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      • Enumerating typical abelian prime-fold coverings of a circulant graph

        Feng,,R.,Kwak,,J.H.,Kwon,,Y.S. North-Holland Pub. Co ; Elsevier Science Ltd 2009 Discrete mathematics Vol.309 No.8

        Enumerating the isomorphism classes of several types of graph coverings is one of the central research topics in enumerative topological graph theory (see [R. Feng, J.H. Kwak, J. Kim, J. Lee, Isomorphism classes of concrete graph coverings, SIAM J. Discrete Math. 11 (1998) 265-272; R. Feng, J.H. Kwak, Typical circulant double coverings of a circulant graph, Discrete Math. 277 (2004) 73-85; R. Feng, J.H. Kwak, Y.S. Kwon, Enumerating typical circulant covering projections onto a circulant graph, SIAM J. Discrete Math. 19 (2005) 196-207; SIAM J. Discrete Math. 21 (2007) 548-550 (erratum); M. Hofmeister, Graph covering projections arising from finite vector spaces over finite fields, Discrete Math. 143 (1995) 87-97; M. Hofmeister, Enumeration of concrete regular covering projections, SIAM J. Discrete Math. 8 (1995) 51-61; M. Hofmeister, A note on counting connected graph covering projections, SIAM J. Discrete Math. 11 (1998) 286-292; J.H. Kwak, J. Chun, J. Lee, Enumeration of regular graph coverings having finite abelian covering transformation groups, SIAM J. Discrete Math. 11 (1998) 273-285; J.H. Kwak, J. Lee, Isomorphism classes of graph bundles, Canad. J. Math. XLII (1990) 747-761]). A covering is called abelian (or circulant, respectively) if its covering graph is a Cayley graph on an abelian (or a cyclic, respectively) group. A covering p from a Cayley graph Cay(A,X) onto another Cay (Q,Y) is called typical if the map p:A->Q on the vertex sets is a group epimorphism. Recently, the isomorphism classes of connected typical circulant r-fold coverings of a circulant graph are enumerated in [R. Feng, J.H. Kwak, Typical circulant double coverings of a circulant graph, Discrete Math. 277 (2004) 73-85] for r=2 and in [R. Feng, J.H. Kwak, Y.S. Kwon, Enumerating typical circulant covering projections onto a circulant graph, SIAM J. Discrete Math. 19 (2005) 196-207; SIAM J. Discrete Math. 21 (2007) 548-550 (erratum)] for any r. As a continuation of these works, we enumerate in this paper the isomorphism classes of typical abelian prime-fold coverings of a circulant graph.

      • KCI등재

        한국잔디 수집계통들 중에서 우수계통들의 생육특성 비교

        임용우(Y. W. Rim), 김기용(K. Y. Kim), 김맹중(M. J. Kim), 성병렬(B. R. Sung), 임영철(Y. C. Lim), 정의수(E. S. Chung), 신홍균(H. K. Shin), 김용선(Y. S. Kim) 한국잡초학회·한국잔디학회 2003 Weed & Turfgrass Science Vol.17 No.2,3

        2001년 수집된 한국잔디 133계통들 중에서 우수한 계통들을 선발하기위하여 밀도(품질),<br/> 피복성, 녹색기간, 내병성, 출수유무(종자수) 등의 주요특성과 그 외 생육특성들이 조사되었다. 생육특성이 우수한 6계통이 선발되었으며 그 결과를 요약하면 다음과 같다.<br/> 수집된 133계통들 중에서 가장 녹색기간이긴 계통은 J01067으로 11월초까지 녹색도를 유지하였다. J01106 및 J01129 계통들은 엽폭이 각각 1.5mm 및 2mm 정도로 매우 좁으며, 밀도가 높고, 피복성도 좋은 것으로 나타났으며, 내병성도 강하였다. J01122 계통은 들잔디 계통들 중에서 유일하게 내병성이 강한 계통으로 선발되었다. J01128 계통은 엽폭이 3.2mm로 중엽에 속하였으며, 대비품종인 Sunburst 와 비슷하였다. 이 계통의 경우도J01106, J01129 계통들과 마찬가지로 밀도가 높고 내병성이 강한 것으로 나타났다.<br/> 수집된 133계통들의 형태적 분류를 위하여 5가지의 생육특성을 사용하여 크게 세가지 군집<br/> 으로 분류하였으며, 그 중에서 대비품종으로 사용된 6품종들과 선발된 우수 6계통의 분류는<br/> 다음과 같다. 제 1군집에 속하는 품종 및 계통은 Belare, Meyer, 안양중지(Anyang-jungji), J01067, J01112 등이 포함되었으며, 제 2군집으로는 S-94, J01105가 포함되었고, 제 3군집에는 Sunburst, 건희(Konhee), J01106, J01128, J01129 등이 포함되었다. Growth characteristics such as density(quality), covering speed, green period, disease resistance, heading existence(number of seeds) and other characteristics were examined for selection of superior lines among the 133 zoysiagrass lines collected in 2001. Six superior lines were selected and the results were summarized as follows.<br/> Superior line, J01067 was longest for green period among the 133 zoysiagrasses and stayed green until the beginning of November. Leaf width of J01106 and J01129 lines was very narrow as 1.5㎜ and 2㎜, respectively and superior for density(quality), covering speed and disease resistance. J01122 line was selected for strongest disease resistance among the lines of Zoysia japonica. Leaf width of J01128 was 3.2㎜ showing midium type and similar to standard cultivar, Sunburst. This line also showed higher density and strong disease resistance like J01106 and J01129.<br/> Five growth characteristics for morphological classification of 133 zoysiagrass lines<br/> was used and divided into 3 cluster groups. Of 133 lines, 6 standard cultivars and 6 superior lines were classified as follows. First cluster group contained Belare, Meyer, Anyang-jungji, J01067, J01122, and second group contained S-94 and J01105, and third group contained Sunburst, Konhee, J01106, J01128 and J01129.<br/> <br/>

