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      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        P-STRONGLY REGULAR NEAR-RINGS

        Dheena,,P.,Jenila,,C. Korean Mathematical Society 2012 대한수학회논문집 Vol.27 No.3

        In this paper we introduce the notion of P-strongly regular near-ring. We have shown that a zero-symmetric near-ring N is P-strongly regular if and only if N is P-regular and P is a completely semiprime ideal. We have also shown that in a P-strongly regular near-ring N, the following holds: (i) $Na$ + P is an ideal of N for any $a{\in}N$. (ii) Every P-prime ideal of N containing P is maximal. (iii) Every ideal I of N fulfills I + P = $I^2$ + P.

      • KCI등재후보SCOPUS

        Effects of Varying Dietary Zinc Levels and Environmental Temperatures on the Growth Performance, Feathering Score and Feather Mineral Concentrations of Broiler Chicks

        P.,W.,Lai,J.,B.,Liang,L.,C.,Hsia,T.,C.,Loh,Y.,W.,Ho 아세아·태평양축산학회 2010 Animal Bioscience Vol.23 No.7

        This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary zinc (Zn), environmental temperatures and Zntemperature interaction on growth, feathering score and mineral composition of broilers. A total of 256 d-old Avian male broiler chicks were randomly allocated to a 42 factorial arrangement with four corn-soybean meal basal diets (containing 44 mg Zn/kg) supplemented with 0, 40, 60 mg/kg Zn (Diets 1, 2 and 3, respectively; 0.8% Ca for these three diets) and non-Zn supplementation, 1.6% Ca (Diet 4) and two temperature conditions (low: 26, 24, 22C vs. high: 30, 28, 26C). All birds were given feathering coverage scores for back, breast, wing, under-wing and tail. The wing and tail were further evaluated for the occurrence and severity of defect feathers. Feathers were then pooled for mineral composition analysis. The results showed that in high temperature conditions, broilers fed Zn-unsupplemented, 0.8% Ca ration (Diet 1) had significantly (p<0.05) lower ADFI and ADG (wk 1-6) than birds under low temperature conditions. However, when the birds were fed 40 and 60 mg/kg Zn supplementation (Diets 2 and 3), the ADFI and ADG in both temperature conditions were not significantly different. In low temperature conditions, the ADFI, ADG (p<0.05), all feather coverage (p<0.01) and tail defect scores (p<0.001) of birds fed Diet 4 (excess Ca) were significantly poorer than those fed Diet 1. More Ca (p<0.05) was retained in the feathers of broilers fed Diet 4 under high temperature conditions. Broilers fed the Zn-unsupplemented ration (Diet 1) had significantly higher feather phosphorus (p<0.01) and potassium (p<0.05) concentrations than those fed the 60 mg/kg Zn-supplemented ration (Diet 3). A reduction of feather phosphorus (p<0.01) and potassium (p<0.05) and higher manganese (p<0.05) concentrations were observed in Diet 4 broilers as compared to those fed Diet 1. Under high temperature conditions, broilers had lower iron (p<0.05) and higher manganese (p<0.05) concentrations in feathers. Broilers kept in high temperature conditions had a higher Zn requirement and 40 mg/kg Zn supplementation was sufficient for the birds to achieve optimum growth. Supplemental Zn ameliorated the adverse effect of high temperature on growth and occurrence of tail feather defects. Excess Ca disrupted Zn metabolism to exert a detrimental effect on growth performance and normal feathering and this was elucidated in the birds kept in low temperature conditions.

      • KCI등재후보SCOPUS

        The Effects of Phytase Supplementation on Performance and Phosphorus Excretion from Broiler Chickens Fed Low Phosphorus-Containing Diets Based on Normal or Low-phytic Acid Barley

        P.A.,Thacker,Inam,Haq,B.P.,Willing,A.B.,Leytem 아세아·태평양축산학회 2009 Animal Bioscience Vol.22 No.3

