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이 논문은 최근 정부가 시행하고 있는 근로빈곤정책 중 취업지원사업의 사례를 통해 중앙정부의 부처 간 정책조정 메카니즘의 현황 및 문제점을 밝히는데 목적이 있다. 논문이 사용한 경험 자료는 정책담당자와 전문가들의 면접진술이다. 정부는 최근 그간의 자활사업의 한계를 극복하는 차원에서 '취업성공패키지'와 '희망리본프로젝트'라는 취업지원 프로그램을 시행하였다. 그러나 이 사업은 정책수단과 정책대상이 비슷하여 사업을 담당하고 있는 고용노동부와 보건복지부 사이에 정책의 가외성과 비일관성의 문제가 발생하고 두 부처 간에 서비스 전달체계의 조정문제가 심각하게 대두되었다. 그리하여 대상자 선정 기준인 근로 능력평가를 놓고 논란이 일었고, 두 부처 간의 사업방식의 비일관성이 문제로 지적되었으며, 통일적인 사업 담당주체의 필요성이 제기되었다. 이 논문은 취업지원서비스의 전달체계를 둘러싼 고용노동부와 보건복지부 사이의 갈등을 통해서 중앙부처의 정책조정 메카니즘의 문제를 발견하였다. 고용노동부와 보건복지부의 취업지원사업에 대한 조정은 국무총리실에서 시도하였으나, 이명박 정부의 임기가 다할 때까지 결론을 내리지 못하고 다음 정부로 이관되고 있다. 이는 정부의 권한이 대통령에 집중되어 있는 우리나라에서 국무총리실이 부처 간 첨예한 이해대립의 조정을 담당하는 데 한계가 있음을 보여주는 것이다. 고령화 양극화 다문화화의 시대적 변화에 대응하기 위한 정책과제들은 많은 부처가 관여하여 고안되고 실행될 수밖에 없다. 이러한 상황에서 정부의 정책조정기능은 앞으로도 중요하게 부각될 것이다. 그리하여 중앙정부는 현행 권력구조에 맞게 대통령 중심의 정책조정체계를 갖출 필요가 있다.
Purpose: Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) is a leading cause of occupational asthma (OA). Periostin is a matricellular protein implicatedin type 2 immunity-driven asthma. Its pathogenic role in TDI-OA has not been completely elucidated. The present study was performed to investigate the role of periostin in TDI-OA. Materials and Methods: Serum periostin levels were measured in subjects with TDI-OA, asymptomatic TDI-exposure controls (AECs), non-occupational asthmatics (NAs), and unexposed normal controls (NCs). To understand the mechanism by which TDI induces periostin production, primary small airway epithelial cells (SAECs) were cultured under stimulation of TDI and neutrophilsfrom asthmatic patients. Results: Fifty-three subjects with TDI-OA, 71 AECs, 67 NAs, and 83 NCs were enrolled. Serum periostin levels were significantly higher in TDI-OA subjects than in AECs (p=0.001), NAs (p<0.001), and NCs (p<0.001). In TDI-exposed subjects (TDI-OA and AEC), the PC20 methacholine levels were significantly lower in subjects with a higher periostin level than in those with a lower periostin level. TDI exposure did not increase periostin production directly by SAECs; however, periostin production increased significantly after co-culture with TDI and neutrophils, which was suppressed by an antioxidant. In addition, increased release of TGF-β1 was noted from SAECs when exposed to TDI and neutrophils, which was also suppressed by an antioxidant. Conclusion: These results suggest that an increased periostin level may contribute to the progression of airway inflammation to remodeling in TDI-exposed workers. A high serum periostin level is a potential serologic marker of the phenotype of TDI-OA.
Nano-sized oxide catalyst was coated on silicon carbide (SiC) surface and gas removal activity was compared using CO and NH3 molecules. In order to prepare coating solution nano-sized oxide (Cu-Mn oxide) particles was prepared firstly by wet-chemical process (redox precipitation), followed by homogeneous dispersion in the various dispersion media such as cellosolves, ketones, colloid silica, etc. Then the catalyst loading was carried out by dipping/spraying the coating solution onto the surface of porous SiC honeycomb. The physico-chemical properties and gas removal activity of the catalyst-loaded SiC honeycomb were discussed in detail.