      • KCI등재후보

        Affirmer la Résurrection de Jésus-Christ

        H.-J.Gagey 한국가톨릭신학학회 2009 가톨릭신학 Vol.0 No.14

        Cet article esquisse une réflexion systématique sur l'affirmation de la résurrection de Jésus en personne en tant qu'elle réclame le dépassement d'une conception «réifiée» de la Révélation selon laquelle on oppose sans les relier vraiment les faits révélés (la fides quae) et leur appropriation personnelle par les fidèles (la fides qua). Il commence par le rappel de trois principes fondamentaux : 1. Avec la résurrection commence la foi chrétienne qui n'est pas essentiellement adhésion à un code moral ou à un principe théologique abstrait mais confession de l'événement historique de la résurrection du crucifié en lequel le Dieu Père scelle la nouvelle Alliance avec les nations. 2. Selon le Nouveau Testament, jamais la résurrection n'est présentée comme un fait « objectivement » constatable sans la participation de l'homme dans sa foi. Elle est un événement «sans analogie», distinct de tout ce qu'on peut lire comme récits de «réanimation» dans l'Ancien Testament ou dans la littérature religieuse mondiale. Toute recherche de preuve, toute tentative pour rendre vraisemblables nos récits et témoignages doivent donc être exclues. 3. La foi en la résurrection s'évanouit si, à la suite des apôtres qui ont cru voir Jésus vivant, elle ne comporte l'affirmation résolue de l'existence ressuscitée de Jésus en personne. L'article se poursuit par une réflexion épistémologique : si la résurrection est un événement historique accessible seulement à la foi, il faut rompre avec une théorie de la connaissance viciée par l'objectivisme naïf. Sur la base d'une analogie avec les sciences de l'observation, l'article montre alors que, selon le mot de l'apôtre, la foi en la résurrection naît par l'écoute de la parole. Seule en effet la parole ouvre les yeux empêchés de voir la vérité de la Vie telle qu'elle se manifeste dans l a venue, la mort et la résurrection de Jésus. L'article engage alors pour finir un parcours existentiel destiné à faire éprouver au lecteur de quelle nature est la Vérité qui s'expose dans la destinée de Jésus et sur laquelle la foi prend position en affirmant qu'Il est vivant. Cet article esquisse une réflexion systématique sur l'affirmation de la résurrection de Jésus en personne en tant qu'elle réclame le dépassement d'une conception «réifiée» de la Révélation selon laquelle on oppose sans les relier vraiment les faits révélés (la fides quae) et leur appropriation personnelle par les fidèles (la fides qua). Il commence par le rappel de trois principes fondamentaux : 1. Avec la résurrection commence la foi chrétienne qui n'est pas essentiellement adhésion à un code moral ou à un principe théologique abstrait mais confession de l'événement historique de la résurrection du crucifié en lequel le Dieu Père scelle la nouvelle Alliance avec les nations. 2. Selon le Nouveau Testament, jamais la résurrection n'est présentée comme un fait « objectivement » constatable sans la participation de l'homme dans sa foi. Elle est un événement «sans analogie», distinct de tout ce qu'on peut lire comme récits de «réanimation» dans l'Ancien Testament ou dans la littérature religieuse mondiale. Toute recherche de preuve, toute tentative pour rendre vraisemblables nos récits et témoignages doivent donc être exclues. 3. La foi en la résurrection s'évanouit si, à la suite des apôtres qui ont cru voir Jésus vivant, elle ne comporte l'affirmation résolue de l'existence ressuscitée de Jésus en personne. L'article se poursuit par une réflexion épistémologique : si la résurrection est un événement historique accessible seulement à la foi, il faut rompre avec une théorie de la connaissance viciée par l'objectivisme naïf. Sur la base d'une analogie avec les sciences de l'observation, l'article montre alors que, selon le mot de l'apôtre, la foi en la résurrection naît par l'écoute de la parole. Seule en effet la parole ouvre les yeux empêchés de voir la vérité de la Vie telle qu'elle se manifeste dans l a venue, la mort et la résurrection de Jésus. L'article engage alors pour finir un parcours existentiel destiné à faire éprouver au lecteur de quelle nature est la Vérité qui s'expose dans la destinée de Jésus et sur laquelle la foi prend position en affirmant qu'Il est vivant.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        Triode-Type Field Emission Displays with Carbon Nanotube Emitters