        A total of 240 day-old broiler chicks were used to study the effects of phytase on performance and phosphorus (P) excretion from birds fed diets containing low phytate barleys formulated without inorganic P. A positive control based on Harrington barley (HB) was formulated to meet requirements for total P. Three experimental diets, based on either HB (0.39% total P with 0.28% phytate P) or the low phytate varieties LP 422 (0.36% total P with 0.14% phytate P) and LP 955 (0.40% total P with 0.01% phytate P), were formulated to be below requirements for total P by removing all the inorganic P from the diet. The four diets were fed with and without 1,000 FTU/kg phytase. Apparent P digestibility was significantly higher (p<0.01) for birds fed the low phytate barleys than for birds fed HB either supplemented or un-supplemented with inorganic P. P excretion was significantly lower (p<0.01) for birds fed HB without inorganic P than with inorganic P. P excretion was further reduced by the use of the low phytate barleys LP 422 and LP 455 (p<0.01). Phytase supplementation did not affect P excretion (p = 0.39). Body weight gain and feed intake were highest for birds fed the HB diet with inorganic P and lowest for birds fed the HB diet without inorganic P (p<0.01). Among the three low P diets, body weight gain and feed intake of broilers increased as the level of phytate in the barley declined (p<0.01). Phytase modestly increased body weight gain (p = 0.08) and feed intake (p = 0.04). The overall results of this study indicate that it may be possible to reduce the amount of inorganic P used when formulating diets with low phytate barley compared with the levels needed when formulating diets with normal phytate barley. However, it is not possible to completely replace the inorganic P in diets containing low phytate barley without impairing poultry performance. Feeding diets devoid of supplementary inorganic P in combination with low phytate barley resulted in a significant reduction in P excretion by poultry.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Effect of Enzyme Supplementation on the Performance of Growing-Finishing Pigs Fed Barley-Based Diets Supplemented with Soybean Mealor Canola Meal

        Thacker,,P.A. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2001 Animal Bioscience Vol.14 No.7

        This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of enzyme supplementation on the performance of 80 growing-finishing pigs (26.2 kg) fed diets containing either soybean or canola meal. Barley-based diets formulated using either soybean meal or canola meal were fed with or without enzyme (Allzyme Vegpro, Alltech Biotechnology Centre). Eight castrates and twelve gilts were fed each diet. Digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and gross energy was 8.0 (p=0.0001), 7.9 (p=0.0005) and 7.9 (p=0.0003) percent lower for pigs fed diets containing canola meal compared with soybean meal. Enzyme supplementation had no effect on nutrient digestibility (p>0.05). There was a significant interaction between protein source and enzyme for all three nutrients. Over the entire experimental period (26.2 to 77.9 kg), pigs fed canola meal consumed 9.4% less feed (p=0.001), gained weight 20.4% slower (p=0.001) and had a 12.9% poorer feed conversion (p=0.001) than pigs fed soybean meal. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion were unaffected by enzyme addition (p>0.05). Castrates gained weight 11.4% faster (p=0.001), consumed 9.3% more feed (p=0.001) and had a 2.6% better feed conversion (p=0.026) than gilts. There was a significant interaction between protein source and sex of pig for feed conversion. Pigs fed diets based on canola meal had a significantly lower carcass value index (p=0.01), lower lean yield (p=0.007) and lower lean depth over the loin (p=0.001) than pigs fed diets based on soybean meal. Enzyme addition significantly increased lean depth over the loin (p=0.01). There was a significant interaction between protein source and enzyme for carcass value index (p=0.04), estimated lean yield (p=0.05) and fat depth over the loin (p=0.05). These results confirm previous studies which have demonstrated poorer pig performance when canola meal completely replaces soybean meal in diets fed to growing-finishing pigs. In addition, the results provide little justification for the inclusion of the Vegpro enzyme in diets fed to pigs of this weight range.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Comparison of Methodologies to Quantify Phytate Phosphorus in Diets Containing Phytase and Excreta from Broilers

        de,P.,Naves,,L.,Rodrigues,,P.B.,Bertechini,,A.G.,Correa,,A.D.,de,Oliveira,,D.H.,de,Oliveira,,E.C.,Duarte,,W.F.,da,Cunha,,M.R.R. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2014 Animal Bioscience Vol.27 No.7

