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          논문(論文) : 조선후기 상주 존애원의 설립과 의료 기능

          우인수 ( In Soo Woo ) 대구사학회 2011 대구사학 Vol.104 No.-

          This thesis studied on the establishment and function of Jonaewon as a medical center in Sangju District. This paper was based on the existing study and data regarding Jonaewon. I have checked the background for establishing Jonaewon in two sides: local order reconstruction for noblemen in Sangju District and improvement in a regional medical system. And I have carefully researched on its first founder and its management. Jonaewon was the medical center founded by a meeting made up of a lot of clans gathering in Sangju District. Nevertheless, it was characteristic that medical benefit was open to ordinary people in Sangju. And I have made reconstruction through exactly criticism of historical materials about operation and function of Jonaewon, and its change processes. Especially, I have carefully researched focusing to a function as a medical center of Jonaewon. The reason is that it is the most basic function of Jonaewon. The function of Jonaewon operated as a medical center during 180 years from 1599 to 1782. Undoubtfully, Jonaewon had various hardship in operating. It experienced trouble to get from a threat to existence as a medical center during the middle of 17th century. After that, its function as a medical center weakened a lot only to completely stop in the end of 18th century. The existence of Jonaewon is a representative example of regional social changing trend that a medical system led by the government was changed into a medical system by the clans of the noblemen privately.

        • KCI등재

          목제(木齊) 홍여하(洪汝河)의 현실인식과 대응

          우인수 ( In Soo Woo ) 한국사상사학회 2013 韓國思想史學 Vol.0 No.43

          홍여하가 활동하던 때는 서·남인간의 당쟁의 시기였다. 정곡의 주 도권은 인조반정이래 서인이 장악한 가운데 남인이 비판의 날을 세우 던 때였다. 홍여하는 영남 남인 관료이자 학자로서 자신이 처한 시대 적 과제의 해결에 암장섰고, 또 민생을 걱정하면서 고뇌하는 지식인으 로서의 모습을 보여준 인물이였다. 본고에서는 홍여하의 현실에 대한 인식과 대응 방식에 대하여 크게 세가지 관점에서 논하였다. 첫째는 서인에 대한 대응이였다. 홍여하는 서인의 곡정 운영에 대 한 비판의 포문을 연 인물이였다. 효종 말 이조판서로서 곡정 전반에 대해 강한 영향력을 행사하고 었던 서인의 핵섬인물인 송시열을 공척 하였다. 이로 인해 송시열은 일시적으로 체직되였고, 자신은 유배를 가는 처지가 되였다. 곧 이은 효종의 사망으로 인해 발생한 기해예송 때 남인의 서인에 대한 대대적인 공세에 암션 비판이였다는 점에서 영남 남인의 기개를 보여준 의미가 있였다. 둘째는 예송에 대한 대응이였다. 기해예송이 서인측의 의견에 따라 마무리 된 이후 영남의 유럼 1,000여명이 연명하여 복제에 대해 논하 는 의례소를 올릴 때 막후에서 추동하는 역할을 수행하였다. 그는 상 소의 시의성과 타당성에 대한 의미를 설파함으로써 영남 유림의 단결 과 동참을 이끌어내였으며, 복제 상소의 초본을 작성하는 세 사람 중 의 한 사람으로 활약하기도 하였다. 셋째는 현실 문제 해결을 위한 방안 제시였다. 그는 문과에 급제한 후 5년간의 관직생활과 15년간의 칩거생활을 하면서 곡정과 관련한 현실 문제에 대한 해결 방안을 구상하는 지식인으로서의 역할에도 소 홀하지 않았다. 그는 당시 백성들의 가장 큰 고통과 그 고통을 해소할 방안으로 부세제도 개혁론을 제시하였다. 중곡과 우리나라의 역사 속 에서 부세제도의 큰 흐름을 파악한 다음 토지를 부세의 기준으로 잡 아 기준 자체를 단순화할 것을 주장하였다. Hong Yeo - ha`s period of political activity was the time of party strife between Western Party and Southern Party. Western Party had taken over the helm since Inio Banieongt 1=J!I1ilXiE) in 1623 and Southern Party had hold a stance of sharp criticism against Western Party. Hong Yeo - ha took the lead in the resolution of a periodical question of the age as a bureaucrat and scholarship of the Southern Party. This study has identified his awareness of social reality and reform plans in three major perspectives. First, it was how he coped with the Western Party. Hong Yeo - ha was a first man who begun to show a strong stance of sharp criticism against Western Party. He took a pop at Song Si - Yeul who had a strong influence on the whole of administration of state affairs as a Minister of Interior in the late of Hojong period. This made Song Si - Yeul lose his position temporary and Hong Yeo - ha himself was banished, too. This attack was meaningful in that it was ahead of Southern Party` large - scale attack against Western Party at the dispute on the decencies at 1659 followed by the death of King Hojong and showed show Southern Party`s mettle. Second, it was how he coped with the dispute on the term of wearing mourning dress. He encouraged about 1,000 scholars of Youngnam to lodge an appeal on the decencies after the dispute on the term of wearing mourning dress at 1659 came up to Western Party`s expectation. He strenuously insisted the proper timing and the validity of the dispute on the decencies. He was one of the three men who drew the outlines of the dispute on the term of wearing mourning dress. Third, it was how he dealt with actual issues at that time. After passing the civil service examination, Hong Yeo - ha served a public service for five years and spent another 15 years for secluded life to come up with specific plans for resolving actual issues of the national administration as an intellectual in the nation. At that time, Hong Yeo - ha suggested a plan for reform of tax system as a means for the public to stay free from the biggest struggle in their lives. He insisted to simplify standards regarding the site as a criterion for imposing tax after identifying a major trend of tax system in the history of Korea.

