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This paper explores the public concern of pastoral care and counseling toward social justice and the change of pastoral care paradigms in the Korean context. In the history of its development, pastoral care and counseling seems to have more focused on caring for individuals rather than for society. Modern models of pastoral care and counseling may face limitations of care ministry because of their individualistic approach to pastoral practice. Stephan Pattison argues that several factors, including professional psychotherapy, individualism, and secularization have influenced our understanding of pastoral care as personal. Pastoral theologians including Bonnie Miller-McLemore, Donald Browning, Edward P. Wimberly, Seward Hiltner, and John Patton explain the development of pastoral theology to include larger communities with a public and historic perspective. Through a historical overview of the pastoral care and counseling movement in the North America, Patton describes the change of pastoral care patterns as a historical shift between three paradigms: classical, clinical pastoral, and communal-contextual. Jae-Sang Lyu argues that all three paradigms co-exist in a combined model within the Korean pastoral context due to the shorter history of pastoral care and counseling in Korea. A paradigm shift in pastoral care would influence the Korean church on achieving meaningful progress toward publicness through extended practices for marginalized people and communities.
본 연구는 국내에서 정서중심 부부치료를 주제로 진행된 연구논문을 고찰하고 연 구 동향과 연구 성과들을 분석하여 향후 정서중심 부부치료의 발전 방향을 제시하고 자 진행되었다. 더불어 정서중심 부부치료가 한국 교회와 목회상담의 현장에서 폭넓 게 적용되기 위하여 신학적 성찰과 기독교 문화적 요인을 탐색하였다. 본 연구는 체 계적 분석을 위해서 문헌 연구방법을 사용하였고 정서중심, 부부치료 등 주제어 검색 을 한국의 주요 학술정보 데이터베이스 (학술연구정보서비스:RISS, 구글 스칼라, 국회 도서관) 통해 실시하였다. 정서중심 부부치료가 국내에 소개되고 본격적인 연구가 시작된 2009년부터 2020년 까지 출판된 정서중심 부부치료 관련 연구를 검색한 결과 총 530편 중 제외 기준과 포함 기준을 통해 최종적으로 13편의 문헌을 연구대상으로 선택하였다. 이들 연구 문 헌은 치료 연구와 비치료 연구로 구분하여 치료연구의 경우 유의미한 치료적 효과를 증명하였다. 현재 연구 흐름을 분석한 결과 정서중심 부부치료에 대한, 이론적, 임상 적, 실천적 과정에 대한 심층적 이해와 치료 효과, 그리고 연구의 제한점과 후속 연구 방향을 논의하였다. 정서중심 부부치료가 함축하는 신학적 성찰은 부부의 용서와 화해의 회복 경험이 기독교 복음의 메시지와 공통적인 특성을 공유하는 것으로 논의되 었고 미래 연구를 위해 한국의 가족문화의 맥락에 적합한 요소들에 대한 향후 연구를 제시하였다. 정서중심 부부치료의 한국교회 적용을 위해서는 한국의 목회상담가들이 정서중심 부부치료와 영성을 그들의 실천적 현장에서 어떻게 통합할지에 대한 신학적 성찰이 필요하다. This study investigated and analyzed research regarding Emotional - Focused Couple Therapy (EFT) in Korea and provided suggestions on the developmental process Emotion-Focused Couple Therapy, provides. This research also aimed to explore theological reflections and Christian cultural factors regarding EFT for its various applications in the Korean church and in the Christian counseling setting as well. A literature search for a systematic review of EFT using Korean searches was conducted through the major Korean scholar database (Research Information Sharing Service, Google Scholar, National Assembly Library of Korea) with a set of selected key words such as couple therapy and emotion focused. A total of 11 articles published from 2009 to 2020 were found after implementing this search using inclusion and exclusion criteria. The findings reported in the reviewed studies were categorized into clinical research and non clinical ones and the clinical ones proved meaningful and effective in using EFT interventions for various groups of Korean couples. The current studies of EFT in Korea offer a comprehensive, clinical, and theoretical understanding of the EFT intervention therapeutic process and its effectiveness when researching this methodology in the Korean context. Forgiveness in the therapeutic process is one of key messages that connect a Christian tradition with EFT. This study suggests that more skillful experiences of EFT interventions for various couple groups can be a useful resource in the Korean couple counseling field. Limitations and suggestions for further study were also discussed. More EFT studies based on cultural components in the Korean family context are needed and a study of the factors associated with clinical, theological, and practical reflections require further research. For the application of EFT in the Korean Church, Korean pastoral counselors need more theological reflections about how to integrate spirituality with EFT together in their practical fields.
