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      • HCV : PE-134 ; Hemoglobin decline during peginterferon Alfa-2B (PEG-2B)/ribavirin (RBV) treatment in real-life is associated with favorable SVR rates in difficult-to-treat patients with HCV genotype 1 (G1) infection

        ( G Teuber ), ( S Mauss ), ( D Huppe ), ( E Zehnter ), ( M P Manns ), ( T Dahhan ), ( U Meyer ), ( T Witthoft ), ( B Moller ), ( N Dikopoulos ), ( J Brack ), ( B Stade ), ( M Bilzer ), ( Bng Hepatitis Study Group ) 대한간학회 2012 춘·추계 학술대회 (KASL) Vol.2012 No.1

        Background and Aims: Recently, it has been shown for the overall G1 population that anemia as well as the maximal hemoglobin (Hb) decline during peginterferon/RBV treatment is associated with higher SVR rates. We here investigated whether the maximal Hb decline influences SVR rates in difficult-to-treat patients undergoing Peg2b/RBV therapy for HCV G1 infection in real-life. Methods: Data of patients treated for G1 infection within the German Peg2b/RBV observational study were retrospectively analyzed. In this real-life cohort study G1 infection was treated with Peg2b 1.5 μg/kg/wk + weight-based RBV (800-1200 mg/day) for up to 48 wks at 285 sites. Subjects who discontinued for non-response or for any other reasons were included in the analysis. SVR was defined as undetectable serum HCV-RNA 24 wks after EOT response. Only one patient received erythropoietin treatment for anemia. Results: 1851 patients had baseline and at least one Hb measurement during therapy. Overall SVR rate was 42.6% (789/1851). SVR rates were only slightly higher for subjects with an absolute Hb decline >3 g/dL (44.3%, 493/1114) compared to those with maximum Hb declines <3 g/dL (40.2%, 296/737) (p=0.08). In contrast, a significant (p=0.0004) difference in SVR rates was obtained by comparing subjects with Hb declines >2 g/dL (44.6%, 673/1510) with those who experienced Hb declines <2 g/dL (34.0%, 116/341). Similar SVR rates of 46.1% (164/356) and 44.1% (509/1154) in patients with Hb declines >2 g/dL even if they did/did not become anemic (Hb<10 g/dL) strongly support Hb decline, and not anemia, as primary beneficial mechanism improving SVR. As summarized in the table, Hb declines >2 g/dl were significantly associated with higher SVR rates in difficult-to-treat patients, such as subjects elder than 50 years or subjects with high baseline viral load >600.000 IU/ml. Interestingly no beneficial effect was observed in patients with low platelet count (<150/nL), an indicator of advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis. Patients who first developed a Hb decline >2 g/dL during weeks 0-4 were likely to achieve similar SVR (41.3%, 365/883) than those who developed a Hb decline <2 g/dL (44.9%, 386/859). In contrast, a Hb decline >2 g/dL compared to <2 g/dL during weeks 0-4 was associated with a 2-3 fold higher risk of anemia in female (16.6% vs 40.5%) and male patients (7.3% vs 19.0%) when compared with a Hb decline <2 g/dL. Conclusions: Patients with HCV genotype 1 infection and in particular the subgroup of difficult-to-treat patients elder than 50 years or with HVL, achieve up to 15% higher SVR rates when they develop a Hb decline >2 g/dL during Peg2b/RBV therapy. However, patients with low platelet count <150/nL do not achieve this beneficial virologic effect.

      • HCV, Alcoholic : PE-134 ; Hemoglobin decline during peginterferon Alfa-2B (PEG-2B)/ribavirin (RBV) treatment in real-Life is associated with favorable SVR rates in difficult-to-treat patients with HCV genotype 1 (G1) infection

        ( G Teuber ), ( S Mauss ), ( D Huppe ), ( E Zehnter ), ( M P Manns ), ( T Dahhan6 ), ( U Meyer ), ( T Witthoft ), ( B Moller9 ), ( N Dikopoulos ), ( J Brack ), ( B Stade ), ( M Bilzer ), ( The Bng Hepatitis Study ) 대한간학회 2012 춘·추계 학술대회 (KASL) Vol.2012 No.-

