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      • HCV : PE-134 ; Hemoglobin decline during peginterferon Alfa-2B (PEG-2B)/ribavirin (RBV) treatment in real-life is associated with favorable SVR rates in difficult-to-treat patients with HCV genotype 1 (G1) infection

        ( G Teuber ),( S Mauss ),( D Huppe ),( E Zehnter ),( M P Manns ),( T Dahhan ),( U Meyer ),( T Witthoft ),( B Moller ),( N Dikopoulos ),( J Brack ),( B Stade ),( M Bilzer ),( Bng Hepatitis Study Group 대한간학회 2012 춘·추계 학술대회 (KASL) Vol.2012 No.1

        Background and Aims: Recently, it has been shown for the overall G1 population that anemia as well as the maximal hemoglobin (Hb) decline during peginterferon/RBV treatment is associated with higher SVR rates. We here investigated whether the maximal Hb decline influences SVR rates in difficult-to-treat patients undergoing Peg2b/RBV therapy for HCV G1 infection in real-life. Methods: Data of patients treated for G1 infection within the German Peg2b/RBV observational study were retrospectively analyzed. In this real-life cohort study G1 infection was treated with Peg2b 1.5 μg/kg/wk + weight-based RBV (800-1200 mg/day) for up to 48 wks at 285 sites. Subjects who discontinued for non-response or for any other reasons were included in the analysis. SVR was defined as undetectable serum HCV-RNA 24 wks after EOT response. Only one patient received erythropoietin treatment for anemia. Results: 1851 patients had baseline and at least one Hb measurement during therapy. Overall SVR rate was 42.6% (789/1851). SVR rates were only slightly higher for subjects with an absolute Hb decline >3 g/dL (44.3%, 493/1114) compared to those with maximum Hb declines <3 g/dL (40.2%, 296/737) (p=0.08). In contrast, a significant (p=0.0004) difference in SVR rates was obtained by comparing subjects with Hb declines >2 g/dL (44.6%, 673/1510) with those who experienced Hb declines <2 g/dL (34.0%, 116/341). Similar SVR rates of 46.1% (164/356) and 44.1% (509/1154) in patients with Hb declines >2 g/dL even if they did/did not become anemic (Hb<10 g/dL) strongly support Hb decline, and not anemia, as primary beneficial mechanism improving SVR. As summarized in the table, Hb declines >2 g/dl were significantly associated with higher SVR rates in difficult-to-treat patients, such as subjects elder than 50 years or subjects with high baseline viral load >600.000 IU/ml. Interestingly no beneficial effect was observed in patients with low platelet count (<150/nL), an indicator of advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis. Patients who first developed a Hb decline >2 g/dL during weeks 0-4 were likely to achieve similar SVR (41.3%, 365/883) than those who developed a Hb decline <2 g/dL (44.9%, 386/859). In contrast, a Hb decline >2 g/dL compared to <2 g/dL during weeks 0-4 was associated with a 2-3 fold higher risk of anemia in female (16.6% vs 40.5%) and male patients (7.3% vs 19.0%) when compared with a Hb decline <2 g/dL. Conclusions: Patients with HCV genotype 1 infection and in particular the subgroup of difficult-to-treat patients elder than 50 years or with HVL, achieve up to 15% higher SVR rates when they develop a Hb decline >2 g/dL during Peg2b/RBV therapy. However, patients with low platelet count <150/nL do not achieve this beneficial virologic effect.