        The use of a suitable methodology to quantify the phytate phosphorus ($P_{phy}$) content in both the feed and the excreta from broilers is required to enable accurate calculation of the catalytic efficiency of the phytase supplemented in the feed. This study was conducted to compare 2 analytical methodologies (colorimetry and also high-performance liquid chromatography with a refractive index detector) in order to calculate the phytase efficiency by utilizing the results from the methodology that was shown to be the most appropriate. One hundred and twenty broilers were distributed in a $(4+1){\times}2$ factorial arrangement, corresponding to 4 diets that were equally deficient in P supplemented with increasing levels of phytase (0, 750, 1,500, and 2,250 units of phytase activity - FTU - per kg of feed) plus 1 positive control diet without phytase, supplied to male and female birds. The result indicated that the colorimetric methodology with an extraction ratio of 1:20 (mass of sample in g:volume of the solvent extractor in mL) was shown to be the most adequate. There was no interaction between the phytase level and the sex of the broilers (p>0.05). Males consumed 12% more $P_{phy}$ than did females (p<0.01), but the sex of the broilers did not affect (p>0.05) the excretion and retention coefficient of $P_{phy}$. The increase in the phytase level of the diet reduced (linear, p<0.01) the $P_{phy}$ excretion. The greatest $P_{phy}$ retention was estimated at 87.85% when the diet contained 1,950 FTU/kg (p<0.01), indicating that it is possible to reduce the inorganic P in the formulation at an amount equivalent to 87.85% of the $P_{phy}$ content present in the feed, which, in this research, corresponds to a decrease in 2.86 g of P/kg of the feed.

      • Determinants of Postoperative Spinal Height Change among Adult Spinal Deformity Patients with Long Construct Circumferential Fusion

        Rentenberger,Colleen,Okano,Ichiro,Salzmann,Stephan,N.,Shirahata,Toshiyuki,Reisener,Marie-Jacqueline,Shue,Jennifer,Sama,Andrew,A.,Cammisa,Frank,P.,Girardi,Federico,P.,Hughes,Alexander,P. 대한척추외과학회 2021 Asian Spine Journal Vol.15 No.2

        <sec><title>Study Design</title><p>Retrospective clinical study.</p></sec><sec><title>Purpose</title><p>To describe postoperative height changes and identify the predictive factors of spinal height (SH) changes among patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD) who underwent circumferential lumbar fusion with instrumentation.</p></sec><sec><title>Overview of Literature</title><p>Postoperative height changes remain an important issue after spinal fusion surgery that affects the overall satisfaction with surgery. Previous studies of postoperative height change have focused exclusively on young patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS).</p></sec><sec><title>Methods</title><p>We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and imaging data of ASD patients who underwent lumbar corrective circumferential fusion of ≥3 levels (n=106). SH was defined as the vertical distance between C2 and S1 on a standing lateral image. As potential predictors of postoperative height change, the number of lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) levels, change in spino-pelvic parameters, total number of levels fused, and pedicle subtraction osteotomies (PSO) were documented. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to identify the predictors of postoperative height change.</p></sec><sec><title>Results</title><p>The mean SH change was −2.39±50.8 mm (range, −160 to 172 mm). The univariate analyses showed that the number of LLIF levels (coefficient=10.9, <italic>p</italic>=0.03), the absolute coronal vertical axis change (coefficient=0.6, <italic>p</italic>=0.01), and the absolute Cobb angle change (coefficient=−0.9, <italic>p</italic>=0.03) were significant predictors for height change. Patients with PSOs (n=14) tended to have a shorter height postoperatively (coefficient=−26.1); however, this difference was not significant (<italic>p</italic>=0.07). Multivariate analyses conducted with variables of <italic>p</italic><0.20 showed that pelvic tilt (PT) change is an independent contributor to SH change (coefficient=−0.99, <italic>p</italic>=0.04, <italic>R</italic><sup>2</sup>=0.11).</p></sec><sec><title>Conclusions</title><p>Utilizing a modified definition of SH used in previous AIS studies, we demonstrated that patients with ASD lose SH postoperatively and that PT change was an independent contributor of SH change.</p></sec>

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Growth and Nutrient Utilization in Buffalo Calves Fed Urea-ammoniated Wheat Straw and Hydrochloric Acid plus Urea Treated Wheat Straw

        Nair,,P.V.,Verma,,A.K.,Dass,,R.S.,Mehra,,U.R. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2002 Animal Bioscience Vol.15 No.5