        Background and Aims: Recently, it has been shown for the overall G1 population that anemia as well as the maximal hemoglobin (Hb) decline during peginterferon/RBV treatment is associated with higher SVR rates. We here investigated whether the maximal Hb decline influences SVR rates in difficult-to-treat patients undergoing Peg2b/RBV therapy for HCV G1 infection in real-life. Methods: Data of patients treated for G1 infection within the German Peg2b/RBV observational study were retrospectively analyzed. In this real-life cohort study G1 infection was treated with Peg2b 1.5 μg/kg/wk + weight-based RBV (800-1200 mg/day) for up to 48 wks at 285 sites. Subjects who discontinued for non-response or for any other reasons were included in the analysis. SVR was defined as undetectable serum HCV-RNA 24 wks after EOT response. Only one patient received erythropoietin treatment for anemia. Results: 1851 patients had baseline and at least one Hb measurement during therapy. Overall SVR rate was 42.6% (789/1851). SVR rates were only slightly higher for subjects with an absolute Hb decline >3 g/dL (44.3%, 493/1114) compared to those with maximum Hb declines <3 g/dL (40.2%, 296/737) (p=0.08). In contrast, a significant (p=0.0004) difference in SVR rates was obtained by comparing subjects with Hb declines >2 g/dL (44.6%, 673/1510) with those who experienced Hb declines <2 g/dL (34.0%, 116/341). Similar SVR rates of 46.1% (164/356) and 44.1% (509/1154) in patients with Hb declines >2 g/dL even if they did/did not become anemic (Hb<10 g/dL) strongly support Hb decline, and not anemia, as primary beneficial mechanism improving SVR. As summarized in the table, Hb declines >2 g/dl were significantly associated with higher SVR rates in difficult-to-treat patients, such as subjects elder than 50 years or subjects with high baseline viral load >600.000 IU/ml. Interestingly no beneficial effect was observed in patients with low platelet count (<150/nL), an indicator of advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis. Patients who first developed a Hb decline >2 g/dL during weeks 0-4 were likely to achieve similar SVR (41.3%, 365/883) than those who developed a Hb decline <2 g/dL (44.9%, 386/859). In contrast, a Hb decline >2 g/dL compared to <2 g/dL during weeks 0-4 was associated with a 2-3 fold higher risk of anemia in female (16.6% vs 40.5%) and male patients (7.3% vs 19.0%) when compared with a Hb decline <2 g/dL. Conclusions: Patients with HCV genotype 1 infection and in particular the subgroup of difficult-to-treat patients elder than 50 years or with HVL, achieve up to 15% higher SVR rates when they develop a Hb decline >2 g/dL during Peg2b/RBV therapy. However, patients with low platelet count <150/nL do not achieve this beneficial virologic effect.

      • KCI등재

        Evaluation of the effects of two novel irrigants on intraradicular dentine erosion, debris and smear layer removal

        Melahat,Görduysus,Selen,Küçükkaya,Nursel,Pekel,Bayramgil,Mehmet,Ömer,Görduysus 대한치과보존학회 2015 Restorative Dentistry & Endodontics Vol.40 No.3

        Objectives: To evaluate the effects of copolymer of acrylic acid and maleic acid (Poly[AA-co-MA]) and calcium hypochlorite (Ca(OCl)2) on root canal dentin using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Materials and Methods: Twenty-four singlerooted teeth were instrumented and the apical and coronal thirds of each root were removed, leaving the 5 mm middle thirds, which were then separated into two pieces longitudinally. The specimens were randomly divided into six groups and subjected to each irrigant for 5 min as follows: G1, Ca(OCl)2; G2, Poly(AA-co-MA); G3, Ca(OCl)2 + Poly(AA-co-MA); G4, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl); G5, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA); G6, NaOCl+EDTA. The specimens were prepared for SEM evaluation. Smear layer, debris and erosion scores were recorded by two blinded examiners. One image from G3 was analyzed with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) on suspicion of precipitate formation. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests. Results: G1 and G4 showed the presence of debris and smear layer and they were statistically different from G2, G3, G5 and G6 where debris and smear layer were totally removed (p < 0.05). In G1 and G4, erosion evaluation could not be done because of debris and smear layer. G2, G3 and G5 showed no erosion, and there was no significant difference between them. G6 showed severe erosion and was statistically different from G2, G3 and G5 (p < 0.05). EDS microanalysis showed the presence of Na, P, and Ca elements on the surface. Conclusions: Poly(AA-co-MA) is effective in removing the smear layer and debris without causing erosion either alone or with Ca(OCl)2.

