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이 논문은 초대 교회의 성경이었던 헬라어 구약인 70인역(Septuagint)에 대한 연구로서 그 출현, 수용, 그리고 배제 과정을 살핀 것이다. 어떻게 초대교회의 성경이 되었는지 또 교부들은 70인역에 대해 어떤 태도를 지녔는지 왜 히브리 본문의 구약이 현대의 중심 성경이 되었는지를 다루었다. 사실 70인역을 반영하면 신약의 구약인용문과 구약 본문의 불일치 중 많은 부분들을 해소할 수 있으며 영어성경과 국문성경을 병행해서 읽을 때 일어나는 불일치들도 설명이 가능하다. 영어성경이 70인역을 많이 반영한 이유 때문이다. 성서 교육적 관점에서 70인역에 대한 학문적 관심이 필요한 상황이다. This essay is to discuss the positive and negative views of the Septuagint among early church fathers and to emphasize its significance for modern reader through the discussion on the historical value of the Septuagint. Not only the difference between the Bible of the early church and that of the modern but also the dissimilarities of passages cited by the New Testament from the Old Testament are the difficult problem to solve. One of the answers is to look back to the sources, that is, the bible and the writings in the early church. The Septuagint was widely used by writers of the New Testament and the early church Christians. This Greek translation of the ancient Hebrew Old Testament was produced by legendary seventy two wise scholars. The letter of Aristeas was accepted at face value by most of early Christian writers who had a firm belief that the Septuagint was translated as a divine revelation. The greatest leader of second century church, Irenaeus of Lyon, was one of the strong supporter for the sake of the Septuagint. Rabbinic Judaism rejected the value of the Old Greek version and decided to choose a authoritative text among the Hebrew texts. This became a foundation of the Masoratic text that is used in most Bible today. For the church fathers, nevertheless, the LXX was the inspired Bible by the wise seventy two men. Most fathers of the early church including Augustine strongly supported the Septuagint either in liturgical use or private study. However, it was Jerome who first rejected the tradition of the story of Aristeas and preferred to the then Hebrew text. This study mainly deals the argument between these two great giants in early Christianity: Augustine and Jerome.
Abstract: This article explores the process of rural return migration in a peri-urban rural area, based on ethnographic fieldwork in the Chungnam region. It focuses on the migration experience of rural return migrants who participate in schooling sessions provided by the local agricultural station, and how these migrants view their migration and establish sociocultural meanings toward crops and farming in general. Return migrants express the need for information which suit their individual cases, and a way to view their activities in a non-economic meaningful manner. While the so-called ‘Sixth Industry' model, intensively taught in schooling sessions, prompts returnee farmers to view crops from a neoliberal market-centered perspective, there are also critical voices that express the need for alternative ways to make meaningful sense of their new livelihood and surroundings is frequently voiced among these circles. 요약: 이 논문은 근교농업을 위주로 하는 충청남도 한 지역의 귀농학교에 대한 현장연구를 통하여 귀농의 과정을 구체적으로 살펴보고, 귀농인들이 귀농과 작물 경작에 사회적, 문화적 의미를 부여하게 되는 과정을 분석하였다. 특히, 귀농을 결심하면서 준비를 시작하는 과정, 특정한 지역의 귀농학교에 참가하게 되는 방식, 그리고 자신의 경험과 새로운 정보를 수집하고 종합하면서 만들어내는 의미를 자신의 귀농에 부여하는 과정에 대하여 질적인 사례 분석을 수행하였다. 귀농학교의 교육 내용은 실용적인 부분과 이론적인 부분으로 나눌 수 있는데, 특히 이론적으로는 농업을 소위 6차 산업으로 개념화하여 가공과 서비스를 농업에 결합하는 부가가치 창출과 소득 증대를 강조하면서, 이런 신자유주의적인 농가 경제 모델에 근거하여 귀농에 사회적, 문화적 의미를 부여하고 있었다. 귀농인들은 작물을 돌보는 경작자와 작물을 상품화하는 사업가로서의 태도와 시각을 동시에 체득해야 하는 상황에서 경제적 성공과 실패의 이분법을 비판하면서도 현실에 적응하기 위해 그 이분법과 귀농인이라는 정체성을 받아들인다.