        Ten growing male buffalo calves (aged 6-8 months, average body weight $88.2{\pm}0.57$ kg were divided randomly into two groups. Animals in group I were fed on concentrate mixture A (CP 20.2%, TDN 77.4%) and urea- ammoniated wheat straw (UAWS) while the animals in group II were fed on concentrate mixture B (CP 17.9%, TDN 77.6%) and HCl plus urea treated wheat straw (HCl UAWS) to meet their nutrient requirement for 500 g gain/d as per Kearl (1982). This feeding practice lasted for 120 days, during which fortnightly body weight were recorded to assess their growth rate. A metabolism trial was conducted after 90 days of experimental feeding to compare the digestibility of nutrients, their balance, plane of nutrition and relative cost of feeding in two groups of animals. Results revealed a significant increase in the CP content of ammoniated wheat straw due to addition of HCl viz 12.1% from 7.5%. There was a decrease in the intake of DM (p<0.05), OM (p<0.05), EE (p<0.05), NDF (p<0.01), ADF (p<0.01), cellulose (p<0.01) and hemicellulose (p<0.01) in group II as compared to group I. The digestibility (%) of DM, OM and CP was significantly (p<0.01) more in group II, whereas the digestibility (%) was significantly more for NDF (p<0.05) and hemicellulose (p<0.01) in group I than group II. There was no significant difference in the N, Ca and P balance in two groups. Intake of total DM (g/d) or (g/kg $W^{0.75}$) was significantly (p<0.01) more in group I as compared to group II, whereas the intake of DCP and TDN (g/d or g/kg $W^{0.75}$) was alike in two groups. The total body weight gain (kg), average daily gain (g/d) and feed conversion efficiency were significantly (p<0.01) more in UAWS fed group as compared to HCl UAWS fed group. Feeding cost (Rs./kg. weight gain) was significantly (p<0.05) more in group II as compared to group I. It is concluded that HCl UAWS is not suitable for the feeding of growing buffalo calves as it reduced the growth rate in comparison to UAWS fed buffalo calves.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Effects of Nutrient Specifications and Xylanase Plus Phytase Supplementation of Wheat-based Diets on Growth Performance and Carcass Traits of Broiler Chicks

        Selle,,P.H.,Huang,,K.H.,Muir,,W.I. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2003 Animal Bioscience Vol.16 No.10

        The simultaneous addition of xylanase (5,600 EXU/kg) and phytase (500 FTU/kg) feed enzymes to wheat-based broiler diets was investigated. Starter, grower and finisher diets, with three tiers of nutrient specifications, were fed to 1,440 broiler chicks kept on deep litter from 1-42 days post-hatch, without and with xylanase plus phytase, to determine the effects of diet type and enzyme supplementation on growth performance. The nutrient specifications of type A diets were standard; energy density and protein/amino acid levels were reduced on a least-cost basis to formulate type B diets and further reduced to type C diets. Phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca) levels were adjusted in supplemented diets. From 1-42 days post-hatch, diet type significantly influenced growth performance. Birds on type C diets had lower growth rates (2,429 vs. 2,631 g/bird; p<0.001), higher feed intakes (4,753 vs. 4,534 g/bird; p<0.005) and less efficient feed conversion (1.96 vs. 1.72; p<0.001) than birds offered type A diets. Enzyme supplementation increased growth rates by 3.2% (2,580 vs. 2,501 g/bird; p<0.005) and improved feed efficiency by 2.7% (1.80 vs. 1.85; p<0.05) over the entire feeding period. There were no interactions between diet type and enzyme supplementation. At 21 days, 5 out of 30 birds per pen were transferred to cages to ascertain treatment effect on apparent metabolisable energy (AME) and nitrogen (N) retention. Xylanase plus phytase enhanced AME (13.48 to 13.91 MJ/kg DM; p<0.001) and N retention (56.3 to 59.7%; p<0.005). Carcass and breast weights of the caged birds were determined following commercial processing. Diet type significantly influenced breast weight, carcass weight and yield. Birds offered Type A diets, in comparison to Type C diets, supported heavier breast (467 vs. 424 g; p<0.001) and carcass weights (1,868 vs. 1,699 g; p<0.001) with superior carcass yields (71.8 vs. 70.6%; p<0.005). Enzyme addition increased carcass weight by 3.9% (1,752 vs. 1,821 g; p<0.005) and breast weight by 5.8% (431 vs. 456 g; p<0.01) without influencing yields. Feed ingredient costs per kg live weight gain and per kg carcass weight indicated that enzyme addition was economically feasible, where supplementation of Type A diets generated the most effective results. Importantly, soluble and total non-starch polysaccharide and phytate contents of the wheat used were typical by local standards. This study confirms the potential of supplementing wheat-based broiler diets with xylanase plus phytase but further investigations are required to define the most appropriate inclusion rates and dietary nutrient specifications in this context.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Effects of Varying Dietary Zinc Levels and Environmental Temperatures on the Growth Performance, Feathering Score and Feather Mineral Concentrations of Broiler Chicks

        Lai,,P.W.,Liang,,Juan-Boo,Hsia,,L.C.,Loh,,T.C.,Ho,,Y.W. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2010 Animal Bioscience Vol.23 No.7

