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The present study investigated the effect of addition of apple polyphenols on the color values, pH, hardness, in vitro digestibility, and syneresis of corn starch gels. Corn starch gels supplemented with various amounts of polyphenols (0%, 0.03%, 0.06%, 0.13%, 0.27%, 0.53%, and 1.06%) isolated from young fuji apple fruits were prepared, and their quality properties were determined. The L* and h° values of corn starch gels decreased but the a* and b* values increased with the increasing amount of apple polyphenols. Further, the pH of corn starch gels decreased with the increasing amount of apple polyphenols. The amount of apple polyphenols added did not affect the initial hardness of corn starch gels; however, concentrations of apple polyphenols exceeding 0.27% delayed the hardening of stored starch gels. Finally, the addition of apple polyphenols up to 0.27% decreased in vitro α-amylase digestibility but increased the syneresis of corn starch gels during the freeze–thaw process. Overall, the addition of apple polyphenols affected the quality parameters of corn starch gels. These findings can serve as a reference for apple polyphenol application and starch processing.
A novel chemically cross-linked hydrogel was successfully synthesized based on norbornene-functionalized Chitosan (Cs-Nb) and bis tetrazine Poly(N-Isopropylacrylamide) via inverse electrons demand Diels-Alder reaction between tetrazine and norbornene. Chitosan-norbornene were cross linked with bis-tetrazine PNIPAM with various molecular weight of PNIPAM to investigate the thermal sensitive and cumulative release. Chitosan was modified the primary amine group by norbornene carboxylic to form Cs-Nb proved by 1H NMR, FTIR spectrum; the degree of substitution (DS) of Nb was 10%. Beside, PNIPAM-Tz was prepared from tetrazine hydroxyl and dicarboxylic PNIPAM. The results hydrogels were characterized by SEM, swelling capacity, turbidity and cumulative release of Doxorubicin. Hydrogels showed swelling-shrink behaviors as temperature responsive, pH-sensitive, biocompatibility and fast forming in room temperature; these behaviors are greatly promising for injectable implant applications.
The current study aimed to report the effect of hydrogel porosity, which may be controlled by the design of crosslinkers, on drug release behavior. Porous alginate-based hydrogels were prepared from the inverse electron demand Diels-Alder reaction of alginate-norbornene (Alg-Nb) and disulfide-tetrazine (S-Tz). The porosity of hydrogels could be controlled by adjusting the amount of S-Tz crosslinker. Gel formation was facilitated by a “click” reaction between Nb and Tz, which produced nitrogen gas, which in turn, acted as an in-situ pore generator. Proportion of crosslinker and porosity were concluded to be significant factors for drug release behavior of hydrogels.
본 연구는 고등학생 617명을 대상으로 부모로부터의 심리적 독립(갈등적 독립)이 역기능적 진로사고에 미치는 영향을 살펴보고 두 변인 간의 관계에서 자기효능감의 매개효과를 확인해 보고자 하였다. 고등학생의 부, 모로부터의 갈등적 독립 과 역기능적 진로사고는 부적 상관이 있는 것으로 나타났다. 자기효능감은 갈등적 독립과 정적 상관이 있었으며, 역기능적 진로사고와는 부적 상관이 있는 것으로 나타났다. 또한 부, 모로부터의 갈등적 독립과 역기능적 진로사고의 관계를 자기효능감이 부분 매개하는 것으로 나타났다. 이는 부, 모로부터 갈등적 독립이 잘 될수록 역기능적 진로사고를 덜 하며, 갈등적 독립이 잘 될수록 자기효능감이 높아져 역기능적 진로사고를 덜 한다는 것을 의미한다. 따라서 고등학생의 역기능적 진로사고를 감소시켜 합리적 사고와 결정을 촉진시키는 데 부모로부터 갈등적 독립을 돕고, 자기효능감을 높일 수 있는 진로지도 및 상담개입의 필요성에 대해 논의에서 제안하였다. The purpose of this study was to examine the mediating effect of self-efficacy on the relationship between psychological independence(conflictual independence) from parents and dysfunctional career thoughts of high school students. Data were obtained from 617 students from some high schools in the A region of Gyeonggi-do. The results of the statistical analyses are as follows. First, each conflict independence of high school students from father and mother showed significant negative correlations with dysfunctional career thoughts. And self-efficacy was related with conflict independence positively, and related with dysfunctional career thoughts negatively. Next, self-efficacy was partially mediated in the relationship between conflict independence from parents and dysfunctional career thoughts. The discussions proposed the need for career guidance and counseling interventions to help high school students who have dysfunctional career thoughts to promote psychological independence(conflictual independence) from parents and to improve rational thinking.