        You,,J.H.,Lee,,C.G.,Jung,,J.E.,Jin,,Y.W.,Jo,,S.H.,Nam,,J.W.,Kim,,J.W.,Lee,,J.S.,Jang,,J.E.,Park,,N.S.,Cha,,J.C.,Chi,,E.J.,Lee,,S.J.,Cha,,S.N.,Park,,Y.J.,Ko,,T.Y.,Choi,,J.H.,Lee,,S.J.,Hwang,,S.Y.,Chung The Korean Infomation Display Society 2001 Journal of information display Vol.2 No.3

        Carbon nanotube emitters, prepared by screen printing, have demonstrated a great potential towards low-cost, largearea field emission displays. Carbon nanotube paste, essential to the screen printing technology, was formulated to exhibit low threshold electric fields as well as an emission uniformity over a large area. Two different types of triode structures, normal gate and undergate, have been investigated, leading us to the optimal structure designing. These carbon nanotube FEDs demonstrated color separation and high brightness over 300 $cd/m^2$ at a video-speed operation of moving images. Our recent developments are discussed in details.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        Design of closed-loop nitrogen Joule-Thomson refrigeration cycle for 67 K with sub-atmospheric device

        Lee,,C.,Lee,,J.,Jeong,,S. 한국초전도저온공학회 2013 한국초전도저온공학회논문지 Vol.15 No.1

        Closed-loop J-T (Joule-Thomson) refrigeration cycle is advantageous compared to common open loop $N_2$ decompression system in terms of nitrogen consumption. In this study, two closed-loop pure $N_2$ J-T refrigeration systems with sub-atmospheric device for cooling High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) power cable are investigated. J-T cooling systems include 2-stage compressor, 2-stage precooling cycle, J-T valve and a cold compressor or an auxiliary vacuum pump at the room temperature. The cold compressor and the vacuum pump are installed after the J-T valve to create sub-atmospheric condition. The temperature of 67 K is possible by lowering the pressure up to 24 kPa at the cold part. The optimized hydrocarbon mixed refrigerant (MR) J-T system is applied for precooling stage. The cold head of precooling MR J-T have the temperature from 120 K to 150 K. The various characteristics of cold compressor are invstigated and applied to design parameter of the cold compressor. The Carnot efficiency of cold compressor system is calculated as 16.7% and that of vacuum pump system as 16.4%. The efficiency difference between the cold compressor system and the vacuum pump system is due to difference of enthalpy change at cryogenic temperature, enthalpy change at room temperature and different work load at the pre-cooling cycle. The efficiency of neon-nitrogen MR J-T system is also presented for comparison with the sub-atmospheric devices. These systems have several pros and cons in comparison to typical MR J-T systems such as vacuum line maintainability, system's COP and etc. In this paper, the detailed design of the subcooled $N_2$ J-T systems are examined and some practical issues of the sub-atmospheric devices are discussed.