      • SCIESCOPUS

        Probing the impact of quercetin-7-O-glucoside on influenza virus replication influence

        Gansukh, E.,Kazibwe, Z.,Pandurangan, M.,Judy, G.,Kim, D.H. G. Fischer 2016 Phytomedicine Vol.23 No.9

        <P>Background: Influenza virus is still at large and seriously affects social welfare and health. Dianthus superbus is a well-known medicinal plant widely used in Mongolian and Chinese traditional medicine for anti-inflammatory purposes. Purpose: To investigate the influence of this novel herbal medicinal product over virus infection and virus-induced symptoms Method: Quercetin-7-O-glucoside was isolated by bioassay (anti-influenza)-guided fractionation. The structural elucidation was made with 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Influenza A/Vic/3/75 (H3N2), A/PR/8/34 (H1N1), B/Maryland/1/59 and B/Lee/40 viruses were used for the evaluation of the antiviral activity. Virus-induced reactive oxygen species and autophagy formation levels were studied. The antiviral mechanism was elucidated via time-dependent, pre-, post-incubation assay methods. The viral RNA replication inhibition of Q7G was analyzed using quantitative RT-PCR method. The blocking of polymerase basic protein subunits of influenza viral RNA polymerase by Q7G was detected by in silico molecular docking assays using AutoDock Vina program with m(7)GTP. Additionally, Q7G was tested against M-MuLV RNA polymerase. Results: Q7G was not cytotoxic (CC50 > 100 mu g/ml) in MDCK cells and it showed 3.1 mu g/ml, 6.61 mu g/ml, 8.19 mu g/ml and 5.17 mu g/ml IC50 values against influenza A/PR/8/34, A/Vic/3/75, B/Lee/40 and B/Maryland/1/59 virus strains, respectively. Treatment of Q7G highly reduced ROS and autophagy formation induced by influenza virus infection. Q7G did not reduce NA activity and did not directly interact with the virus particles. Since viral RNA synthesis was blocked by treatment of Q7G. We targeted viral RNA polymerase for further probing. Interestingly, the binding energy of Q7G on viral PB2 protein was -9.1 kcal/mol and was higher than m(7)GTP recorded as -7.5 kcal/mol. It also was observe to block M-MuLV RNA polymerase. Conclusion: Isolated compound Q7G showed strong inhibition activity against influenza A and B viruses. It also reduced virus-induced ROS and autophagy formation. Q7G does not directly bind to the virus particles and did not affect NA activity. These results indicated that Q7G inhibits viral RNA polymerase, and that it occupies the binding site of m(7)GTP on viral PB2 protein. (C) 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.</P>

      • HCV, Alcoholic : PE-134 ; Hemoglobin decline during peginterferon Alfa-2B (PEG-2B)/ribavirin (RBV) treatment in real-Life is associated with favorable SVR rates in difficult-to-treat patients with HCV genotype 1 (G1) infection

        ( G Teuber ),( S Mauss ),( D Huppe ),( E Zehnter ),( M P Manns ),( T Dahhan6 ),( U Meyer ),( T Witthoft ),( B Moller9,),( N Dikopoulos ),( J Brack ),( B Stade ),( M Bilzer ),( The Bng Hepatitis Study 대한간학회 2012 춘·추계 학술대회 (KASL) Vol.2012 No.-

