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      • 朝鮮時代 外國語 敎育에 對한 一考 : Centred upon Chinese and its boundaries

        林東錫 건국대학교 1989 學術誌 Vol.33 No.1

        As men have lived gathering in groups from the ancient, they have grot the impediment of Communication because of the difference of languages between each other that the interpretation has naturally arisen. Being located between the continent and the ocean, Korea needed to have long history of interpretation. But documents for the official interpreters aren't clearly remained because their social positions weren't estimated high. Despite having frequent diplomatic relations with Mongol, Kitan, Nychem, Japanse and etc, among changes of the continent's power until Korea dynasty, there had just established an administrative organization about the end of Korea dynasty. But with the beginning of Cho-Sun dynasty, documents and system were arranged fairly. Sayukwon and Seongmunwon were founded, which are compared to today's national colleges for professional foreign language education. They lectured on Manchu, Mongol and Japanese as well as the first foreign language Chinese, which are called "Four subjects". They also arranged and consistently managed the entrance examination, the curriculum, applying for the state examination after graduating, or the position of official interpreters. The research is written for making up for today's foreign language education through examining the whole things such as teaching materials as well as systems of foreign language education.

      • KCI등재

        Simulation of the AUC Changes after Generic Substitution in Patients

        임동석 대한의학회 2009 Journal of Korean medical science Vol.24 No.1

        To address the debate on the safety of generic substitution quantitatively, the author compared the change in AUC in virtual patients who were simulated for several different scenarios of generic substitution. In four scenarios of original (branded) to generic and generic to generic substitution, 5,000 virtual patients were simulated per scenario using the programming software R. The mean population AUC of generics ranged from 90-110% (scenarios A and B) and 80-123.5% (scenarios C and D) of the AUC of the original. Those patients who had an AUC change (ratio) as a result of drug substitution of less than 0.67 or greater than 1.5 were considered to be in potential danger due to the substitution. We found that less than 6% of patients fell outside of the cutoff range of 0.67-1.5 as a result of original to generic substitution. However, in the case of generic to generic substitution, the proportion was as high as 9-12%. This alerts us to the potential danger of generic substitution, especially for drugs with narrow therapeutic indices.

      • KCI등재

        ‘서울’(首尔) 名稱 淵源考

        임동석 중국어문학연구회 2007 중국어문학논집 Vol.0 No.47

        本論文將‘서울, Seoul, 首爾(Shǒu’ěr)’名稱之古來生成變遷及變化之內容考究爲主. 2004年通過韓國首爾市地名制定委員會之商討, 於2005年1越首爾市長宣布要請“從來中國人叫漢城的韓國首都名稱, 自此以後, 以韓國原音‘서울’(Shǒuěr)來發音, 而各種媒體及文件等要廣範地使用此名標記, 以便溝通以爲標準. 韓國現用地名普遍地殆半用漢字表記, 但唯首爾只用韓字固有語, 那首爾的地名從何處起源而其意者何? 玆以古代新羅百濟等古語穿鑿, 一般學者皆認爲出發於‘徐羅伐’, ‘所夫里’等借音語彙, 其義爲‘鐵, 曉, 東’等複合意味. 經過漫長時間韓人以首都叫‘首爾’(서울), 其意味當然爲‘京, 京兆, 京師’. 故雖新建國朝代移遷首都, 仍其首都爲‘首爾’, 首爾此名稱, 韓人心目中非常重要, 然朝鮮建國之後中國人却叫‘漢城’, 至今未易. 除了中國以外, 臺灣, 東南亞華人亦稱叫漢城, 而中國人根本不知漢城本名卽首爾. 却韓人亦不知漢城係中國人指首爾之稱, 漢城則朝鮮時代行政單位府署之名而已. 唯歐羅巴等西方各地以'Seoul'來表示韓國首都, 當以其音的確. 故世界地名統一爲標準的話, 中國人亦以本地音近接之首爾來標識較妥, 而叫其原音較方便. 據此本人以古語來分析古代韓人各樣語言現狀而整理其內容, 找出首爾之名稱淵源. 今中國各地的機場航班及報紙, 地圖等文件, 已用首爾來標準, 實際上非常妥當的措施, 世界一家, 地名統一, 讓一般人不會混淆, 國際交流不帶來困惑, 才能得其圓滿疏通. 此本論文之大義所在.

