요성과 효과에 대해 전향 코호트 연구가 필요하다. Background/Aims: Liver dysfunction and reactivation of hepatitis virus are well-described complications in cancer patients who receive cytotoxic chemotherapy and may result in varying degrees of liver damage. However, there has been just few reports on such complications and on the preemptive use of lamivudine in Korea. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus infection and the incidence of liver dysfunction in patients with malignancies who receive chemotherapy, to determine the reactivation rate of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in those patients, to evaluate the effect of preemptive use of lamivudine in patients with HBV infection. Methods: Among 1,477 patients who received chemotherapy due to various malignancies from January 2000 to June 2005, 668 patients with incomplete viral studies or hepatitis related malignancy were excluded. A retrospective study was conducted by reviewing the medical records of remaining 809 patients. Results: The overall prevalence rate of hepatitis B or C virus in patients receiving chemotherapy was 6.55% (53/809). The incidences of liver dysfunction was not significantly different between hepatitis virus positive group and negative group. Reactivation rate of hepatiris B or C virus after chemotherapy was 15% (6/40). In all patients who received lamivudine therapy, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase level were normalized and HBV DNA negativity achieved. Conclusions: The existence of hepatitis virus in patients receiving chemotherapy did not significantly influence the development of severe liver dysfunction, owing probably to the lamivudine therapy. Further prospective studies are required to ascertain the reactivation of hepatitis virus in patients receiving chemotherapy and the need for prophylactic lamivudine therapy in HBV positive patients. (Korean J Gastroenterol 2006:48:408-414)
An experimental study on description method of stable flame region for various gas fuels is producted. The flame stabilities of LNG, Methane and mixed gas are investigated for the domestic gas range and interchangeability test(IT) burner. The mixed fuel are made by the mixing of other hydrocarbon fuels to has Wobbe index(WI) equivalent to that of LNG. As a results, the stable flame region described by existing method, using the heating value and the equivalence ratio as x and y coordinate, can not provide the difference of flame stability region, when fuel is altered to other gases with the same providing pressure. However, new method, using transformed gas flow(Q×√SG) rate and air flow rate, provides the useful information, such as the difference of stable region, heating value, air-fuel ratio. The merits of new method are also identified for the landfill gases mixed with LPG.