        Background and Aims: Recently, it has been shown for the overall G1 population that anemia as well as the maximal hemoglobin (Hb) decline during peginterferon/RBV treatment is associated with higher SVR rates. We here investigated whether the maximal Hb decline influences SVR rates in difficult-to-treat patients undergoing Peg2b/RBV therapy for HCV G1 infection in real-life. Methods: Data of patients treated for G1 infection within the German Peg2b/RBV observational study were retrospectively analyzed. In this real-life cohort study G1 infection was treated with Peg2b 1.5 μg/kg/wk + weight-based RBV (800-1200 mg/day) for up to 48 wks at 285 sites. Subjects who discontinued for non-response or for any other reasons were included in the analysis. SVR was defined as undetectable serum HCV-RNA 24 wks after EOT response. Only one patient received erythropoietin treatment for anemia. Results: 1851 patients had baseline and at least one Hb measurement during therapy. Overall SVR rate was 42.6% (789/1851). SVR rates were only slightly higher for subjects with an absolute Hb decline >3 g/dL (44.3%, 493/1114) compared to those with maximum Hb declines <3 g/dL (40.2%, 296/737) (p=0.08). In contrast, a significant (p=0.0004) difference in SVR rates was obtained by comparing subjects with Hb declines >2 g/dL (44.6%, 673/1510) with those who experienced Hb declines <2 g/dL (34.0%, 116/341). Similar SVR rates of 46.1% (164/356) and 44.1% (509/1154) in patients with Hb declines >2 g/dL even if they did/did not become anemic (Hb<10 g/dL) strongly support Hb decline, and not anemia, as primary beneficial mechanism improving SVR. As summarized in the table, Hb declines >2 g/dl were significantly associated with higher SVR rates in difficult-to-treat patients, such as subjects elder than 50 years or subjects with high baseline viral load >600.000 IU/ml. Interestingly no beneficial effect was observed in patients with low platelet count (<150/nL), an indicator of advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis. Patients who first developed a Hb decline >2 g/dL during weeks 0-4 were likely to achieve similar SVR (41.3%, 365/883) than those who developed a Hb decline <2 g/dL (44.9%, 386/859). In contrast, a Hb decline >2 g/dL compared to <2 g/dL during weeks 0-4 was associated with a 2-3 fold higher risk of anemia in female (16.6% vs 40.5%) and male patients (7.3% vs 19.0%) when compared with a Hb decline <2 g/dL. Conclusions: Patients with HCV genotype 1 infection and in particular the subgroup of difficult-to-treat patients elder than 50 years or with HVL, achieve up to 15% higher SVR rates when they develop a Hb decline >2 g/dL during Peg2b/RBV therapy. However, patients with low platelet count <150/nL do not achieve this beneficial virologic effect.

      • SCISCIESCOPUS

        Gα<sub>12</sub> gep oncogene deregulation of p53-responsive microRNAs promotes epithelial–mesenchymal transition of hepatocellular carcinoma

        Yang, Y M,Lee, W H,Lee, C G,An, J,Kim, E-S,Kim, S H,Lee, S-K,Lee, C H,Dhanasekaran, D N,Moon, A,Hwang, S,Lee, S J,Park, J-W,Kim, K M,Kim, S G Macmillan Publishers Limited 2015 Oncogene Vol.34 No.22

        Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has a poor prognosis owing to aggressive phenotype. Gα<SUB>12</SUB> gep oncogene product couples to G-protein-coupled receptors, whose ligand levels are frequently increased in tumor microenvironments. Here, we report Gα<SUB>12</SUB> overexpression in human HCC and the resultant induction of zinc-finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) as mediated by microRNA deregulation. Gα<SUB>12</SUB> expression was higher in HCC than surrounding non-tumorous tissue. Transfection of Huh7 cell with an activated mutant of Gα<SUB>12</SUB> (Gα<SUB>12</SUB>QL) deregulated microRNA (miRNA or miR)-200b/a/429, -194-2/192 and -194-1/215 clusters in the miRNome. cDNA microarray analyses disclosed the targets affected by Gα<SUB>12</SUB> gene knockout. An integrative network of miRNAs and mRNA changes enabled us to predict ZEB1 as a key molecule governed by Gα<SUB>12</SUB>. Decreases of miR-200a/b, -192 and -215 by Gα<SUB>12</SUB> caused ZEB1 induction. The ability of Gα<SUB>12</SUB> to decrease p53 levels, as a result of activating protein-1 (AP-1)/c-Jun-mediated mouse double minute 2 homolog induction, contributed to transcriptional deregulation of the miRNAs. Gα<SUB>12</SUB>QL induced ZEB1 and other epithelial–mesenchymal transition markers with fibroblastoid phenotype change. Consistently, transfection with miR-200b, -192 or -215 mimic prevented the ability of Gα<SUB>12</SUB>QL to increase tumor cell migration/invasion. In xenograft studies, sustained knockdown of Gα<SUB>12</SUB> decreased the overall growth rate and average volume of tumors derived from SK-Hep1 cell (mesenchymal-typed). In HCC patients, miR-192, -215 and/or -200a were deregulated with microvascular invasion or growth advantage. In the HCC samples with higher Gα<SUB>12</SUB> level, a correlation existed in the comparison of relative changes of Gα<SUB>12</SUB> and ZEB1. In conclusion, Gα<SUB>12</SUB> overexpressed in HCC causes ZEB1 induction by deregulating p53-responsive miRNAs, which may facilitate epithelial–mesenchymal transition and growth of liver tumor. These findings highlight the significance of Gα<SUB>12</SUB> upregulation in liver tumor progression, implicating Gα<SUB>12</SUB> as an attractive therapeutic target.

