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A three-dimensional mesoscale atmospheric dispersion modeling system consisting of the Lagrangian particle dispersion model(LPDM) and the meteorological mesoscale model(MM5) was employed to simulate the transport and dispersion of non-reactive pollutant during the nuclear spill event occurred from Sep. 31 to Oct. 3, 1999 in Tokaimura city, Japan. For the comparative analysis of numerical experiment, two more sets of foreign mesoscale modeling system; NCEP(National Centers for Environmental Prediction) and DWD(Deutscher Wetter Dienst) were also applied to address the applicability of air pollution dispersion predictions. We noticed that the simulated results of horizontal wind direction and wind velocity from three meteorological modeling showed remarkably different spatial variatioms, mainly due to the different horizontal resolutions. However, the dispersion process by LPDM was well characterized by meteorological wind fields, and the time-dependent dilution factors(X/Q) were found to be qualitatively simulated in accordance with each mesoscale meteorolocal wind field, suggesting that LPDM has the potential for the use of the real time control at optimization of the urban air pollution provided detailed meteorological wind fields. This paper mainly pertains to the mesoscale modeling approaches, but the results imply that the resolution of meteorological model and the implementation of the relevant scale of air quality model lead to better prediction capabilities in local of urban scale air pollution modeling.
High speed rotating arc process, forming a flat bead surface with shallow penetration depth, can be applied to the automatic seam tracking, because the amplitude of current waveform increases at high rotation speed. Two high speed arc rotation mechanisms have been developed in Japan and Germany b rotating the electrode nozzle using an external motor, which are used prevalently for narrow gap and conventional seam welding. In this study, a new rotation mechanism was developed by using a hallow shaft motor designed to be installed in the electrode nozzle. By rotating the welding arc, the amplitude of current waveform increases remarkably since the self-regulation of arc is not fully performed. Experiments show that the arc sensor with high-speed rotation arc has improved its responsiveness and sensitivity.
Laser-rotating arc hybrid welding was introduced by combining $CO_2$ laser and rotating gas metal arc welding. While the arc rotation enhances the weld pool motion, it reduces the undercut formation which is one of most critical weld defects in the conventional laser-arc hybrid welding. This research investigated the bead characteristics according to the welding parameters such as frequency of rotation, welding voltage, shielding gas composition and interspacing distance between laser and we. The welding parameters were selected to reduce spatter generation and ensure sound weld beads fur bead welding and butt welding with various joint gaps. Gap bridging ability was improved, such that the sound weld beads were achieved for butt joint with up to 2mm joint sap, with no adjustment of CTWD(Contact tip-to-workpiece distance) and electrode diameter.
Five years have passed since the discrimination correction system of non-regular workers on Act of The Protection of Non-regular Workers(below APNW) was adapted until today. However, a lot of non-regular worker who have been discriminated don’t use the discrimination correction system of non-regular workers. Meanwhile, twenty-four years have passed since Act on Equal Employment and Support for Work-Family Reconciliation(below AEE) in order to prohibit wage discrimination was legislated. there are just two cases that Supreme Court decision. There are, maybe a lot of other causes on this phenomenon, but most of all the salient cause of this current is that workers that have to defense violation to his/her rights to equality are disappointed for long time. Firstly this study try to review several adjudication on discrimination correction of non-regular workers by Discrimination Commission in NLRC, some court judgements of equal employment which appeal to a growing in recent times, and noticeable analogous cases in Japan. Then, this study examine comparatively the judgement structure of wage discrimination on protection of non-regular and that of equal employment between man and woman as main issue. Finally, this study try to consider the discrimition occurred by various reasons tightly associated together, for example,the situation is causative of employment type and gender of worker. namely, “complex Discrimination of employment type and discrimination on gender both have the schemes to analysis whether discrimination exists. AEE has the principal to judge sex discrimination exists “The equal wage for the work of equal value” and the criteria of APNW to investigate discrimination on employment type is the principal of “the same or similar work”. According to AEE, for determining the value of work both the comparisons, ‘Job Analysis’ of both should be done. and quality of labor value should be ensured in this process. however, this process have the limits which a valuer's subjective assessment is bound to. Meanwhile, because companies in Korea generally have ‘Job descriptions“ that describe the work be performed by workers of the aspects of quality only, principal of “the same or similar work” that should consider the quantitative aspects and qualitative aspects of work at the same time required by APNW does not comply with. Therefore, according to the criteria based on APNW, the new job analysis should be carried out in every law suit. APNW has enacted “wages and other working conditions, etc., without a rational reason for adverse treatment,” as bannable “discriminatory treatment”. Therefore, the area that be judged whether unfavorable treatment exist is “wages” and “other working conditions, etc.,”. Being raised in a recent issue is about the range of “other working conditions etc”'. Many scholars, judges and practitioners have claimed that the range of “other working conditions, etc.,” should be interpreted broadly'. Nevertheless, the NLRC has a very limited interpretation that the range of that similar to the range of most wage. Differentiated concept of rationality in the end that discrimination within a reasonable range and relatively accepted, it will not be allowed to go beyond the concept of discrimination is the same concept of 'compensation' when the sway of the setting, the appropriate amount of compensation for a range of fact that define criteria are Certain level of determination in some recent statements (for example, 80-85%) of the compensation is reasonable enough to have ruled. However, the statement of an absolute prohibition of discrimination, and this ruling in the case of Korea, is inappropriate. Non-regular workers, while today's increasing a lot of women are employed as irregular, displaying the variety of symptoms depending on the cause that discrimination occurred "compound discrimination" is the realization of the problem. Discrimination in the app...
이 글에서는 개발협력 분야의 발전과 변화 경과를 살펴보고, 현황과 실태를 분석해 당면한 다양한 현안을 진단함으로써 향후 개발협력의 방향을 모색하였다. 개발협력은 경제, 사회, 정치, 보건, 젠더, 환경 등을 모두 아우르며, 이러한 분야와 상호작용을 통해 직간접적으로 매우 밀접한 관련을 맺고 있다. 분석을 통해 도출한 개발협력분야의 현안은 개발협력의 체계화와 연계 강화, 성과 중심의 사업 추진 그리고 지속가능성 담보이다. 이를 실행하기 위해 개발협력의 의미와 역할 변화에 대한 유연한 대응, 사업 추진 방식의 효율화 및 효과성 제고, 참여 주체의 다양화와 파트너십 강화, 민관협력 확대 및 지속성 보장, 자율 기반의 성과 관리, 전문 인력 양성 및 재교육을 통한 사업 효과성 극대화, SDGs와의 연계 등을 제안하였다.