        • KCI등재

          조선 선조대 지산 조호익의 유배생활

          우인수(In Soo Woo) 조선시대사학회 2013 朝鮮時代史學報 Vol.66 No.-

          이 논문은 조호익의 유배생활을 다룬 글이다. 조호익은 32세에서 48세까지 17년간 유배생활을 한 특이한 경력의 소유자였다. 본고에서는 유배를 떠나게 된 경위를 살폈고, 유배길에서의 여러 모습도 아울러 살폈다. 그리고 유배지에서의 생활을 구속의 고통, 교육활동, 산수유람 등의 측면으로 나누어 살펴보았다. 조호익은 창원에 거주하던 32세 때 그에게 軍籍정리를 담당케 하려던 경상도 都事최황의 미움을 사서 향촌의 불법적인 세력가로 지목되었다. 결국 변방지역으로 가족 모두를 이주시키는 가혹한 형벌에 처해졌다. 창원에서 강동에 이르는 유배길의 모습은 그가 쓴 西征賦의 분석을 통하여 어느 정도 파악할 수 있었다. 수레에 가재도구를 모두 싣고 말을 타고 길을 떠났다. 마부와 종자를 대동하였으며, 형제와 친척이 자신의 형편에 맞추어 일정 거리를 동행하다가 돌아가곤 하였다. 목적지까지 이르는 길에서의 모든 경비는 본인이 부담하여야 하였다. 목적지인 평안도 강동현에 도착하여서는 임시 거처를 배정받았다. 그 후 적당한 곳에 집을 짓고 정착하였다. 외로움과 그리움, 그리고 불편함의 연속이었다. 그런 가운데 그는 학문을 닦은 지식인답게 자신의 처지를 비교적 잘 수용하면서 그것을 학문을 깊이 하는 기회로 승화시켰다. 그리고 주변 지역에서 몰려드는 많은 학생들을 제자로 길러내었다. 이시직이나 김육 같은 인재를 만나 가르친 것도 큰 보람이었다. 한편 전가사변형에 처해졌다고는 하지만 해당 현의 범위를 벗어나지만 않으면 비교적 자유롭게 살 수가 있었다. 그리고 학식이 있는 사족의 신분이었기 때문에 감독 책임을 진 수령들도 대개 융통성있게 대해 주었다. 수년에 한 번 정도씩은 휴가를 받아 고향에도 다녀왔으며, 인근 지역에 소재한 묘향산과 향풍산을 유람하기도 하였다. This paper presents an investigation into Jo Ho-ik`s life in exile. Jo had a peculiar career involving 17 years in exile from the age of 32 to 48. The study examined how he was sent into exile and how he looked on the journey to exile in many aspects. His life in exile was investigated in terms of suffering of confinement, educational activities, and excursions to mountains. At the age of 32 when he was living in Changwon, Jo was designated as an illegal force in the country, being hated by Choi Hwang, the governor of Gyeongsang Province, who tried to have him sort out the army list. Eventually, he received a cruel punishment of being moved to a remote region with his entire family. Analysis of his Seojeongbu(西征賦) offers some clues to how he looked on his journey of exile from Changwon to Gangdong. He loaded all the household goods in a cart and hit the road on the back of horse, being accompanied by a groom and servant. Some of his brothers and relatives would accompany him on the journey for some distance as long as their circumstances allowed. He had to pay for all the costs to the destination. Arriving in Gangdong-hyeon, Pyeongan Province, his exile destination, he had a temporary house allocated to him. Later he built a house at a proper location and settled down there. His life in exile was a succession of loneliness, yearning, and inconvenience. Despite all that, he managed to accept his situation relatively well and sublimate it to deepen his study as an intellectual that had cultivated his academic quality. In addition, he taught many students gathering from neighboring areas and made them into his pupils. It was a great reward for him to meet and teach such talented scholars as Lee Shi-jik and Kim Yuk. Though he was sentenced to exile, he was allowed to live a relatively free life within the perimeters of the designated area. Since he was from a noble family with knowledge, the local chief administrators in charge of his supervision applied flexibility when dealing with him. He was even permitted a holiday once every several years to visit his hometown and made an excursion to Mt. Myohyang and Mt. Hyangpung in the vicinity.