      • KCI등재

        Evaluation of the effects of two novel irrigants on intraradicular dentine erosion, debris and smear layer removal

        Melahat Görduysus,Selen Küçükkaya,Nursel Pekel Bayramgil,Mehmet Ömer Görduysus 대한치과보존학회 2015 Restorative Dentistry & Endodontics Vol.40 No.3

        Objectives: To evaluate the effects of copolymer of acrylic acid and maleic acid (Poly[AA-co-MA]) and calcium hypochlorite (Ca(OCl)2) on root canal dentin using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Materials and Methods: Twenty-four singlerooted teeth were instrumented and the apical and coronal thirds of each root were removed, leaving the 5 mm middle thirds, which were then separated into two pieces longitudinally. The specimens were randomly divided into six groups and subjected to each irrigant for 5 min as follows: G1, Ca(OCl)2; G2, Poly(AA-co-MA); G3, Ca(OCl)2 + Poly(AA-co-MA); G4, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl); G5, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA); G6, NaOCl+EDTA. The specimens were prepared for SEM evaluation. Smear layer, debris and erosion scores were recorded by two blinded examiners. One image from G3 was analyzed with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) on suspicion of precipitate formation. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests. Results: G1 and G4 showed the presence of debris and smear layer and they were statistically different from G2, G3, G5 and G6 where debris and smear layer were totally removed (p < 0.05). In G1 and G4, erosion evaluation could not be done because of debris and smear layer. G2, G3 and G5 showed no erosion, and there was no significant difference between them. G6 showed severe erosion and was statistically different from G2, G3 and G5 (p < 0.05). EDS microanalysis showed the presence of Na, P, and Ca elements on the surface. Conclusions: Poly(AA-co-MA) is effective in removing the smear layer and debris without causing erosion either alone or with Ca(OCl)2.

      • KCI등재

        비만에 따른 요통환자의 체중분포와 요부 근력차이에 관한 비교분석

        한길수 ( G. S. Han ),김건도 ( G. D. Kim ),임동춘 ( D. C. Lim ) 한국운동생리학회(구-한국운동과학회) 2010 운동과학 Vol.19 No.4