      • KCI등재

        비만에 따른 요통환자의 체중분포와 요부 근력차이에 관한 비교분석

        한길수 ( G. S. Han ), 김건도 ( G. D. Kim ), 임동춘 ( D. C. Lim ) 한국운동생리학회(구-한국운동과학회) 2010 운동과학 Vol.19 No.4

        이 연구의 목적은 비만에 따른 요통환자의 체중분포와 요부 근기능 및 안정화 비율의 차이를 비교·분석하는 데 있다. 서울 강남에 소재한 J병원에 내원한 남성 만성요통환자 60명 중 체질량지수(Body Mass Index: BMI)가 25kg/m² 이상인 G1그룹 30명과 이하인 G2그룹 30명을 대상으로 Tetrax와 MedX를 이용하여 분석한 결과 다음과 같은 결론을 얻었다. 체중분포에서 G1그룹은 왼쪽 발뒤꿈치 1.97%(p>.05), 오른쪽 발뒤꿈치 2.37%에서 높게 나타났고(p>.05), G2그룹에서는 왼쪽 발앞꿈치 2.75%(p>.05), 오른쪽 발앞꿈치 1.97%(p>.05)에서 더 높은 체중이 실리는 것으로 나타났다. 요부 각도별 신전근력에서 G1그룹이 G2그룹에 비해 모든 각도에서 높은 근력을 나타냈고, 0°(p>.05), 12°(p>.05)를 제외한 24°(p<.05), 36°(p<.01), 48°(p<.001), 60°(p<.001), 72°(p<.001)에서 통계적으로 유의한 차이를 나타냈다. 요부 안정화 비율에서는 G1그룹의 경우 2.75+_1.31, G2그룹 2.48+_2.23로 나타났다(p>.05). 결론적으로 요부 각도별 신전근력에서 G1그룹이 G2그룹에 비해 모든 각도에서 근력이 높게 나타냈고. 발의 체중분포에서 G1그룹은 비만에 따른 요추의 전만을 증가시켜 힘의 중심을 더 후방으로 유지하려는 경향을 보이고 있는데, 이는 요부 신전근력의 약화로 이어져 안정화 비율에도 영향을 미치는 것으로 사료된다. This study was aimed to determine the effect for the weight distribution and lumbar extension strength associated with obesity index in male patients of Chronic Low Back Pain. Sixty subjects(obesity group(BMI:25Kg/m2): n=30, non obesity group: n=30) participated on this study. Both group were tested on lumbar extension using by MedX machine. Front heels and back heels were measured twice using by the Tetrax Portable Multiple System. Independent sample t-test was used to analyze the difference between the two groups. Study results showed that the obese back pain group(G1) had more weight loaded on both heels than the normal back pain group(G2), but there was no significant difference between the groups (p>.05). As for the lumbar extension strength at each angle, the obese back pain group appeared higher muscular strength than the normal group at 0°, but was stronger at angles 12°, 24°, 36°, 48°, 60°, and 72°. The ratio of lumbar flexion 72° and 0° angle showed 2.75:1 in G1 group and 2.48:1 in G2 group. Overall, the back pain group of obesity(G1) according to weight distribution tended to maintain their center of force more backwards by increasing the lordosis degree with abdominal distension.

