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Textile dye effluent treatment was investigated using a novel biosorbent synthesized from Prosopis cineraria. The influence of operating variables, namely initial COD of the effluent (352-1,303 ㎎/L) and adsorbent dosage (0.25-4.0 g/L) on the removal efficiency was studied. The results of the biosorption experiments indicated that the equilibrium COD removal efficiency attained was 68% and COD uptake achieved was 90.52 ㎎/g at an optimal sorbent dose (2.0 g/L). Pseudo second order model fitted well to the experimental data and the rate constant was estimated as 0.098 x 10<SUP>-5</SUP> g /(㎎ min) .Chemisorption was identified as the removal mechanism involved. Power function model represented the kinetic data in selected range of COD and kinetic constants were estimated. XRF analysis of the biosorbent confirmed the presence of potassium oxide and calcium oxide as the two major components.
In this research, corrosion inhibitors were synthesized using locally available biomass, alfalfa plant. The inhibitor performance was evaluated at different operating conditions and the effect of process variables, namely inhibitor concentration (1-5%v/v), operating temperature (308.15-328.15 K) and method of extraction (alcohol and aqueous) were studied. The corrosion rate of aluminum decreased with increase in inhibitor concentration and the best result attained was 3.7mg cm2 h1 with 5%v/v AALE and 308.15 K. The increase in temperature resulted in the decrease in inhibition efficiency, which could be related to detachment of inhibitors at elevated temperatures. The Langmuir adsorption Isotherm fitted well to the corrosion experiment data (R2>0.990) and thermodynamic parameters were calculated. The value of separation factor (0<RL<1) confirmed the favorable adsorption of corrosion inhibitor on the metal surface. Surface characterization of the green inhibitor using scanning electron microscopy was conducted to understand the morphology and FTIR spectrum was used to identify the main functional groups for Alfalfa extracts. The alcoholic extract possessed comparatively higher number of surface-active groups and produced better performance than aqueous extract. Arrhenius plots were employed to determine the activation energy. Tafel plot was used to determine theoretical corrosion current and potential. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy inhibition efficiency was found to be 90.91% with 5% AALE.
Oilfield produced water is one of the vast amounts of wastewater that pollute the environment and cause serious problems. In this study, the produced water was treated in a microbial fuel cell (MFC), and response surface methodology and central composite design (RSM/CCD) were used as powerful tools to optimize the process. The results of two separate parameters of sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) as well as nanocomposite composition (CNT/Pt) on the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and power generation were discussed. The nanocomposite was analyzed using XRD, SEM, and TEM. Moreover, the degree of sulfonation (DS) was measured by NMR. A quadratic model was utilized to forecast the removal of COD and power generation under distinct circumstances. To obtain the maximum COD removal along with maximum power generation, favorable conditions were achieved by statistical and mathematical techniques. The findings proved that MFC could remove 92% of COD and generate 545mW/m2 of power density at optimum conditions of DS=80; and CNT/Pt of 14 wt% CNT- 86 wt% Pt.
The performance of two laboratory scale biofilters, packed with pressmud (BF1) and sugarcane bagasse (BF2), was evaluated for gas phase ethylacetate removal under various operating conditions. Biofilters were inoculated with mixed culture obtained from pharmaceutical wastewater sludge. Experiments were carried out at different flow rates (0.03, 0.06, 0.09 and 0.12 m3 h−1) and inlet ethylacetate concentrations (0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 1.2 gm−3). Maximum removal efficiency (RE) of 100% and 98% was achieved at an inlet concentration of 0.2 gm−3 and gas flow rate of 0.03m3 h−1 in BF1 and BF2, respectively. A maximum elimination capacity (EC) of 66.6 gm−3 h−1 and 64.1 gm−3 h−1 was obtained in BF1 and BF2, respectively, at an inlet concentration of 0.8 gm−3 and a gas flow rate of 0.12 m3 h−1. The kinetics of biofiltration of ethylacetate was studied by using Ottengraf and van den Oever model. The kinetic modelling gives an insight into the mechanism of biofiltration. The modified Ottengraf model, which was also tested, demonstrated good agreement between calculated and experimental data.