        이 연구의 목적은 비만에 따른 요통환자의 체중분포와 요부 근기능 및 안정화 비율의 차이를 비교·분석하는 데 있다. 서울 강남에 소재한 J병원에 내원한 남성 만성요통환자 60명 중 체질량지수(Body Mass Index: BMI)가 25kg/m² 이상인 G1그룹 30명과 이하인 G2그룹 30명을 대상으로 Tetrax와 MedX를 이용하여 분석한 결과 다음과 같은 결론을 얻었다. 체중분포에서 G1그룹은 왼쪽 발뒤꿈치 1.97%(p>.05), 오른쪽 발뒤꿈치 2.37%에서 높게 나타났고(p>.05), G2그룹에서는 왼쪽 발앞꿈치 2.75%(p>.05), 오른쪽 발앞꿈치 1.97%(p>.05)에서 더 높은 체중이 실리는 것으로 나타났다. 요부 각도별 신전근력에서 G1그룹이 G2그룹에 비해 모든 각도에서 높은 근력을 나타냈고, 0°(p>.05), 12°(p>.05)를 제외한 24°(p<.05), 36°(p<.01), 48°(p<.001), 60°(p<.001), 72°(p<.001)에서 통계적으로 유의한 차이를 나타냈다. 요부 안정화 비율에서는 G1그룹의 경우 2.75+_1.31, G2그룹 2.48+_2.23로 나타났다(p>.05). 결론적으로 요부 각도별 신전근력에서 G1그룹이 G2그룹에 비해 모든 각도에서 근력이 높게 나타냈고. 발의 체중분포에서 G1그룹은 비만에 따른 요추의 전만을 증가시켜 힘의 중심을 더 후방으로 유지하려는 경향을 보이고 있는데, 이는 요부 신전근력의 약화로 이어져 안정화 비율에도 영향을 미치는 것으로 사료된다. This study was aimed to determine the effect for the weight distribution and lumbar extension strength associated with obesity index in male patients of Chronic Low Back Pain. Sixty subjects(obesity group(BMI:25Kg/m2): n=30, non obesity group: n=30) participated on this study. Both group were tested on lumbar extension using by MedX machine. Front heels and back heels were measured twice using by the Tetrax Portable Multiple System. Independent sample t-test was used to analyze the difference between the two groups. Study results showed that the obese back pain group(G1) had more weight loaded on both heels than the normal back pain group(G2), but there was no significant difference between the groups (p>.05). As for the lumbar extension strength at each angle, the obese back pain group appeared higher muscular strength than the normal group at 0°, but was stronger at angles 12°, 24°, 36°, 48°, 60°, and 72°. The ratio of lumbar flexion 72° and 0° angle showed 2.75:1 in G1 group and 2.48:1 in G2 group. Overall, the back pain group of obesity(G1) according to weight distribution tended to maintain their center of force more backwards by increasing the lordosis degree with abdominal distension.