      • KCI우수등재

        Angora 토의 갑상선처리 및 거세방법이 모 및 육생산에 미치는 영향

        박항균 한국축산학회 1969 한국축산학회지 Vol.11 No.1

        This experiment was conducted to determine what is, as a way of improving the wool and meat yield of Angora rabbit, the most effective and newest method among a series of methods of thyroidal treatment and castration, and simultaneously, to investigate how the thyroidal gland and gonads affect independently and jointly on the wool and meat yield of the rabbits. In this experiment which was carried out for 242 days from June 24, 1967 to Feb. 20, 1968, in accordance with 4×4 factorial design, 48 heads of young Angora male rabbits were disposed, at random, into 4 experimental plots (non-thyroidal treatment; unilateral thyroidectomy; iodocasein-feeding: thiouracil-feeding) of thyroidal treatment group and into 4 experimental plots non-castration; partial castration; complete castration; D. E S, implantation; of castration group. It was found in the experiment that the function of thyroidal hormone was necessary for the sprout and growth of wool, and intensity of the hormone function varied in proportion to the secretion amount of the male sex hormone. On the other hand it was also known that the increased energy consumption, which resulted from the abnormally promoted basal metabolism that occurred when the function of the thyroidal hormone was exceedingly intense, caused to decrease the wool and meat yield. Accordingly, it seems that to suppress more or less the male sex hormone's stimulation in the thyroidal gland by way of oppressing the secretion of male sex hormone with partial castration, and to depress slightly the function of thyroidal gland by means of feeding the antithyroidal substance and thyroidectomy are effective measures to accelerate the sprout and growth of wool and to increase the wool and meat yield concurrently. The results are summarized as follows. 1. Significant differences in wool yield were recognized only in the group of thyroidal treatment(p$lt;0.05). Iodocasein-feeding plot showed remarkably low yield. in general the more the rabbit did weigh, the more wool it yielded. Correlation between daily gain and wool yield was highly positive(r=0.80). When a rabbit has fully grown to 3 ㎏ of body weight, it yielded average 420 g of wool-11.7∼15.7% of body weight in a year. Differences of wool yield rate among the plots were net significant, and the rate increased in accordance with daily gain(r=0.450). 2. Wool growth was measured as average 23.7 ㎝ in a year and as 0.65 ㎜ in a day. Differences of wool growth rate were significant among the castration-method plots and among the interaction effects (p$lt;0.05). Thyroidal non-treatment blot showed comparatively high wool growth rate (p$lt;0.05) and the other plots, except D.E.S. implantation plot, also displayed significant wool growth rate. (p$lt;0.01). Especially throidal non-treatment fuil castration plot showed rapid wool growth rate, but thiouracil-feeding × D.E.S. implantation plot exhibited clearly the low rate (p$lt;0.01). It was noticed that the hair grows more rapidly than the wool. Average of fiber fineness was 14.5μ, with the wool and 47.3μ with the hair. Complete castration plot revealed larger number of fiber fineness of wool(16.9μ) than other plots (p$lt;0.05), and non-castration plot and partial castration plot showed also larger number of fiber fineness of hair Than the others being 15.9μ and 51.2μ respectively. In thyroidal treatment group iodocasein-feeding plot displayed larger number of fiber fineness than others (p$lt;0.01). Even in the same wool fiber the fiber fineness varied as the fiber parts differ. The wool fiber started to thicken from the bottom part and it gradually became finer to the middle and then it thickend again at the tip of the fiber (p$lt;0.01). 4. In thyroidal treatment group the most rapid in growth body weight of thiouracil plot was observed. Thiouracil-feeding plot presented average body weight of 2558 g in the 7th month, nevertheless iodocasein-feeding plot displayed manifestly slower growth, it was 2120 g in the same month. Partial castration plots marked the most rapid growth in the castration treatment group, with average 2558 g of body weight, yet the D.E.S. implantation plot showed fairly slow growth(1750 g). Notable daily gains could be found in thyroidal nontreatment plot and thiouracil treatment plot; they revealed 13.2 g and 12.2 g respectively (p$lt;0.05). Iodocasein treatment plots noted less daily gains(9.9 g) than others. Daily gains obtained from partial castration(12.2 g) and from non-castration plot(12.6 g) were generally larger than those from D.E.S. implantation plot (10.6 g) and complete castration plot (11.5 g). 5. Carcass percentage which showed significant differences among the plots were recorded ay 48.3% of average. Higher carcass in thiouracil × D.E.S. implanted Mot (51.8%) was noted in noncastration plot (50.5%) and in partial castration plot (48.5%), on the other hated the lowest carcass percentage (45.7%) was marked in iodocasein-feeding D.E.S. implantation plot. Except iodocasein-feeding plot which showed the lowest dressing percentage of 32.0 (p$lt;0.05), the others marked similarity on their dressing percentage. 