        • KCI등재

          임란시 상주 북천전투의 실상과 현창사업

          우인수 ( Woo In-soo ) 역사교육학회 2017 역사교육논집 Vol.62 No.-

          The Battle of Bukcheon in Sangju was a battle between the local army of Sangju under the command of the central army of Joseon and the Japanese forces. The Battle holds its significance as the first battle since Milyang against the Japanese forces on its way to the capital along the middle path. It was also the battle in which the central army of Joseon had its first encounter with the Japanese forces. This study critically reviewed sporadic opinions about the reality and causes of defeat of the Battle and reached the following conclusions: the study first examined the parts on why General Lee Il moved his troops to the side of Bukcheon from the town castle of Sangju. There were two opposing opinions about it: one insisted that it was for battle formation training, and the other argued that it was for a plain battle. The nature and significance of the Battle of Bukcheon differs according to the two opinions. The study concluded that the General moved his troops to the side of Bukcheon for basic training for his troops that had been put together abruptly and training to coordinate with the central army. Different opinions had also been raised sporadically regarding the causes of their defeat in the Battle. The present study summarized the causes into three based on those opinions: first, they had their weakness exposed considerably to the enemy without taking advantage of Jeseungbangryak and its advantages as the Japanese forces were quickly moving north; secondly, their military size was absolutely inferior to that of the Japanese forces; and finally, they failed in vigilance as the commander neglected reconnaissance activities. Their defeat resulted in enormous damage to the Sangju area. Many soldiers of the local army of Sangju and the central army of Joseon fought the Japanese forces bravely, ending up being killed along the side of Bukcheon. They were slaughtered helplessly with their retreat routes blocked in the siege. The lucky few were able to climb over the mountain and escape. After their defeat, the Japanese forces inflicted unspeakable damage to each and every village in the Sangju area including the town. Some that surrendered to the Japanese forces and became their informants looted their fellow Joseon people even more viciously. It was another aspect of tragedy in the war. There were, however, some that died a heroic death after exhibiting the spirit of the Joseon people on the horrid battlefield. They became the foundation for Joseon to pull itself together over the damage and pain and recover. The surviving residents of Sangju joined together to pay a tribute to the participants of the Battle of Bukcheon. After they settled down after the disturbance of war and found some stability, they put up tombstones to honor those who were killed in defense of loyalty and demanded that the central government should reward their death. One good example was the establishment of venues to remember and honor them, and they include Chungryeolsa and Chunguidan. In addition, they left the records of their achievements in journals, town logs, and books including Yeongnaminmulgo. The Battle of Bukcheon thus ended up remaining in the memories of Sangju residents forever. There were, however, conflicts between the Sajoks of Sangju over the ways to honor the fallen soldiers in the latter half of Joseon.

        • KCI등재

          제 7차 교육과정 高等學校 國史敎科書의 내용 분석

          禹仁秀(Woo In-Soo) 역사교육연구회 2002 歷史敎育 Vol.84 No.-

          This study analyzed the content of high school Korean history textbook based on the 7th school curriculum. This new textbook has some distinctive features different from the former textbook. One of the characteristic feature of this new textbook is to make space for deepening study for higher level students. Second, this new textbook is sorted by a historical classification system into four parts ; a political history, an economic history, a social history and a cultural history. Third, this new textbook draw attention visually through many colorful pictures, maps, grapes, chronological tables of Korean history and so on. Especially it is helpful in giving plentiful explanatory notes in the margin and inserting the original material for a full understanding. Last, this new textbook is written in a very polish and clear style, so it is helpful for learners to understand the historical facts well. However, this new textbook has some demerits. First, this new textbook is not helpful in developing learner"s ability to think historically. Second, a period - classified expression for the late period of Chosun dynasty is indistinct in this new textbook, for we don"t use the term of the modem history for the late period of Chosun dynasty obviously. When the former textbook covered the whole period from the ancient history to the modem history, it didn"t become an issue. But this new textbook covers up to premodern history, it becomes an issue. Third, the structure of this new textbook is a little poor because of inserting the modern history under the pressure of the critical public opinion. As a result, the new textbook make the explanation of the modern history short and rough, so it is inappropriate with the explanation of the rest period of the book. In conclusion, I would like the Korean history course to be a required subject and to take up more school hours in the school curriculum. And also we need many persuasive papers to realize the necessity of the teaching history.

