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This paper introduces Liu Zaifu and Liu Jianmei’s concept of drift aesthetics, situates it in its philosophical, aesthetic, and political context, and discusses the import and impact of new publications of his work in mainland China. The paper argues that Liu Zaifu’s drift aesthetics invert traditional and socialist aesthetic judgment in order to locate beauty outside the boundaries of the nation, along horizons, and in the romantic sublimity of distance. Even though Hong Kong writing by the Lius has been carefully selected for republication in the PRC, exile experience and exile aesthetics are inscribed into these reprint texts.
This paper traces the trajectory of Subcommander Marcos’ attitude toward Mexico’s intellectual class as revealed in a discourse spanning almost three decades (1980-2009). It argues that Marcos’ attitude was neither sweepingly anti-intellectual, nor static: rather, it was nuanced and embodied continuities and progressions. Marcos’ approach toward intellectuals is shown to have been influenced not merely by his personal attitude but also by external political developments. This paper also engages with the question of to what extent Marcos himself can be deemed an intellectual, and contextualizes him within a tradition of intellectuals who have concerned themselves with the role of the intellectual in society.
<P>The directional transport of the plant hormone auxin has been identified as central element of axis formation and patterning in plants. This directionality of transport depends on gradients, across the cell, of auxin-efflux carriers that continuously cycle between plasma membrane and intracellular compartments. This cycling has been proposed to depend on actin filaments. However, the role of actin for the polarity of auxin transport has been disputed. The organization of actin, in turn, has been shown to be under control of auxin. By overexpression of the actin-binding protein talin, we have generated transgenic rice (Oryza sativa) lines, where actin filaments are bundled to variable extent and, in consequence, display a reduced dynamics. We show that this bundling of actin filaments correlates with impaired gravitropism and reduced longitudinal transport of auxin. We can restore a normal actin configuration by addition of exogenous auxins and restore gravitropism as well as polar auxin transport. This rescue is mediated by indole-3-acetic acid and 1-naphthyl acetic acid but not by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. We interpret these findings in the context of a self-referring regulatory circuit between polar auxin transport and actin organization. This circuit might contribute to the self-amplification of auxin transport that is a central element in current models of auxin-dependent patterning.</P>
Objective Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery remain at high cardiovascular risk; however, few studies have evaluated lipid management and attainment of lipid targets in these patients. We investigated the proportion of CABG surgery patients who attained low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) targets. Methods Data were retrospectively obtained from patients undergoing CABG surgery at an Australian tertiary hospital between February 2015 and August 2020. The most recent lipid profile was recorded (at least 3 weeks post-operatively). We studied patients with electronically available data to ensure accuracy. Target LDL-C was defined as <1.4 (54 mg/dL) and <1.8 mmol/L (70 mg/dL), and target non-HDL-C as <2.2 (85 mg/dL) and <2.6 mmol/L (100 mg/dL), as per the 2019 and 2016 European dyslipidaemia guidelines, respectively. Results Follow-up lipid results were available for 484 patients (median post-operative follow-up, 483 days; interquartile range, 177.5–938.75 days). The mean age was 62.7±10.5 years and 387 (80.1%) were male. At discharge, 469 (96.9%) patients were prescribed statins, 425 (90.6%) high-intensity. Ezetimibe was prescribed for 62 (12.8%) patients and a proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 inhibitor for 1. LDL-C levels <1.4 and <1.8 mmol/L were attained in 118 (24.4%) and 231 (47.7%) patients, respectively, and non-HDL-C levels <2.2 and <2.6 mmol/L in 140 (28.9%) and 237 (49.0%) patients, respectively. Conclusion The use of non-statin lipid-lowering therapies was limited, and many CABG surgery patients did not attain lipid targets despite high-intensity statins. Further studies are required to optimise lipid management in this very high-risk population.
스탠 로렐과 올리버 하디는 1920년 후반 무성영화시대에서 유성영화시대로의 전환기에 성공적으로 살아남은 몇 안되는 코미디 배우라고 할 수 있다. 로렐과 하디 영화에서 음향 기술의 영향은 1927년에서 1929년 사이에 제작된 무성단편영화(n = 12)와 1929년과 1933년 사이에 제작된 유성단편영화(n = 20)의 평균 샷 길이와 샷 길이의 분산을 비교함으로써 분석된다. 그 결과에 따르면, 무성영화의 평균 샷 길이(중앙값 = 3.5s [3.2, 3.7 95% CI])와 유성영화의 평균 샷 길이(중앙값 = 3.9s [95% CI : 3.5, 4.3]) 사이에 큰 차이(U = 56.0, p = 0.0128, PS = 0.2333)가 있음을 알 수 있다. 그리고 이 결과(HLΔ = 0.5s (95% CI : 0.1, 1.1)는 유성영화에서 샷의 길이가 증가함을 보여주고 있다. 유성영화(중앙값= 3.0s [95% CI: 2.6, 3.4])와 무성영화(중앙값 = 2.4s [2.1, 2.7 95% CI])에 대한 Qn의 비교는 통계적으로 의미있는 증가가 HLΔ = 0.6s (95% CI : 0.1, 1.1)으로 추정된 샷 길이(U = 54.5, p = 0.0109, PS = 0.2271)의 분산이라는 것을 보여주고 있다. 비록 통계적으로 중요하지만, 이러한 차이는 영화 스타일과 음향 기술의 다른 정량 분석에 보고된 것보다 작다. 이것은 할 로치의 판토마임에 대한 위임과 로렐, 하디, 그리고 그들의 제작팀의 작업방법에 대한 역할, 사운드에 소홀한 로치의 제작 관행 등에서 찾을 수 있다. Stan Laurel and Oliver Hardy were one of the few comedy acts to successfully make the transition from the silent era to sound cinema in the late-1920s. The impact of sound technology on Laurel and Hardy films is analysed by comparing the median shot lengths and the dispersion of shot lengths of silent shorts (n = 12) produced from 1927 to 1929 inclusive, and sound shorts (n = 20) produced from 1929 to 1933, inclusive. The results show that there is a significant difference (U = 56.0, p = 0.0128, PS = 0.2333) between the median shot lengths of the silent films (median = 3.5s [95% CI: 3.2, 3.7]) and those of the sound films (median = 3.9s [95% CI: 3.5, 4.3]); and this represents an increase in shot lengths in the sound films by HLΔ = 0.5s (95% CI: 0.1, 1.1). The comparison of Qn for the silent films (median = 2.4s [95% CI: 2.1, 2.7]) with the sound films (median = 3.0s [95% CI: 2.6, 3.4]) reveals a statistically significant increase is the dispersion of shot lengths (U = 54.5, p = 0.0109, PS = 0.2271) estimated to be HLΔ = 0.6s (95% CI: 0.1, 1.1). Although statistically significant, these differences are smaller than those reported in other quantitative analyses of film style and sound technology, and this may be attributed to Hal Roach’s commitment to pantomime, the working methods of Laurel, Hardy, and their writing/producing team, and the continuity of personnel in Roach’s unit mode of production which did not change substantially with the introduction of sound.
This tutorial defines the principles of the concentration . effect relationship which are the basis ofpharmacodynamics. The two key parameters of pharmacodynamics are the maximum response(Emax) and the concentration producing 50% of Emax (C50). The time course of effect is illustratedunder the assumption that drug effects are immediately related to concentration in the centralcompartment e.g. plasma. The related idea of duration of drug action and its relationship to dose isshown to have a simple relationship with drug half-life.