6. Pelt weight percentage marked 17.3% as average. Unilateral thyroidectomy × non-castration plot and unilaterial thyroidectomy partial castration plot displayed the least pelt weight percentage of 14.5 and 14.2 respectively (p$lt;0.01), tire other plots showed similarity of percentage each other, except iodocasein-feeding × D.E.S. implantation plot and icdocasein-feeding × partial castration plot which displayed pretty high percentage of 18.7 and 19.8. A negative correlations of peat weight percentage to carcass percent (-0.705**) and dressing percentage (-0.3518) were marked. 7. Average weight of leaf fat was accounted as 9.2 g. Leaf fat had significant relation with thyroidal treatment and castration method (p$lt;0.05). In partial castration plot leaf fat weight was heaviest, 12 g, and in D.E.S. implantation plots it way lightest, 5.5 g (p$lt;0.05). A good more leaf fat was observed also in thiouracil-feeding plot (11.8%), nevertheless a little of the fat observed in iodocasein and D.E.S. 8. Eye-muscle area which showed significant difference among the plots recorded 4.0 ㎝ as average. Unilateral throidectomy enlarged eye-muscle area to 4.2 ㎠, on the contrary iodocasein treatment made it smaller to 3.7 ㎠, (P$lt;0.05). A positive correlations of eye-muscle area to carcass percentage, dressing percentage and leaf fat weight were seen. (r=0.085, r=0.1.72, r=0.124) 9. Feed consumption for per ㎏ of body weight gain, which showed significant difference in the thyroidal treatment group, was revealed on an average as 3.56 ㎏ in iodocasein plot (9.64 ㎏), in thiouracil-feeding plot (7.94 ㎏), and in non-treatment plot (7.29 ㎏), in partial castration plot it was slightly low as of 8.5 ㎏; yet in D.E.S, implantation plot it was pretty high as of 8.5 ㎏, (P$lt;0.05), Particularly, in thyroidal treatment partial castration plot the feed consumption was definitely low. (P$lt;0.01). The correlations of feed consumption to leaf fat and eye-muscle area were negative, marking r=-0.440** and r=-0.124* respectively. 10. Thyroid weight was average 0.1761 g in nonthyxoidectomy plot. In thiouracil-feeding plot it was observed that thyroid increased in its weight to 0.109 g, but in iodocasein-feeding plot it decreased in its weight to 0.1593 g. The thyroid weights, in castration group, which ranged from 0.1508 g to 0.1503 g, were similar each other except the noncastration plot which marked 0.162 g. 11. Thyroidal I^(131) uptake rate was average 9.15% at 48 hours after the injection, when the rate reached maximum degree. The differences of thyroial I^(131) uptake rate among plots was significant (p$lt;0.01). Unilateral thytoidectomy plot marked 15% of the uptake rate, which came to the next place of 13.1% that was marked by nonthytoidal-treatment plot. The lowest 14% of I^(131) uptake rate was presented by iodocasein-feeding plot. Non-castration plot registered 11.6% of I^(131), uptake rate, partial castration plot 9.8% and D.E.S. implantation plot the lowest of 7.5%. Notably non-castration × unilateral thyroidectomy plot, which indicated the highest uptake rate of 18.8% exhibited the most active thyroidal function of thyroid yet the function was depressed by feeding a thyroidal accelerant. 12. Thyroid follicle number within 1 ㎟ registered 197 as average. Iodocasein-feeding plot and thyroidectomy plot demonstrated the largest follicle numbers of 213 and 213 respectively, on the contrary thiouracil-feeding plot displayed the least follicle number of 1% (P$lt;0.01). Complete castration plot showed comparatively smaller follicle number (1.79) (P$lt;0.01). Significant difference of the height of epithelium layer of thyroid follicle among the plots was not found, the average of the height was 4.38μ. 13. Histological change of reproductive gland was observed; the average weight of accessory sex gland marked as 0,1128 g. When rabbits were castrated, significant differences of weight of accessory sex gland were recognized. The weight of accessory sex gland was heavier (0.1591 g) in D.E.S. implantation plot; in complete castration plot and partial castration plot the weight was apparently lighter as of 0.978 g (p$lt;0.01). Especially, the accessory sex gland weight was heaviest (0.1765 g) in thiouracil-feeding × non-castration plot. The diameter of seminiferous tubule was 197.2μ as average. Distinct difference of diameter of seminiferous tubule was not found among the experiment plots, yet difference of epithelium depth in seminiferous tubule among the experiment plots was noted (p$lt;0.01). The epithelium depth was notablly deeper as of 71.2μ in thyroidal non-treatment plot; in the other plots the extent of diameter were similar each other (43.8-50.3μ). In particular, partial castration plot demonstrated very thiner epithelium of seminiferous tubule compared with non-castration plot; the thickness of the layer was measured as 33.6μ in partial castration plot, and as of 35.3%; in the other plots; the figure was similar each other (24.2-26.2%); the average was 20.7%. Remarkably, partial castration plot displayed definitely thiner epithelium with guns a lower rate of 16.4% of epithelium depth, in contrast with this the other plots showed definitely higher rate of 32-33% (p$lt;0.01).