        • KCI등재

          기획논문 : 사미헌 장복추의 문학과 사상 ; 사미헌 장복추의 문인록과 문인집단 분석

          우인수 ( In Soo Woo ) 한국문학언어학회( 구- 경북어문학회) 2007 어문론총 Vol.47 No.-

          Samihun(四未軒) Jang Bokchoo(張福樞 ; 1815~1900) was a Neoconfucian who represented Youngnam province at the end of the Joseon dynasty. He was not only learned in the Neoconfucianism, but also believed earnestly in the words of the wise and exerted himself to practice those words. He cultivated lots of men who wanted to be taught from him in his life. This article addressed characteristics, which disciples of Jang Bokchoo had, and their activities through old documents dealing with them. And this paper is predicated on studying about the mixed state of registration of the disciples by contrasting the xylographic books about them. This would form the basis of my point in this paper. Then, based on the study, this paper would reveal a scale of followers of Jang Bokchoo and features their activities had. Also, we will see in this article how the disciples, affected from Jang Bokchoo, survived the period of a reform and what kind of meaningful works they made, so we can find social level and characteristics of Samihun doctrinal faction. Documents about disciples of Jang Bokchoo were published in collections of works third time, being complemented each time, from now on. According to 『Samihunsunsangjunjip(四未軒先生全集)』, archive about pupils of Jang Bokchoo, in 1972, 428 disciples were under his instruction. Records in 『Samihunjip(四未軒集)』, 1985, said there were 682 people. And in 『Samihunjunseo(四未軒全書)』, 2006, it was concluded that there were 747 pupils. Through assuming disciples`s residences, they resided in Chilgok, Indong, Sungju, where they were close to the place Jang Bokchoo lived, were 287 in total and they formed 38% of whole followers. Also, there were many disciples dwelled at Keochang, Habcheon, Changlyong in Southwestern districts and Keumlyuong, Sunsan in Northern districts. In conclusion, absorption force of Jang Bokchoo was concentrated on Sungju area. When it comes to family name, people who had surname Jang of Indong district, which is same as Jang Bokchoo`s, were 133 in total and they carried weight among the whole disciples, forming 18%. We have to consider that the number of them were naturally overlapped that of Hanju(寒洲) Lee Jinsang(李震相) and this, also, can be one of the features. In this article, I addressed that there were two patterns in the disciple`s activities. The one was the patriot who strongly resisted to the power of foreign countries like Jang Sukyoung and Song Joonpil. And the other one were the scholars in retirement who lived in seclusion, kept their loyalty, being conservative, like Jang Seungtaek and Jo Keungsub. This two groups had different patterns in coping with the tide, but both were possible choices for disciples being worried about the reality of Josedn dynasty.