Purpose: House dust mites (HDM) are major allergens that cause allergic rhinitis (AR). Allergen-specific subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) has been shown to be clinically beneficial in many clinical trials. Such trials, however, are not reflective of all patient populations. The aim of this study was to describe the efficacy and safety of SCIT in routine clinical practice in Korean adults with AR sensitized to HDM. Methods: We reviewed medical records of 304 patients with AR treated at an allergy clinic of a tertiary hospital using SCIT with aluminum hydroxide-adsorbed allergen extract targeting HDM alone or with pollens for at least 1 year from 2000 to 2012. Patients with asthma were excluded. Rates of remission, defined as no further requirement of maintenance medication, over time were determined by means of life tables and extension of survival analysis. Specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels to HDM were categorized into 6 classes. Results: The mean time until achieving remission was 4.9±0.1 years, and the cumulative incidence of remission from AR was 76.6%. Severe AR (odds ratio [OR], 0.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23-0.69; P=0.001), specific IgE levels to HDM ≥17.5 kU/L (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.01-3.37; P=0.045), and duration of immunotherapy ≥3 years (OR, 7.37; 95% CI, 3.50-15.51; P<0.001) were identified as significant predictors of clinical remission during SCIT for patients with AR sensitized to HDM. Overall, 73 patients (24.0%) experienced adverse reactions to SCIT, and only 1 case of anaphylaxis (0.3%) developed. Conclusions: SCIT with HDM was found to be effective and safe for patients with AR. Specific IgE levels to HDM and a duration of SCIT ≥3 years may be predictors of clinical responses to SCIT in AR patients.
Nanoporous composite of copper-manganese oxide particles and two dimensional graphene sheets was successfully prepared by redox-precipitation process of Cu-Mn salts in the presence of delaminated graphene particles. According to the nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm analysis. The resulting composite powders exhibited very large specific surface area (~ 520 ㎡/g) and pore volume (~0.85 ㎤/g). The gas removal efficiency of the porous composite was evaluated using CO as a model gas and it could be found that the graphene supported oxide catalyst showed excellent CO removal activity at room temperature.
Purpose: Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is known to be the only therapeutic modality to alter the natural course of allergicdiseases. However, at least 3 years of treatment is recommended for achieving long-term disease modifying effect. This studyaimed to investigate factors associated with immunotherapy non-adherence in real practice. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients who were diagnosed with allergic rhinitis, asthma,or atopic dermatitis, and received AIT to common allergens such as house dust mite and/or pollens from January 2007 toAugust 2014. In this study, non-adherence was defined as not completing 3 years of AIT. Results: Among 1162 patients enrolled, 228 (19.6%) failed to complete 3 years of AIT. In multivariate analysis, age less than 20years [odds ratio (OR) 3.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.70–5.69] and 20 to 40 years (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.17–3.43), cluster buildup(OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.05–3.02) and ultra-rush build-up schedules (OR 5.46, 95% CI 2.40–12.43), and absence of visit to other departmentsin the same hospital (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.05–3.32) were independently associated with immunotherapy non-adherence. Disease duration of 5–10 years was negatively associated with non-adherence compared to shorter disease duration of less than 5years (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.40–0.94). Although male sex and commercial product of AIT, Tyrosine S®, compared to Novo-Helisen®were non-adherent factors in univariate analysis, no statistical significances were identified in multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Various factors are associated with immunotherapy adherence affecting the utility of immunotherapy. Cliniciansshould be aware of factors associated with adherence to maximize the utility of allergen-specific subcutaneous immunotherapy.
The cylindrical-type porous pellets of copper-manganese oxide mixed with light-weight inorganic fillers were prepared by extrusion method and the gas removal activity depending on the various process variables was systematically compared. In addition, the mechanical properties including pellet hardness, density, and physical properties such as porosity, surface area, etc, were also investigated. It was found that the newly prepared oxide catalyst-loaded pellet type granules exhibited excellent mechanical and physico-chemical properties; high pellet hardness(>4.0 kg/㎠), very low apparent density (<0.7 g/㎤), large pore volume (>1.0 ㎤/g) and specific surface area (>500 ㎡/g), respectively. Furthermore they showed excellent CO removal activity at room temperature.
Layered nanocomposite between alkylammonium surfactants and layer silicate minerals have been applied as immobilization and/or delivery vectors for agricultural active ingredients such as bacterial peptides. Intercalative nanocomposites of expandable clays (natural montmorillonite and synthetic hectorite) and cocamido-diethanolamine (CDEA) are firstly prepared by a simple solid state intercalation process. In the nanocomposites, CDEA molecules have a paraffin-like arrangement between silicate layers with the expansion of basal spacing as large as 40 Å. Additional weak Van Der Waals interaction plays an important role in the formation of paraffin-like stacking structure. Inclusion of dipeptides, Bacillus(BS07M), paromomycine, etc. could be achieved through the van der Waals interaction between guest molecules and interlayer surfactant chain. The modified interlayer spaces act as sorption sites for active ingredients.
Granular-type porous pellet consisted of copper manganese oxide catalyst was prepared using pellet extruder and its gas removal activity against for CO was systematically investigated. Amorphous-like copper manganese oxide catalyst was obtained by redox precipitation, and mixed with inorganic binder such as colloidal silica, alumina, and layer silicate. In order to introduce the macropores, and to improve the gas removal activity blowing agent like azodicarbonamide was formulated. According to the nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms showed that the BET surface area of the pellet type catalyst was varied from 50 ㎡/g to 150 ㎡/g depending on formulations and process conditions. The macropores created by blowing agent reduced significantly pellet density, and increased the gas removal activity.