Objectives : To investigate the clinical results of patients who were diagnosed with grade Ⅱ spondylolithesis treated with Korean medicine of relaxative Chuna and Gangchuk herbal medicine. Methods : We reviewed medical records of four patients diagnosed with grade Ⅱ spondylolisthesis. Each patient has taken intensive Korean medical admission treatment at Mokhuri Hospital. All patients received treatments of Gangchuk herbal medicine, relaxative Chuna and acupuncture during admission period. Before treatment and every after 7-day treatment the patient’s pain and walking distance without pain were assessed. The zero minimum to ten maximum pain numeric rating scale(NRS) was used to determine the degree of pain. Results : Average admission duration was 23 days. All the patients’ NRS decreased from median figure of 7.5[the minimum 7 to the highest 8] to median figure of 1[the minimum 0 to the highest 2]. Walking distance without pain increased from a median of 55 m[the minimum 20 m to the highest 100 m] to median of 165 m[the minimum 100 m to the highest 250 m]. Conclusions : Intensive conservative korean medical treatment was effective in reducing pain and functional improvement for grade Ⅱ lumbar spondylosisthesis patients.
A high-refractive index polymer of polyimide was prepared by imidization in removing water. Initially, the poly(amic acid) (PAA) was simply and quickly synthesized by the reaction between 4,4'-(hexa-fluoroisopropylidene) diphthalic anhydride (6FDA) and bis(3-aminophenyl) sulfone (3DDS). Next step, PAA was transformed to polyimide (PI). Finally, the polyimides were connected together to form network by cross-linking agent. This polymer network was characterized by FT-IR, GPC, TGA, transmittance and refractive index. With the high-refractive-index and thermal, flexible characteristic, this novel polyimide could be potential material to be utilizing as the outcoupling layer, the hole transport layer or the emitting layer in optoelectronic device applications.
A stores management software which is embedded in the stores management system requires high-level reliability and real-time processing. It also required to implement and verify protocols which requires timing constraints to control various weapons. In this paper, we propose design methodology to design a stores management software and its support middleware based on the TMO (Time-triggered Message-triggered Object) model.
In this study, we assessed the effect of freezing pretreatment on the quality of osmotically extracted syrup from Citrus junos peels. Sliced peels were frozen for 7 days at –20℃ or –70℃, mixed with sucrose and then stored for 40 days at 15℃. Syrups were prepared from these mixtures after osmotic treatment. Non-frozen fruits were used as control. The initial freezing point of C. junos peels was –4℃. Nominal freezing times were 42 and 13 min for –20℃ and –70℃, respectively. The osmotically extracted syrup from the frozen peels was reddish brown while that of the untreated peels was yellow. The titratable acidity of the pretreated syrups was significantly higher than that of the untreated syrup, but clarity, vitamin C content, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity were considerably lower. The pretreated syrups showed no notable difference in color, titratable acidity, clarity, and DPPH activity. Furthermore, contents of soluble solids, phenolic compounds, and flavonoids were unaffected. These results suggest that freezing before osmotic extraction affects the quality, producing syrups with higher acidity, reddish brown color, and lower antioxidant activity.