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Background: Spinal anesthesia has several advantages in cesarean section. Those are rapid induction, complete analgesia, profound muscle relaxation, low failure rate and systemic toxicity. But the determination of anesthetic level is more difficult in spinal anesthesia than in epidural anesthesia. So we would like to determine the appropriate dosage of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine and the effects of addition of intrathecal fentanyl. Methods: Sixty full term parturiants scheduled for cesarean section were randomly received 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 8, 10, 12 mg intrathecally. Analgesia, sensory and motor blockade, muscle relaxation, hypotension and side effects were assessed. We compared these results with the previous study that was done with the same dosages mixed with 10 μg fentanyl. Results: The maximum level of block was higher in 12 mg group (T2) then 8 and 10 mg group (T3). 5 parturients showed more than T1 sensory block in 12 mg group (n=20). 4 parturients did not reach T4 in 8 mg group (n=20). 7,4 and 0 parturients complained pain during operation in each 8, 10, 12 mg group (p=0.012 between 8 and 12 mg group, p=0.062 between 10 and 12 mg group). Addition of 10 μg fentanyl showed better analgesia and less shivering. Conclusion: Intrathecal 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 12 mg showed complete analgesia for all parturients but the tendency of high spinal anesthesia. Analgesia was inadequate in 8 mg group. Addition of 10 μg fentanyl showed better analgesia and less shivering. (Korean J Anesthesiol 1999; 37: 37∼44)
The purpose of this research was to investigate cytotoxity of Sunbanhwalmyungeum extract. Cytotoxity was determined by MTT assay method. After tumor cell lines(G361, BI6F10, MDA, A549) transplantation, the extracts of SunBangHwalMyungEum and its composition oriental medicines were administered, cytotoxity was measured by absorbance. The results were obtained as follows. 1. Sunbanhwalmyungeum extract and its composition oriental medicines extracts showed the concentration was higher, the more cytotoxity increased. 2. Both water and ethanol extracts of Sunbanhwalmyungeum showed excellent cytotoxity against G361, B16F10, MDA, A549 and high cytotoxity over 80$\%$ against G361, B16F10, MDA except A549 at the concentration of 1000ppm. 3. In water extract, Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, Gleditsiae Spina, Trichosanthis Radix, Glycyrrhizae Radix, Ledebouriellae Radix showed excellent cytotoxity. In ethanol extract, Gleditsiae Spina, Citri Pericarpium, Trichosanthis Radix, Paeoniae Radix Rubra, Myrrha showed excellent cytotoxity. 4. Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, Gleditsiae Spina, Trichosanthis Radix, Paeoniae Radix Rubra showed high cytotoxity in both water and ethanol extrats. 5. In water extract, Glycyrrhizae Radix, Ledebouriellae Radix, Myrrha showed high cytotoxity against A361, Lonicerae Flos, Olibanum, Fritillariae cirrhosae Bulbus, Paeoniae Radix Rubra, Manitis Squama against B16F10, Paeoniae Radix Rubra, Manitis Squama against MDA, Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, Angelicae gigantis Radix against A549. 6. In ethanol extract, Lonicerae Flos, Trichosanthis Radix showed high cytotoxity against G361, Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, Angelicae gigantis Radix, Gleditsiae Spina, Olibanum, Angelicae dahuricae Radix, Fritillariae cirrhosae Bulbus, Paeoniae Radix Rubra, Glycyrrhizae Radix, Ledebouriellae Radix, Myrrha against B16F10, Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, Manitis Squama against MDA, Citri Pericarpium, Manitis Squama against A549.