      • KCI등재

        Suggestions for the competitiveness of the Port-Logistics industry in Busan port area - Focus on the port transport industry and port transport related industry -

        임동석,곽규석,남기찬 한국항해항만학회 2011 한국항해항만학회지 Vol.35 No.7

        An environment of world marine port today is rapidly changing. Importance of a hub port is being maximized along with appearance of a large container ship, and Busan port is also growing with the goal as a hub port of Northeast Asia. Busan port currently has competitive power as the 5th top port in the world, but increase rate of transportation quantity, is low compared to Shanghai port in China and other ports in Northeast Asia. For a port to obtain competitiveness, investment on infrastructures of a port is necessary and also it has close relation with an intraregional port logistics industry. However, a port logistics industry in Busan area has a hard time avoiding a small size due to the government support on major companies. Therefore, this study will analyze difficulties of small port logistics companies and the related companies as to vitalize port logistics industry in Busan area in hopes to help vitalizing regional economy.

      • KCI등재
      • KCI등재

        가감석홍전(加減惜紅煎)으로 호전된 궤양성대장염(潰瘍性大腸炎) 환자(患者) 치험(治驗) 1례(例)

        임동석,김남욱,이형호,이영수,홍석,김희철,최창원,Lim, Dong-Seok,Kim, Nam-Uk,Lee, Hyung-Ho,Lee, Yeong-Su,Hong, Seok,Kim, Hee-Chul,Choi, Chang-Won 대한한의학방제학회 2007 大韓韓醫學方劑學會誌 Vol.15 No.1

        Objective : this study is designed to evaluate the effects of an oriental medicine therapy, namely gagam-sukhongjeon, on ulcerative colitis Methods : The Clinical data was analyzed on a patient with ulcerative colitis due to hanyeolchakjab(寒熱錯雜), whose symptoms were combined chillness and fever. The patient visited at the internal medicine department of Dong-Shin University Suncheon Oriental Hospital on February 25, 2006, and go into hospital from February 25, 2006 to March 9, 2006. and revisited from March 18, 2006 to April 5, 2006. The patient was treated with Herbal medicine(gagam-sukhongjeon) Result : After treatment, bloody stool and abdominal pain disappeared in visual analogue scale(VAS), pain disability index(PDI) and verbal rating scale(VRS). Conclusions : This study suggests that gagam-Sukhongjeon is significantly effective in treatment of ulcerative colitis.

      • KCI등재

        진인화철탕가와송(眞人化鐵湯加瓦松)이 N-Nitrosodiethylamine으로 유발된 흰쥐의 간암에 미치는 영향

        임동석,최창원,Lim, Dong-Seok,Choi, Chang-Won 대한한방내과학회 2008 大韓韓方內科學會誌 Vol.29 No.3

        Objective : The purpose of our study was to investigate the effect of JinlnWhaChul-tang-ga-wasong (JIN) on NDEA-induced liver tumorigenesis. Materials and Methods : We investigated the possible protective effects of Jininwhachul-tang-ga-wasong (JIN) as an anticancer against NDEA-induced liver injury in mice. Experimental mice were classified into 3 groups; normal, saline administered group (control group), and JIN extract (0.15g/kg/every other day) administered group (JIN group) after being injected with NDEA over 12 weeks. We examined the state of differentiation of these tumors and the effects of JIN after 6 weeks. To confirm the induction of apoptosis, the cells were analyzed by terminal deorynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay, acridine orange staining and flow cytometric analysis. To investigate inhibitory effect on the expression of COX-2 by JIN, we performed COX-2 immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. Results : Body weights significantly decreased in the control and JIN groups compared with the normal group. The levels of cholesterol, hemoglobin and testosterone decreased in the control compared with the normal group. The level of estradiol significantly increased in the control compared with the normal group. The control group reacted with TUNEL assay more than the normal and JIN groups. Upon naked eye, light and electron microscopic examination, JIN improved the morphological and histopathological changes of the liver caused by NDEA-induced hepatic neoplasm. COX-2 immunoreactivity decreased in the JIN group compared with the control group, mRNA expression of the control group was greater than the normal and JIN groups. Conclusion : these results suggest the possibility that JIN may exert an anti-tumor effect on NDEA-induced liver tumorigenesis.

      • KCI등재

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