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Purpose: Despite the fact that the needs for disaster emergency medical facilities to minimize casualties are increasing, research for emergency medical facilities is insufficient compared to research for DMAT investment. A management strategy for emergency medical facilities in disaster site needs to be proposed. Methods: Recently there was introduction of mobile hospital system using unit modular method, but it was found out to be used only in disaster emergency training. Emergency medical facilities in disaster site require various tasks. Examination for our research was carried out through consultations with emergency medical and mobile hospital expert because there is no practical use case to apply Emergency Medical Facilities in Korea. Result: In this research we proposed a management strategy to manage and operate emergency medical facilities composed of tent, unit module and container in the aspects of management efficiency. Implications: It is highly expected to establish a foundation for fast and accurate disaster emergency medical facilities deployment by applying the results of our research to Emergency response manual of disaster emergency medical service.
Objective of this study was to evaluate the carbon budget on 40 years old pear orchard at Naju. For carbon budget assessment, we measured the soil respiration, net ecosystem productivity of herbs, pear biomass and net ecosystem exchange. In 2015, pear orchard released about 25.6 ton CO2 ha-1 by soil respiration. And 27.9 ton CO2 ha-1 was sequestrated by biomass growth. Also about 12.6 ton CO2 ha-1 was stored at pruning branches and about 5.2 ton CO2 ha-1 for photosynthesis of herbs. As a result, 25.6 ton of CO2 per ha is annually released to atmosphere. At the same time about 45.7 ton of CO2 was sequestrated from atmosphere. When it sum up the amount of CO2 release and sequestration, approximately 20.1 ton CO2 ha-1 was sequestrated by pear orchard in 2015, and it showed no significant differences with net ecosystem exchanges (17.8 ton CO2 ha-1 yr-1) by eddy covariance method with the same period. Continuous research using various techniques will help the understanding of CO2 dynamics in agroecosystem and it can be able to present a new methodology for assessment of carbon budget in woody crop field. Futhermore, it is expected that the this study can be used as the basic data to be recognized as a carbon sink.
The amount of delivered parcels have been increasing according to the change and expansion of consumption pattern through e-commerce, and they are required to minimize breakout or failure under the delivery. In this study, we measured and analyzed the distribution environment data (vibration and impact) occurred in the packaging, which were prepared with 5 types by the weight and dimension, distributed from Seoul to Busan in Korea by 2 parcel delivery service companies through e-commerce order. Date showed the parcels had 3-5 times of drop impact and 0.3-0.7 m of drop height on average, and 0.8 Grms of vibration acceleration from equivalent equation to the vertical direction. The significant gap in service quality was not found between 2 parcel delivery service companies. This study is expected to be useful for designing the suitable packaging in order to enhance safe transportation of the delivered packaging, and furthermore useful for developing Korean testing method for Field-to-Lab simulation.
This study was conducted to find out the methodology of carbon budget assessment among soil, atmosphere and plant. Soil respiration, net ecosystem productivity of herbs and net ecosystem productivity of woody plants have been measured in 30 years old pear orchard at Naju. Closed Dynamic Chamber (CDC) method was used to measure soil respiration and net ecosystem productivity of herbs. Net ecosystem productivity of woody plant (pear) was determined by eddy covariance method using the EddyPro (5.2.1) program. As for soil respiration, 429.1 mg CO2 m-2 h-1 was released to atmosphere and sensitivity of soil temperature (Q10) was 2.3. In case of herbs, respiration was superior to photosynthesis during measurement period. From 20 to 24 Jun 2015, the sum of absorbed and released CO2 by herb’s photosynthesis and respiration was 156.1 mg CO2 m-2 h-1. Woody plants showed the 680.1 mg CO2 m-2 h-1 of absorption by photosynthesis. In a farm scale, the sum of soil respiration, and net ecosystem productivity of herbs and woody plants was 0.04 ton CO2 ha-1 during the measurement period, and it showed that pear orchard act as a CO2 sink. This study using various approaches is expected to present a methodology for evaluating the carbon budget of perennial woody crop plantations.