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The performance of two laboratory scale biofilters, packed with pressmud (BF1) and sugarcane bagasse (BF2), was evaluated for gas phase ethylacetate removal under various operating conditions. Biofilters were inoculated with mixed culture obtained from pharmaceutical wastewater sludge. Experiments were carried out at different flow rates (0.03, 0.06, 0.09 and 0.12 m3 h−1) and inlet ethylacetate concentrations (0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 1.2 gm−3). Maximum removal efficiency (RE) of 100% and 98% was achieved at an inlet concentration of 0.2 gm−3 and gas flow rate of 0.03m3 h−1 in BF1 and BF2, respectively. A maximum elimination capacity (EC) of 66.6 gm−3 h−1 and 64.1 gm−3 h−1 was obtained in BF1 and BF2, respectively, at an inlet concentration of 0.8 gm−3 and a gas flow rate of 0.12 m3 h−1. The kinetics of biofiltration of ethylacetate was studied by using Ottengraf and van den Oever model. The kinetic modelling gives an insight into the mechanism of biofiltration. The modified Ottengraf model, which was also tested, demonstrated good agreement between calculated and experimental data.
Manganese plays multiple role in many biological redox reactions in which it exists in different oxidation states from Mn(II) to Mn(IV). Among them the high-valent manganese-oxo intermediate plays important role in the activity of certain enzymes and lessons from the natural system provide inspiration for new developments of artificial systems for a sustainable energy supply and various organic conversions. This review describes recent advances and key lessons learned from the nature on high-valent Mn-oxo intermediates. Also we focus on the elemental science developed from the natural system, how the novel strategies are realised in nano particles and molecular sites at heterogeneous and homogeneous reaction conditions respectively. Finally, perspectives on the utilisation of the high-valent manganese-oxo species towards other organic reactions are proposed.