Primary laryngeal aspergillosis is exceptionally rare, and only nineteen cases have been reported in the literature. It is more comonly sen as a part of a wider infection involving the respiratory system in an imunocompromised host. We present here one case of primary laryngeal aspergillosis without any other airway tract extension and without any generalized imune deficit in a 58-year-old man. Direct laryngoscopy and biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of aspergillosis. (Korean J Otolaryngol 2002; 45:422-4)
Purpose: In the present study, the visual discomfort induced by smart mobile devices was assessed in normaland healthy adults. Methods: Fifty-nine volunteers (age, 38.16 ± 10.23 years; male : female = 19 : 40) were exposed to tabletcomputer screen stimuli (iPad Air, Apple Inc.) for 1 hour. Participants watched a movie or played a computergame on the tablet computer. Visual fatigue and discomfort were assessed using an asthenopia questionnaire,tear film break-up time, and total ocular wavefront aberration before and after viewing smart mobiledevices. Results: Based on the questionnaire, viewing smart mobile devices for 1 hour significantly increased meantotal asthenopia score from 19.59 ± 8.58 to 22.68 ± 9.39 (p < 0.001). Specifically, the scores for five items(tired eyes, sore/aching eyes, irritated eyes, watery eyes, and hot/burning eye) were significantly increasedby viewing smart mobile devices. Tear film break-up time significantly decreased from 5.09 ± 1.52 secondsto 4.63 ± 1.34 seconds (p = 0.003). However, total ocular wavefront aberration was unchanged. Conclusions: Visual fatigue and discomfort were significantly induced by viewing smart mobile devices, eventhough the devices were equipped with state-of-the-art display technology.
This essay reviews the historical legacy of John Calvin upon the world. His influences will be explored in such areas as education, social welfare, politics, economics, and religion. Calvin was the reformer of the Geneva, which later became the center of the reformed tradition of Protestantism. The reformer set out various works to improve not only the churches but also the daily lives of the people in Geneva. His idea, teaching, and exemplary life left significant effect on later generations and many countries. One of his foremost contributions was made in the field of education. Calvin's Academy begun in 1558 provided general and seminary education to the students. Few European educational institutions ever saw rapid growth than the Geneva Academy, which is called “forerunner of modern public education. He rejected medieval concept of education which included mainly aristocratic elite and offered educational opportunity to the common people. In the similar way, Calvin's idea of double diaconate played an important role in promoting social welfare for the marginalized. His Geneva sheltered the thousands of the refugees and immigrants, giving free meals and employment opportunities. The symbols of his charitable works were the institution of Bourse Francaise, Bourse Italienne, Bourse Allemande, etc. In addition, Calvin is remembered as one of the heralds of the modern democracy. His followers succeeded or supported to establish democratic republic governments in many countries, e.g., Netherlands, Scotland, England, etc. Furthermore, the reformer is called “the father of America,” due to his and his followers' influences in relation to the Independence and the institution of American values and laws. Where Calvinism spread, finally, so did a favor of free markets and capitalism. His idea that viewed money as God's gift and as instrument for mission toward others taught numerous people to engage in charitable donation and to live in temperance. John Calvin, at his five hundred and the first birthdays, is not the property of one denomination or particular religious tradition. His idea, work, and life became the ever-standing model for later generations.
Constantine the Great was the first ruler to mint Christian coins. His Christian coins typically bear images of the cross, Christ's name (key-ro) and images of the “Hand of God,” which are generally the most numerous coins in largest volume. Cross coins were issued by Constantine the Great from 319, but the total quantity was not large. It still suggests that the cross was not yet a central symbol of Christianity until the time of the Great Era. Instead, various Christian symbols were used in coins. The name of Christ was also used frequently on the coins. The Christian coinage of the Great Empire contributed greatly to the spread of Christianity, which clearly served as a decisive factor in the social and economic internalization of Christianity in the Roman Empire. Among the coin-making directors of Christian cities such as Ephesus and Constantinople, obviously there were a large number of Christians, so they were able to publish Christian coins in cooperation with the high priest. Crosses on coins issued in these cities can be seen as clearly meaning Christianity. Nevertheless, Constantine generally took a gradual attitude and a hybridist approach in issuing Christian coins. In terms of the rate of coin issuance, many coins sought to follow the traditional form. In the early days of the reign, the issuance of castings, including pagan images and phrases, was also permitted, and the quantity was gradually reduced. The characteristics of Constantine's Christian coinage are a mixture of pagan gods and crosses, and a mixture of pagan phrases and Christ names. This reveals the religious syncretism of the great emperor. In the 30-year reign of Constantine, the total number of coins issued is about 500. A total of 11 kinds of all coins included the cross, and 10 coins were named Key-roh. The type of cross coins was comparatively small, but the amount of issue was considerable. In other words, rather than various symbols, they repeatedly published coins of focus on crosses and slogans. In the Constantine coinage, Christian patterns, such as crosses, Christian names, and religious phrases, were used in the margins, as well as in equipment such as pitches, shields, and military flags. This style of coinage is also consistent with the records of Eusebios' writing. If many of the 4th century Christian coins included Christian symbols, the 5th century coins that followed became many independently engraved Christian symbols, apart from the items such as flags or weapons. If the Christian symbol in the fourth-century Constantine coinage gave the impression of religious decoration, it can be said that the sixth-century Christian coins showed not only decoration, but also Christianity itself as the center of empire and politics.