      • KCI우수등재

        Angora 토의 갑상선처리 및 거세방법이 모 및 육생산에 미치는 영향

        박항균 한국축산학회 1969 한국축산학회지 Vol.11 No.1

        This experiment was conducted to determine what is, as a way of improving the wool and meat yield of Angora rabbit, the most effective and newest method among a series of methods of thyroidal treatment and castration, and simultaneously, to investigate how the thyroidal gland and gonads affect independently and jointly on the wool and meat yield of the rabbits. In this experiment which was carried out for 242 days from June 24, 1967 to Feb. 20, 1968, in accordance with 4×4 factorial design, 48 heads of young Angora male rabbits were disposed, at random, into 4 experimental plots (non-thyroidal treatment; unilateral thyroidectomy; iodocasein-feeding: thiouracil-feeding) of thyroidal treatment group and into 4 experimental plots non-castration; partial castration; complete castration; D. E S, implantation; of castration group. It was found in the experiment that the function of thyroidal hormone was necessary for the sprout and growth of wool, and intensity of the hormone function varied in proportion to the secretion amount of the male sex hormone. On the other hand it was also known that the increased energy consumption, which resulted from the abnormally promoted basal metabolism that occurred when the function of the thyroidal hormone was exceedingly intense, caused to decrease the wool and meat yield. Accordingly, it seems that to suppress more or less the male sex hormone's stimulation in the thyroidal gland by way of oppressing the secretion of male sex hormone with partial castration, and to depress slightly the function of thyroidal gland by means of feeding the antithyroidal substance and thyroidectomy are effective measures to accelerate the sprout and growth of wool and to increase the wool and meat yield concurrently. The results are summarized as follows. 1. Significant differences in wool yield were recognized only in the group of thyroidal treatment(p$lt;0.05). Iodocasein-feeding plot showed remarkably low yield. in general the more the rabbit did weigh, the more wool it yielded. Correlation between daily gain and wool yield was highly positive(r=0.80). When a rabbit has fully grown to 3 ㎏ of body weight, it yielded average 420 g of wool-11.7∼15.7% of body weight in a year. Differences of wool yield rate among the plots were net significant, and the rate increased in accordance with daily gain(r=0.450). 2. Wool growth was measured as average 23.7 ㎝ in a year and as 0.65 ㎜ in a day. Differences of wool growth rate were significant among the castration-method plots and among the interaction effects (p$lt;0.05). Thyroidal non-treatment blot showed comparatively high wool growth rate (p$lt;0.05) and the other plots, except D.E.S. implantation plot, also displayed significant wool growth rate. (p$lt;0.01). Especially throidal non-treatment fuil castration plot showed rapid wool growth rate, but thiouracil-feeding × D.E.S. implantation plot exhibited clearly the low rate (p$lt;0.01). It was noticed that the hair grows more rapidly than the wool. Average of fiber fineness was 14.5μ, with the wool and 47.3μ with the hair. Complete castration plot revealed larger number of fiber fineness of wool(16.9μ) than other plots (p$lt;0.05), and non-castration plot and partial castration plot showed also larger number of fiber fineness of hair Than the others being 15.9μ and 51.2μ respectively. In thyroidal treatment group iodocasein-feeding plot displayed larger number of fiber fineness than others (p$lt;0.01). Even in the same wool fiber the fiber fineness varied as the fiber parts differ. The wool fiber started to thicken from the bottom part and it gradually became finer to the middle and then it thickend again at the tip of the fiber (p$lt;0.01). 4. In thyroidal treatment group the most rapid in growth body weight of thiouracil plot was observed. Thiouracil-feeding plot presented average body weight of 2558 g in the 7th month, nevertheless iodocasein-feeding plot displayed manifestly slower growth, it was 2120 g in the same month. Partial castration plots marked the most rapid growth in the castration treatment group, with average 2558 g of body weight, yet the D.E.S. implantation plot showed fairly slow growth(1750 g). Notable daily gains could be found in thyroidal nontreatment plot and thiouracil treatment plot; they revealed 13.2 g and 12.2 g respectively (p$lt;0.05). Iodocasein treatment plots noted less daily gains(9.9 g) than others. Daily gains obtained from partial castration(12.2 g) and from non-castration plot(12.6 g) were generally larger than those from D.E.S. implantation plot (10.6 g) and complete castration plot (11.5 g). 5. Carcass percentage which showed significant differences among the plots were recorded ay 48.3% of average. Higher carcass in thiouracil × D.E.S. implanted Mot (51.8%) was noted in noncastration plot (50.5%) and in partial castration plot (48.5%), on the other hated the lowest carcass percentage (45.7%) was marked in iodocasein-feeding D.E.S. implantation plot. Except iodocasein-feeding plot which showed the lowest dressing percentage of 32.0 (p$lt;0.05), the others marked similarity on their dressing percentage. 