      • RGS Protein Specificity Towards G<sub>q</sub>- and G<sub>i/o</sub>-Mediated ERK 1/2 and Akt Activation, in vitro

        Anger,,Thomas,Klintworth,,Nils,Stumpf,,Christian,Daniel,,Werner,G.,Mende,,Ulrike,Garlichs,,Christoph,D. Korean Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biol 2007 Journal of biochemistry and molecular biology Vol.40 No.6

        Extracellular Regulated Kinases (ERK) and Protein Kinase B (Akt) are intermediaries in relaying extracellular growth signals to intracellular targets. Each pathway can become activated upon stimulation of G protein-coupled receptors mediated by $G_q$ and $G_{i/o}$ proteins subjected to regulation by RGS proteins. The goal of the study was to delineate the specificity in which cardiac RGS proteins modulate $G_{q^-}$ and $G_{i/o}$-induced ERK and Akt phosphorylation. To isolate $G_{q^-}$ and $G_{i/o}$-mediated effects, we exclusively expressed muscarinic $M_2$ or $M_3$ receptors in COS-7 cells. Western blot analyses demonstrated increase of phosphorylation of ERK 1.7-/3.3-fold and Akt 2.4-/6-fold in $M_{2^-}/M_{3^-}$ expressing cells through carbachol stimulation. In co-expressions, $M_3/G_q$-induced activation of Akt was exclusively blunted through RGS3s/RGS3, whereas activation of ERK was inhibited additionally through RGS2/RGS5. $M_2/G_{i/o}$ induced Akt activation was inhibited by all RGS proteins tested. RGS2 had no effect on $M_2/G_{i/o}$-induced ERK activation. The high degree of specificity in RGS proteins-depending modulation of $G_{q^-}$ and $G_{i/o}$-mediated ERK and Akt activation in the muscarinic network cannot merely be attributed exclusively to RGS protein selectivity towards $G_q$ or $G_{i/o}$ proteins. Counter-regulatory mechanisms and inter-signaling cross-talk may alter the sensitivity of GPCR-induced ERK and Akt activation to RGS protein regulation.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Effect of Feeding Cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3G) High Black Rice Bran on Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Measurements, Growth Performance and Pork Quality of Pigs

        Kil,,D.Y.,Ryu,,S.N.,Piao,,L.G.,Kong,,C.S.,Han,,S.J.,Kim,,Y.Y Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2006 Animal Bioscience Vol.19 No.12

        Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of feeding cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3G) high black rice bran on nutrient digestibility, blood measurements, growth performance and pork quality of pigs. In Exp. I, a total of fifteen pigs (19.91${\pm}$1.80 kg, average initial body weight) were used in assay of nutrient digestibility and blood measurements. All pigs were allotted to 5 treatments with 3 replicates according to a completely randomized design (CRD) in an individual metabolic crate. Treatments included 1) CON: basal diet, 2) BRB-2: basal+brown rice bran 2%, 3) BRB-4: basal+brown rice bran 4%, 4) CRB-2: basal+C3G high black rice bran 2% and 5) CRB-4: basal+C3G high black rice bran 4%. The digestibility of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), crude fat (CF), crude ash (CA) and crude fiber (CF) was not affected by dietary treatments. Serum triglyceride (TG) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations were not affected by addition of C3G high black rice bran. However, at the end of experiment, pigs fed rice bran showed decreased tendency in total cholesterol concentration. Especially pigs fed C3G high black rice bran showed significantly lower total cholesterol concentration compared to pigs fed brown rice bran (p<0.03). There was numerically lower total cholesterol concentration with increasing levels of black rice bran in the diet. In terms of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), there were no significant differences among treatments, even though pigs fed CRB-4 showed the lowest GOT concentration compared to other pigs. In Exp. II, sixteen finishing pigs (average initial body weight 89.96${\pm}$0.35 kg) were divided into 4 treatments to investigate the effect of feeding C3G high black rice bran on growth performance and pork quality. There were no significant differences in average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) among the treatments. Pigs fed C3G high black rice bran showed numerical decrease in ADG and increase in FCR while not effecting feed intake. There was no significant difference in live weight, carcass weight, carcass rate, backfat thickness and carcass grade. However, pigs fed C3G high black rice bran tended to show lower backfat thickness than pigs fed basal diet. Pigs fed C3G high black rice bran showed a tendency of decreased TBA value than pigs fed basal diet, although there was no overall significant difference among treatments. In conclusion, nutrient digestibility, blood measurements, growth performance and pork quality were not significantly affected by feeding C3G high black rice bran to pigs. However, C3G high black rice bran might have an effect on lowering serum total cholesterol and decrease the TBA value in pork compared to control group and these effects might be due to high concentration of antioxidative compounds in C3G high black rice bran.