        This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary zinc (Zn), environmental temperatures and Zn${\times}$temperature interaction on growth, feathering score and mineral composition of broilers. A total of 256 d-old Avian male broiler chicks were randomly allocated to a $4{\times}2$ factorial arrangement with four corn-soybean meal basal diets (containing 44 mg Zn/kg) supplemented with 0, 40, 60 mg/kg Zn (Diets 1, 2 and 3, respectively; 0.8% Ca for these three diets) and non-Zn supplementation, 1.6% Ca (Diet 4) and two temperature conditions (low: 26, 24, $22^{\circ}C$ vs. high: 30, 28, $26^{\circ}C$). All birds were given feathering coverage scores for back, breast, wing, under-wing and tail. The wing and tail were further evaluated for the occurrence and severity of defect feathers. Feathers were then pooled for mineral composition analysis. The results showed that in high temperature conditions, broilers fed Zn-unsupplemented, 0.8% Ca ration (Diet 1) had significantly (p<0.05) lower ADFI and ADG (wk 1-6) than birds under low temperature conditions. However, when the birds were fed 40 and 60 mg/kg Zn supplementation (Diets 2 and 3), the ADFI and ADG in both temperature conditions were not significantly different. In low temperature conditions, the ADFI, ADG (p<0.05), all feather coverage (p<0.01) and tail defect scores (p<0.001) of birds fed Diet 4 (excess Ca) were significantly poorer than those fed Diet 1. More Ca (p<0.05) was retained in the feathers of broilers fed Diet 4 under high temperature conditions. Broilers fed the Zn-unsupplemented ration (Diet 1) had significantly higher feather phosphorus (p<0.01) and potassium (p<0.05) concentrations than those fed the 60 mg/kg Zn-supplemented ration (Diet 3). A reduction of feather phosphorus (p<0.01) and potassium (p<0.05) and higher manganese (p<0.05) concentrations were observed in Diet 4 broilers as compared to those fed Diet 1. Under high temperature conditions, broilers had lower iron (p<0.05) and higher manganese (p<0.05) concentrations in feathers. Broilers kept in high temperature conditions had a higher Zn requirement and 40 mg/kg Zn supplementation was sufficient for the birds to achieve optimum growth. Supplemental Zn ameliorated the adverse effect of high temperature on growth and occurrence of tail feather defects. Excess Ca disrupted Zn metabolism to exert a detrimental effect on growth performance and normal feathering and this was elucidated in the birds kept in low temperature conditions.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        The Effects of Phytase Supplementation on Performance and Phosphorus Excretion from Broiler Chickens Fed Low Phosphorus-Containing Diets Based on Normal or Low-phytic Acid Barley

        Thacker,,P.A.,Haq,,Inam,Willing,,B.P.,Leytem,,A.B. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2009 Animal Bioscience Vol.22 No.3

        A total of 240 day-old broiler chicks were used to study the effects of phytase on performance and phosphorus (P) excretion from birds fed diets containing low phytate barleys formulated without inorganic P. A positive control based on Harrington barley (HB) was formulated to meet requirements for total P. Three experimental diets, based on either HB (0.39% total P with 0.28% phytate P) or the low phytate varieties LP 422 (0.36% total P with 0.14% phytate P) and LP 955 (0.40% total P with 0.01% phytate P), were formulated to be below requirements for total P by removing all the inorganic P from the diet. The four diets were fed with and without 1,000 FTU/kg phytase. Apparent P digestibility was significantly higher (p<0.01) for birds fed the low phytate barleys than for birds fed HB either supplemented or un-supplemented with inorganic P. P excretion was significantly lower (p<0.01) for birds fed HB without inorganic P than with inorganic P. P excretion was further reduced by the use of the low phytate barleys LP 422 and LP 455 (p<0.01). Phytase supplementation did not affect P excretion (p = 0.39). Body weight gain and feed intake were highest for birds fed the HB diet with inorganic P and lowest for birds fed the HB diet without inorganic P (p<0.01). Among the three low P diets, body weight gain and feed intake of broilers increased as the level of phytate in the barley declined (p<0.01). Phytase modestly increased body weight gain (p = 0.08) and feed intake (p = 0.04). The overall results of this study indicate that it may be possible to reduce the amount of inorganic P used when formulating diets with low phytate barley compared with the levels needed when formulating diets with normal phytate barley. However, it is not possible to completely replace the inorganic P in diets containing low phytate barley without impairing poultry performance. Feeding diets devoid of supplementary inorganic P in combination with low phytate barley resulted in a significant reduction in P excretion by poultry.

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