        • KCI등재

          인조대 산림 장현광의 정치적 활동과 위상

          우인수(Woo, In-Soo) 계명대학교 한국학연구원 2013 한국학논집 Vol.0 No.52

          본고는 인조대에 산림으로 징소된 장현광의 정치적 활동을 살핌으로써 당시 중앙정계와 영남지역 내에서의 그의 위상을 가늠하고 설정하고자 하였다. 인조대의 정국은 서인이 주도하는 가운데 약간의 남인이 참여한 상태로 전개되었다. 중앙정계로부터 주목을 받은 영남 남인 출신의 산림은 장현광이었다. 그는 서인 산림인 김장생·박지계와 함께 특별한 예우를 받으면서 중앙정계에 나아갔다. 장현광의 출사는 반정으로 인해 어수선한 인심을 안정시키는 데 큰 역할을 하였다. 장현광은 몇 차례 상소를 통해 자신이 가진 지식을 종횡으로 구사하면서 총론적이고도 원론적인 치국의 방안을 개진하기도 하였다. 군주를 세도의 주인으로 간주하는 군주 중심의 정치 인식 위에 군주가 표준을 세우는 도리의 중요성을 강조하였다. 그에 대한 조정의 기대는 정묘호란이라는 국가의 위기상황 때 잘 드러났다. 조정에서는 삼남지역에 호소사를 배치하여 난국을 극복하려 하였는데, 장현광은 정경세와 함께 영남의 호소사에 임명되어 그 역할을 수행하였다. 또한 계운궁 복제와 원종 추숭 등 왕실의 전례 문제를 둘러싼 논쟁이 일어났을 때 일정한 역할을 수행하기도 하였다. 이를 통해 그의 정치적 활동상과 높은 위상을 살필 수 있었다. 그러나 그의 한계도 분명하였다. 산림 중에서는 김장생, 영남지역의 인사로는 정경세가 늘 장현광과 비교가 될 수 있는 존재였다. 존재감에 있어서 집권세력인 서인 산림 김장생에 비해 약하였다. 그리고 영남을 대표하는 존재이기는 하지만 오로지 하지는 못한 정도의 위치에 있었다고 평가할 수 있다. 높은 위상과 현실적 한계를 동시에 잘 보여주고 있는 셈이다. 여기에 남인 산림 장현광이 처한 지점이 있다. This study set out to investigate the political activities of Jang Hyeon-gwang, a Sallim scholar, during the reign of King Injo and to estimate and set his status in the central political world and Yeongnam region at the time. The political situations during the reign of King Injo were led by the Western Party with the participation of some members of the Southern Party. Jang Hyeon-gwang was a Sallim scholar from the Yeongnam Southern Party, attracting attention from the central political world. He entered the central political world, receiving special honorable treatments along with some Sallim scholars from the Western Party including Kim Jang-saeng and Park Ji-gye. His going into government service played a huge role in stabilizing the unsettled public mind due to the restoration of King Injo. He stated his ideas of ruling the nation in general and principal terms by presenting a memorial to the king several times. He highlighted the importance of the duty of a monarch setting standards based on the monarch-centric political perception to regard him as the master of public morals. The royal court’s expectations for him were demonstrated in the nation’s crisis situation during Jeongmyo Horan(丁卯胡亂). The royal court tried to overcome the crisis by deploying a Hososa(號召使) to the Gyeongsang, Jeolla, and Chungcheong region. Jang was appointed to the position in Yeongnam and performed his duties along with Jeong Gyeong-se. He also performed certain roles in a series of controversy over ritual issues in the royal family, which is evidence of his political activities and high status. However, he did have clear limitations. Kim Jang-saeng of the Sallims and Jeong Gyeong-se of Yeongnam’s figures were always comparable to him. Jang had a weaker sense of presence than Kim Jang-saeng, a Sallim of the ruling Western Party. Even though he represented Yeongnam, he wasn’t the only top. In a word, he well demonstrated high status and realistic limitations, which was the place where Jang Hyeon-gwang, a Sallim of the Southern Party, was located.

        • KCI등재
        • 기획논문 : 우복(愚伏) 정경세(鄭經世)의 정치사회적 위상과 현실대응

          우인수 ( In Soo Woo ) 경북대학교 퇴계연구소 2011 퇴계학과 유교문화 Vol.49 No.-

          Jeong Kyung-se was an excellent scholar and official in Youngnam district during the first half of 17th century. He was taught by Ryu Seong-ryong(柳成龍) who were Lee Hwang`s best pupil. He was the leading pupil among Lee Hwang`s school. Especially, he entered upon a political career as a member of deputations representing Youngnam(嶺南) Nam-in(Southern faction) during the King Injo`s period and made the most of one`s ability. During his tenure of office, he fulfilled his obligation with self-esteem and a sense of mission about his work. But he could not keep clear of engaging in party strife. Therefore he had ups and downs in his political path and public office by the party strife. He was disgraced with Nam-in(Southern faction) because of political attack of Buk-in(Northen faction) after Japanese Invasion of Korea in 1592. He had his best days again in the King Injo`s time through a long period of an inactive political life. He helped and advised Kings using his knowledge and a noble character with all his hearts. During the process, he had been stripped from a government office because he advised King Kwanghaegun what somebody else hardly dared to advise to the king. For instance, he strongly advised bringing some new measures against current affairs and put the brakes on increasing King`s own possessions. He also knew many things about the basic decencies of those civilized society and tried to apply the guidelines on upgrading the title of the King Wonjong, father of King Injo. Meanwhile he suffered two big wars in his life. He raised an army in the cause of loyalty when Japanese invaded Joseon in 1592. After that, he came back to Royal Court and provided support. He was appointed Youngnam hososa(嶺南 號召使) in the Chinese Invasion of Joseon in 1627. He undertook tasks gathering provisions and army. Through such efforts we can make sure that he was a man of high who could take the responsibility of the defense of the Youngnam district.

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