      • KCI등재후보SCOPUS

        Effect of Feeding Cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3G) High Black Rice Bran on Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Measurements, Growth Performance and Pork Quality of Pigs

        D.Y.,Kil,S.N.,Ryu,L.G.,Piao,C.S.,Kong,S.J.,Han,김유용 아세아·태평양축산학회 2006 Animal Bioscience Vol.19 No.12

        Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of feeding cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3G) high black rice bran on nutrient digestibility, blood measurements, growth performance and pork quality of pigs. In Exp. I, a total of fifteen pigs (19.91??.80 kg, average initial body weight) were used in assay of nutrient digestibility and blood measurements. All pigs were allotted to 5 treatments with 3 replicates according to a completely randomized design (CRD) in an individual metabolic crate. Treatments included 1) CON: basal diet, 2) BRB-2: basal+brown rice bran 2%, 3) BRB-4: basal+brown rice bran 4%, 4) CRB-2: basal+C3G high black rice bran 2% and 5) CRB-4: basal+C3G high black rice bran 4%. The digestibility of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), crude fat (CF), crude ash (CA) and crude fiber (CF) was not affected by dietary treatments. Serum triglyceride (TG) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations were not affected by addition of C3G high black rice bran. However, at the end of experiment, pigs fed rice bran showed decreased tendency in total cholesterol concentration. Especially pigs fed C3G high black rice bran showed significantly lower total cholesterol concentration compared to pigs fed brown rice bran (p<0.03). There was numerically lower total cholesterol concentration with increasing levels of black rice bran in the diet. In terms of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), there were no significant differences among treatments, even though pigs fed CRB-4 showed the lowest GOT concentration compared to other pigs. In Exp. II, sixteen finishing pigs (average initial body weight 89.96??.35 kg) were divided into 4 treatments to investigate the effect of feeding C3G high black rice bran on growth performance and pork quality. There were no significant differences in average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) among the treatments. Pigs fed C3G high black rice bran showed numerical decrease in ADG and increase in FCR while not effecting feed intake. There was no significant difference in live weight, carcass weight, carcass rate, backfat thickness and carcass grade. However, pigs fed C3G high black rice bran tended to show lower backfat thickness than pigs fed basal diet. Pigs fed C3G high black rice bran showed a tendency of decreased TBA value than pigs fed basal diet, although there was no overall significant difference among treatments. In conclusion, nutrient digestibility, blood measurements, growth performance and pork quality were not significantly affected by feeding C3G high black rice bran to pigs. However, C3G high black rice bran might have an effect on lowering serum total cholesterol and decrease the TBA value in pork compared to control group and these effects might be due to high concentration of antioxidative compounds in C3G high black rice bran.