6. Pelt weight percentage marked 17.3% as average. Unilateral thyroidectomy × non-castration plot and unilaterial thyroidectomy partial castration plot displayed the least pelt weight percentage of 14.5 and 14.2 respectively (p$lt;0.01), tire other plots showed similarity of percentage each other, except iodocasein-feeding × D.E.S. implantation plot and icdocasein-feeding × partial castration plot which displayed pretty high percentage of 18.7 and 19.8. A negative correlations of peat weight percentage to carcass percent (-0.705**) and dressing percentage (-0.3518) were marked. 7. Average weight of leaf fat was accounted as 9.2 g. Leaf fat had significant relation with thyroidal treatment and castration method (p$lt;0.05). In partial castration plot leaf fat weight was heaviest, 12 g, and in D.E.S. implantation plots it way lightest, 5.5 g (p$lt;0.05). A good more leaf fat was observed also in thiouracil-feeding plot (11.8%), nevertheless a little of the fat observed in iodocasein and D.E.S. 8. Eye-muscle area which showed significant difference among the plots recorded 4.0 ㎝ as average. Unilateral throidectomy enlarged eye-muscle area to 4.2 ㎠, on the contrary iodocasein treatment made it smaller to 3.7 ㎠, (P$lt;0.05). A positive correlations of eye-muscle area to carcass percentage, dressing percentage and leaf fat weight were seen. (r=0.085, r=0.1.72, r=0.124) 9. Feed consumption for per ㎏ of body weight gain, which showed significant difference in the thyroidal treatment group, was revealed on an average as 3.56 ㎏ in iodocasein plot (9.64 ㎏), in thiouracil-feeding plot (7.94 ㎏), and in non-treatment plot (7.29 ㎏), in partial castration plot it was slightly low as of 8.5 ㎏; yet in D.E.S, implantation plot it was pretty high as of 8.5 ㎏, (P$lt;0.05), Particularly, in thyroidal treatment partial castration plot the feed consumption was definitely low. (P$lt;0.01). The correlations of feed consumption to leaf fat and eye-muscle area were negative, marking r=-0.440** and r=-0.124* respectively. 10. Thyroid weight was average 0.1761 g in nonthyxoidectomy plot. In thiouracil-feeding plot it was observed that thyroid increased in its weight to 0.109 g, but in iodocasein-feeding plot it decreased in its weight to 0.1593 g. The thyroid weights, in castration group, which ranged from 0.1508 g to 0.1503 g, were similar each other except the noncastration plot which marked 0.162 g. 11. Thyroidal I^(131) uptake rate was average 9.15% at 48 hours after the injection, when the rate reached maximum degree. The differences of thyroial I^(131) uptake rate among plots was significant (p$lt;0.01). Unilateral thytoidectomy plot marked 15% of the uptake rate, which came to the next place of 13.1% that was marked by nonthytoidal-treatment plot. The lowest 14% of I^(131) uptake rate was presented by iodocasein-feeding plot. Non-castration plot registered 11.6% of I^(131), uptake rate, partial castration plot 9.8% and D.E.S. implantation plot the lowest of 7.5%. Notably non-castration × unilateral thyroidectomy plot, which indicated the highest uptake rate of 18.8% exhibited the most active thyroidal function of thyroid yet the function was depressed by feeding a thyroidal accelerant. 12. Thyroid follicle number within 1 ㎟ registered 197 as average. Iodocasein-feeding plot and thyroidectomy plot demonstrated the largest follicle numbers of 213 and 213 respectively, on the contrary thiouracil-feeding plot displayed the least follicle number of 1% (P$lt;0.01). Complete castration plot showed comparatively smaller follicle number (1.79) (P$lt;0.01). Significant difference of the height of epithelium layer of thyroid follicle among the plots was not found, the average of the height was 4.38μ. 13. Histological change of reproductive gland was observed; the average weight of accessory sex gland marked as 0,1128 g. When rabbits were castrated, significant differences of weight of accessory sex gland were recognized. The weight of accessory sex gland was heavier (0.1591 g) in D.E.S. implantation plot; in complete castration plot and partial castration plot the weight was apparently lighter as of 0.978 g (p$lt;0.01). Especially, the accessory sex gland weight was heaviest (0.1765 g) in thiouracil-feeding × non-castration plot. The diameter of seminiferous tubule was 197.2μ as average. Distinct difference of diameter of seminiferous tubule was not found among the experiment plots, yet difference of epithelium depth in seminiferous tubule among the experiment plots was noted (p$lt;0.01). The epithelium depth was notablly deeper as of 71.2μ in thyroidal non-treatment plot; in the other plots the extent of diameter were similar each other (43.8-50.3μ). In particular, partial castration plot demonstrated very thiner epithelium of seminiferous tubule compared with non-castration plot; the thickness of the layer was measured as 33.6μ in partial castration plot, and as of 35.3%; in the other plots; the figure was similar each other (24.2-26.2%); the average was 20.7%. Remarkably, partial castration plot displayed definitely thiner epithelium with guns a lower rate of 16.4% of epithelium depth, in contrast with this the other plots showed definitely higher rate of 32-33% (p$lt;0.01).