      • SCISCIESCOPUS

        Luminescence characteristic of RE (RE = Pr, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy) and energy levels of lanthanide ions in Gd<sub>5</sub>Si<sub>3</sub>O<sub>12</sub>N

        Zhang,,Z.J.,Yang,,W. Elsevier 2017 SOLID STATE SCIENCES Vol.72 No.-

        Polycrystalline Gd<SUB>5</SUB>Si<SUB>3</SUB>O<SUB>12</SUB>N: RE (RE = Pr, Sm, Eu, Tb and Dy) phosphors have been synthesized via a solid-state reaction method at high temperature, and their photoluminescence properties were studied. The absorption peak at about 230 nm is attributed to the host absorption. For the Pr<SUP>3+</SUP>-doped sample, the typical excitation lines located at 273 nm originating from the <SUP>8</SUP>S<SUB>7/2</SUB> → <SUP>6</SUP>I<SUB>J</SUB> (J = 5/2, 7/2) transitions of the Gd<SUP>3+</SUP> ions were observed in the excitation spectra. Upon excitation at 227 nm UV light, the 4f<SUP>1</SUP>5d → 4f<SUP>2</SUP> emission band (350-450 nm) and typical 4f<SUP>2</SUP> → 4f<SUP>2</SUP> emission lines (450-700 nm) assigned to Pr<SUP>3+</SUP> were observed. The Sm<SUP>3+</SUP>-doped sample exhibits a bright red emission owing to the <SUP>4</SUP>G<SUB>5/2</SUB> → <SUP>6</SUP>H<SUB>J</SUB> (J = 5/2, 7/2 and 9/2) transitions. However, the charge transfer band of Sm<SUP>3+</SUP> was not observed in the excitation spectrum. There is a broad band from 200 to 350 nm originating from the charge transfer transition (CT) of the Eu<SUP>3+</SUP> (O<SUP>2-</SUP>/N<SUP>3-</SUP> → Eu<SUP>3+</SUP>) in the excitation spectra, and the strongest peak in the emission spectra located at 615 nm is due to the electric-dipole <SUP>5</SUP>D<SUB>0</SUB> → <SUP>7</SUP>F<SUB>2</SUB> transition of Eu<SUP>3+</SUP>. For the Tb<SUP>3+</SUP>-doped sample, it shows <SUP>5</SUP>D<SUB>3</SUB> →<SUP>7</SUP>F<SUB>J</SUB> (J = 5, 4, 3, 2) blue line emissions and <SUP>5</SUP>D<SUB>4</SUB> → <SUP>7</SUP>F<SUB>J</SUB> (J = 6, 5, 4, 3) green line emissions under the excitation of Tb<SUP>3+</SUP>. The Dy<SUP>3+</SUP>-activated sample upon excitation at 349 and 386 nm UV light shows blue-green and orange-red emission lines originating from <SUP>4</SUP>F<SUB>9/2</SUB> → <SUP>6</SUP>H<SUB>J</SUB> (J = 15/2, 13/2) transitions. In addition, the energy transfer from the host lattice to the luminescence activators (i.e. Pr<SUP>3+</SUP>, Sm<SUP>3+</SUP>, Eu<SUP>3+</SUP>, Tb<SUP>3+</SUP>, Dy<SUP>3+</SUP>) has been confirmed. In addition, the energy level diagram including the 4f and 5d energy levels of all Ln<SUP>2+</SUP> and Ln<SUP>3+</SUP> ions relative to the valence and conduction band of Gd<SUB>5</SUB>Si<SUB>3</SUB>O<SUB>12</SUB>N were constructed and discussed.

      • On multivariate discrete least squares

        Lee,,Y.J.,Micchelli,,C.A.,Yoon,,J. Academic Press 2016 Journal of approximation theory Vol.211 No.-

        <P>For a positive integer n is an element of N we introduce the index set N-n := {1, 2,..., n}. Let X := {x(i) : i is an element of N-n} be a distinct set of vectors in R-d, Y := {y(i) : i is an element of N-n} a prescribed data set of real numbers in R and F := {f(j) : j is an element of N-m}, m < n, a given set of real valued continuous functions defined on some neighborhood O of R-d containing X. The discrete least squares problem determines a (generally unique) function f = Sigma(j is an element of Nm) c(j)(star) f(j) is an element of spanF which minimizes the square of the l(2)-norm Sigma(i is an element of Nn) (Sigma(j is an element of Nm) c(j)f(j)(x(i)) - y(i))(2) over all vectors (c(j) : j is an element of N-m) is an element of R-m. The value of f at some s is an element of O may be viewed as the optimally predicted value (in the l(2)-sense) of all functions in spanF from the given data X = {x(i) : i is an element of N-n} and Y = {y(i) : i is an element of N-n}. We ask 'What happens if the components of X and s are nearly the same'. For example, when all these vectors are near the origin in R-d. From a practical point of view this problem comes up in image analysis when we wish to obtain a new pixel value from nearby available pixel values as was done in [2], for a specified set of functions F. This problem was satisfactorily solved in the univariate case in Section 6 of Lee and Micchelli (2013). Here, we treat the significantly more difficult multivariate case using an approach recently provided in Yeon Ju Lee, Charles A. Micchelli and Jungho Yoon (2015). (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Inc.</P>

