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The performance of two laboratory scale biofilters, packed with pressmud (BF1) and sugarcane bagasse (BF2), was evaluated for gas phase ethylacetate removal under various operating conditions. Biofilters were inoculated with mixed culture obtained from pharmaceutical wastewater sludge. Experiments were carried out at different flow rates (0.03, 0.06, 0.09 and 0.12 m3 h−1) and inlet ethylacetate concentrations (0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 1.2 gm−3). Maximum removal efficiency (RE) of 100% and 98% was achieved at an inlet concentration of 0.2 gm−3 and gas flow rate of 0.03m3 h−1 in BF1 and BF2, respectively. A maximum elimination capacity (EC) of 66.6 gm−3 h−1 and 64.1 gm−3 h−1 was obtained in BF1 and BF2, respectively, at an inlet concentration of 0.8 gm−3 and a gas flow rate of 0.12 m3 h−1. The kinetics of biofiltration of ethylacetate was studied by using Ottengraf and van den Oever model. The kinetic modelling gives an insight into the mechanism of biofiltration. The modified Ottengraf model, which was also tested, demonstrated good agreement between calculated and experimental data.
In this study, the diﬀ erent weight percentages of ZrO 2 –Ag-reinforced HAp were prepared by the planetary mill and cal- cinated at 800 °C for 5 h. Synthesized nano-composites evolved the hexagonal phase of HAp in addition to ZrO 2 and Ag peaks. Raman spectroscopy conﬁ rmed the high-intensity band of PO 4 −3 group and major bands of Zr and Ag. Staphylococ- cus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial growth were arrested in HA20Zr10Ag nano-composites evaluated by in vitro antibacterial activity. Hemocompatible behavior of the reinforced HAp revealed that the nanocomposites was non-hemolytic with distinct RBC morphology and this eﬀ ect was more pronounced while increasing ZrO 2 concentration. Biocompatibility studies, such as protein adsorption, cell viability, ﬂ uorescence staining, mineralization, and quantiﬁ cation of BMP-2, were analyzed with MG-63. The nanocomposites have adsorbed a high amount of proteins (~ 300 to 700 μg) from the serum. MTT assay revealed the percentage of the viability of the cells was ~ 70% to 80%. In vitro cytotoxic behavior of MG-63 cells illustrated that HA20Zr10Ag nanocomposites expressed polygonal structure with elongated morphology by Alexa Fluor 488 phalloidin and DAPI staining. Similarly, nano-composites powder proved its mineralization capability through intracellular calcium uptake up to the 5th day of MG-63 incubation. While, BMP-2 expression was slightly higher in HA20Zr10Ag nano-composite at 5th day of incubation. From the results, it is illustrated that HAp with 20 wt% of ZrO 2 and 10 wt% Ag nanocomposites has an important role in osteoblastic bone formation.