      • 변산반도 지역의 미생물 분포

        최용,최영길,송인근,이재춘 漢陽大學校 環境科學硏究所 1993 環境科學論文集 Vol.14 No.-

        변산반도지역의 식생에 따른 토양을 대상으로 토양의 환경요인과 토양 미생물의 군집 규모를 조사하였다. 일반세균은 0.510∼37.95×?? cells/g dried soil의 분포를 보였고 일반균류는 0.285∼30.950×?? cells/g dried soil의 개체군 크기의 차이를 보였다. 토양미생물의 군집규모는 일반세균, 일반균류의 순위로 나타났으며, 섬유소분해미생물에서도 유사한 경향을 나타내었다. 조사대상지역의 pH는 3.5∼8.7로 타지역에 비해 편차가 대부분 산성의 pH를 띠고 있었고 평균치는 6.3이었다. 함수량은 0.90∼14.77%의 범위를 나타냈으며 평균함수율은 7.26%로 타지역에 비해 낮았다. 초유기물량은 2.92∼43.45mg/g dried soil의 편차를 보이며 타지역에 비해 낮은 수준을 보이고 있으며 수용성 당류 및 S/O value 역시 각각 0.004∼0.132mg/g dried soil, 0.00016∼0.01225로 타지역에 비해 낮은 수준을 보였다. The author surveyed around the Byunsan Peninsular and examined both soil environment and microbial distribution. 1) The pH value of experimental area was ranged 3.5∼8.7 and average was 6.3 2) Moisture content was ranaged 0.64∼14.77%(Avg. 7.26%). 3) Total organic matter content per g dried soil was ranged 2.92∼37.45mg/g dried soil(Avg. 22.52mg/g dried soil). 4) The S/O value(amount of free soluble sugar/amount of total organic matter) in soil was ranged 0.00016∼0.01225(Avg. 0.00354). 5) The population size of general bacteria were ranged 0.510∼37.975×?? cells/g dried soil(Avg. 6.609×?? cells/g dried soil) and cellulolytic bacteria were ranged 0.175∼25.967×?? cells per g dried soil )(Avg. 3.218×??cells per g dried soil) 6) The population size of general fungi were ranged 0.285∼30.950×?? cells/g dried soil(Avg. 3.538×?? cells/g dried soil) and cellulolyltic fungi were ranged 0.090∼4.433×?? cells/g dried soil(Avg. 0.723×?? cells/g dried soil). Refering to the level of microbial population size and S/O value, this experimental area seems to be initial step in ecological succession.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Effects of Type and Level of Forage Supplementation on Voluntary Intake, Digestion, Rumen Microbial Protein Synthesis and Growth in Sheep Fed a Basal Diet of Rice Straw and Cassava

        Premaratne,,Sujatha,van,Bruchem,,J.,Chen,,X.B.,Perera,,H.G.D.,Oosting,,S.J. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 1998 Animal Bioscience Vol.11 No.6

        An experiment was conducted with eight growing sheep (average initial weight 20.6 kg and average final weight 23.7 kg) in a $4{\times}4$ Latin square design to study the effect of type of forage supplementation to a basal diet of rice straw (ad libitum) and cassava (Manihot esculanta, approximately 9 g of dry matter $(DM).kg^{-0.75}{\cdot}day^{-1}$) on voluntary intake, digestion, rumen microbial protein synthesis and daily weight gain. Forages used were Leucaena (L, Leucaena leucocephala), Gliricidia (G, Gliricidia maculata) and Tithonia (T, Tithonia diversifolia, wild sunflower) at a DM supplementation level of approximately $13g.kg^{-0.75}.day^{-1}$. Organic matter intake was 40.4, 55.5, 55.0 and $54.9g{\cdot}kg.^{-0.75}{\cdot}day^{-1}$ for control (C, ad libitum straw and cassava), L, G and T. respectively, significantly lower for C than for the supplemented diets. Intake of supplementary forage had also a significantly positive effect on voluntary rice straw intake. All forage supplemented diets showed a significantly higher whole diet organic matter digestion than C ($488g{\cdot}kg^{-1}$), while T ($557g{\cdot}kg^{-1}$) differed significantly from L ($516g{\cdot}kg^{-1}$) but not from G ($526g{\cdot}kg^{-1}$). Daily weight gain was -1.7, 5.2, 5.4 and $4.7g{\cdot}kg^{-0.75}$, for C, L, G and T. respectively, significantly lower for C than for the forage-supplemented diets. Efficiency of microbial protein synthesis estimated from urinary excretion of purine derivatives was lower for C (3.8 g microbial N. (kg digestible organic matter intake $(DOMI))^{-1}$ than for the forage supplemented diets (11.3, 9.0 and 9.4 g microbial $N.(kg\;DOMI)^{-1}$ for L, G and T. respectively).

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