      • SVCT-2 in breast cancer acts as an indicator for L-ascorbate treatment

        Hong,,S-W,Lee,,S-H,Moon,,J-H,Hwang,,J,J,Kim,,D,E,Ko,,E,Kim,,H-S,Cho,,I,J,Kang,,J,S,Kim,,D,J,Kim,,J-E,Shin,,J-S,Jung,,D-J,Jeong,,Y-J,Cho,,B-J,Kim,,T-W,Lee,,J,S,Kang,,J-S,Hwang,,Y-I,Noh,,D-Y,Jin,,D-H,Le Macmillan Publishers Limited 2013 Oncogene Vol.32 No.12

        L-ascorbate (L-ascorbic acid, vitamin C) clearly has an inhibitory effect on cancer cells. However, the mechanism underlying differential sensitivity of cancer cells from same tissue to L-ascorbate is yet to be clarified. Here, we demonstrate that L-ascorbate has a selective killing effect, which is influenced by sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 2 (SVCT-2) in human breast cancer cells. Treatment of human breast cancer cells with L-ascorbate differentially induced cell death, dependent on the SVCT-2 protein level. Moreover, knockdown of endogenous SVCT-2 via RNA interference in breast cancer cells expressing high levels of the protein induced resistance to L-ascorbate treatment, whereas transfection with SVCT-2 expression plasmids led to enhanced L-ascorbate chemosensitivity. Surprisingly, tumor regression by L-ascorbate administration in mice bearing tumor cell xenograft also corresponded to the SVCT-2 protein level. Interestingly, SVCT-2 expression was absent or weak in normal tissues, but strongly detected in tumor samples obtained from breast cancer patients. In addition, enhanced chemosensitivity to L-ascorbate occurred as a result of caspase-independent autophagy, which was mediated by beclin-1 and LC3 II. In addition, treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, suppressed the induction of beclin-1 and LC3 II, implying that the differential SVCT-2 protein-dependent L-ascorbate uptake was attributable to intracellular ROS induced by L-ascorbate, subsequently leading to autophagy. These results suggest that functional SVCT-2 sensitizes breast cancer cells to autophagic damage by increasing the L-ascorbate concentration and intracellular ROS production and furthermore, SVCT-2 in breast cancer may act as an indicator for commencing L-ascorbate treatment.

      • SCISCIESCOPUS

        Ibulocydine sensitizes human cancers to radiotherapy by induction of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis

        Park,,S.S.,Kim,,Y.J.,Ju,,E.J.,Shin,,S.H.,Choi,,J.,Park,,J.,Lee,,J.H.,Lee,,K.J.,Park,,J.,Park,,H.J.,Ko,,E.J.,Hwang,,J.J.,Jin,,D.H.,Suh,,N.,Cho,,D.H.,Lee,,J.S.,Song,,S.Y.,Kim,,B.M.,Jeong,,S.Y.,Choi,,E.K Elsevier Science Publishers 2014 Radiotherapy and oncology Vol.112 No.2

        Background and purpose: Ibulocydine (IB), a novel prodrug of CDK inhibitor, has been reported to have anti-cancer effect in human hepatoma cells. In order to address its feasibility as a radiosensitizer to improve radiotherapeutic efficacy for human cancers, this study was designed. Material and methods: Human cancer cells of lung and colon were treated with IB and/or radiotherapy (RT). The cellular effects were assessed by CCK-8, clonogenic, flow cytometric, and western blotting assays. In vivo radiotherapeutic efficacy was evaluated using the xenograft mouse model. Results: Combined treatment of IB and RT significantly reduced viability and survival fraction of the cells. Apoptotic cell death accompanied with activation of caspases, decrease in Bcl-2/Bax expression, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) leading to release of cytochrome c into cytosol was observed. Recovery of Bcl-2 expression level by introducing Bcl-2 expressing plasmid DNA compromised the loss of MMP and apoptosis induced by IB and RT. In vivo therapeutic efficacy of combined treatment was verified in the xenograft mouse model, in which tumor growth was markedly delayed by RT with IB. Conclusions: IB demonstrated the property of sensitizing human cancer cells to RT by induction of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, suggesting that IB deserves to be applied for chemoradiotherapy.

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