This paper aims to explore biblical interpretations of Jeong, Korean emotional attachment and to seek for its pastoral implications in the Korean cultural context. For this study, I employ a literature review method as a research methodology and I bring the Asian paradigm reading biblical texts that the Dr. Kwok Pui-Lan, a Chinese-American theologian emphasizes on universal authority of the Bible and autonomy in interpreting the Scripture. The intimate and compassionate relationship between Ruth and Naomi and between the father and the prodigal son can be interpreted as Jeong-filled relationships because of their experience of attachment, in-group identity, co-existence of gentle and hateful emotions, and the sharing of Simjeong. An positive association of Jeong and empathy might be an effective resource in offering pastoral counseling and in caring people. Korean the balanced and integrated understanding of the association of Jeong with empathy matters for Korean pastoral counselors and care-givers.
Empathy as an essence of therapeutic relationships has been drawn attention not only by psychotherapists, philosophers, educators, medical professionals, but also by theologians and pastoral counselors. From the tradition of self psychology of Heinz Kohut, empathy has been dealt with an observational and therapeutic tool to bring information and healing in the clinical environment. Also Edmund Husserl in the phenomenological stream reveals “higher psychic sphere” to transcend one’s own mental state and to remain reciprocal intersubjectivity. Nathan’s storytelling allows David to enter into the poor man’s inner world through his intuitive imagination. David re-experienced the poor man’s suffering from unfairness and was able to access rich man’s misconducts and greedy mind through Nathan’s prophetic metaphor and direct address. Marion Taylor points out Nathan’s parable as a teaching model of empathic understanding in the biblical context. It, however, can be debatable for readers to regard David’s compassion as authentic empathy in terms of lack of reciprocal intersubjectivity. Nathan’s narrative informs us of inspirable pastoral implications for Korean pastoral caregivers, in particular, how to bring empathy in faith community and how to improve empathy with another in spiritual blindness. Awareness about power dynamics in empathic relationships can be one of effective strategies to improve pastoral care-givers and counselors’empathic understanding.
Objective : To estimate the angiogenic effect of water extract of Cnidii Rhizoma (ECR), we employed the rat sponge model for angiogenesis. Methods : It was based on subcutaneous implantation of sterile polyester sponges in the SD rat and we have characterized the dye method that incorporates 5% carmine red and 1% cresyl violet in 10% gelatin. vascularity index (V.I.) expressed as ㎍ dye/mg tissue. Subcutaneous implantation of sterile polyester sponges in SD rats enhanced the neovascularization over 14 days, as determined by measurements of relative sponge blood flow by a vascularity technique. The angiogenic response was verified by histological evaluation of vascularized sponges. Results : Daily oral administration of ECR (100 mg/kg for 14 days) produce no apparent effect on angiogenesis. The vasoconstrictor peptide, angiotensin Ⅱ (AⅡ), in daily doses of 100 nmol, caused an intense neovascularization but lower doses of AⅡ produced no apparent effect (1 nmol and 10 nmol). Co-administration of 100 nmol AⅡ and 100 mg/kg ECR p.o. depressed 100 nmol AⅡ-induced angiogenic effect. Conclusion : We have shown that p.o. daministration of 100 nmol AⅡ accelerated angiogenesis. Meanwhile, co-administration of 100 nmol AⅡ and 100 mg/kg ECR highly suppressed angiogenic property.