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        Characteristic polynomial of a generalized complete product of matrices

        Hwang, S.G.,Park, J.W. North Holland [etc.] 2011 Linear algebra and its applications Vol.434 No.5

        For a simple graph G, let G@? denote the complement of G relative to the complete graph and let P<SUB>G</SUB>(x)=det(xI-A(G)) where A(G) denotes the adjacency matrix of G. The complete product G@?H of two simple graphs G and H is the graph obtained from G and H by joining every vertex of G to every vertex of H. In [2]P<SUB>G@?H</SUB>(x) is represented in terms of P<SUB>G</SUB>, P<SUB>G@?</SUB>, P<SUB>H</SUB> and P<SUB>H@?</SUB>. In this paper we extend the notion of complete product of simple graphs to that of generalized complete product of matrices and obtain their characteristic polynomials.

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        Injective colorings of sparse graphs

        Cranston, D.W.,Kim, S.J.,Yu, G. North-Holland Pub. Co ; Elsevier Science Ltd 2010 Discrete mathematics Vol.310 No.21

        Let mad(G) denote the maximum average degree (over all subgraphs) of G and let χ<SUB>i</SUB>(G) denote the injective chromatic number of G. We prove that if mad(G)@?52, then χ<SUB>i</SUB>(G)@?Δ(G)+1; and if mad(G)<4219, then χ<SUB>i</SUB>(G)=Δ(G). Suppose that G is a planar graph with girth g(G) and Δ(G)>=4. We prove that if g(G)>=9, then χ<SUB>i</SUB>(G)@?Δ(G)+1; similarly, if g(G)>=13, then χ<SUB>i</SUB>(G)=Δ(G).

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        The gep oncogenes, Gα<sub>12</sub> and Gα<sub>13</sub>, upregulate the transforming growth factor-β1 gene

        Lee, S J,Yang, J W,Cho, I J,Kim, W D,Cho, M K,Lee, C H,Kim, S G Macmillan Publishers Limited 2009 Oncogene Vol.28 No.9

        Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1) plays a role in neoplastic transformation and transdifferentiation. Gα<SUB>12</SUB> and Gα<SUB>13</SUB>, referred to as the gep oncogenes, stimulate mitogenic pathways. Nonetheless, no information is available regarding their roles in the regulation of the TGFβ1 gene and the molecules linking them to gene transcription. Knockdown or knockout experiments using murine embryonic fibroblasts and hepatic stellate cells indicated that a Gα<SUB>12</SUB> and Gα<SUB>13</SUB> deficiency reduced constitutive, auto-stimulatory or thrombin-inducible TGFβ1 gene expression. In contrast, transfection of activated mutants of Gα<SUB>12</SUB> and Gα<SUB>13</SUB> enabled the knockout cells to promote TGFβ1 induction. A promoter deletion analysis suggested that activating protein 1 (AP-1) plays a role in TGFβ1 gene transactivation, which was corroborated by the observation that a deficiency of the G-proteins decreased the AP-1 activity, whereas their activation enhanced it. Moreover, mutation of the AP-1-binding site abrogated the ability of Gα<SUB>12</SUB> and Gα<SUB>13</SUB> to induce the TGFβ1 gene. Transfection of a dominant-negative mutant of Rho or Rac, but not Cdc42, prevented gene transactivation and decreased AP-1 activity downstream of Gα<SUB>12</SUB> and Gα<SUB>13</SUB>. In summary, Gα<SUB>12</SUB> and Gα<SUB>13</SUB> regulate the expression of the TGFβ1 gene through an increase in Rho/Rac-dependent AP-1 activity, implying that the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-Gα<SUB>12</SUB> pathway is involved in the TGFβ1-mediated transdifferentiation process.Oncogene (2009) 28, 1230–1240; doi:10.1038/onc.2008.488; published online 19 January 2009

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