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Purpose: This study was conducted to develop a couple-centered antenatal education program and to test the program's feasibility. Methods: With a preliminary-experimental study design, 33 pregnant couples who were expecting their first child participated in this study. The program consisted of four sessions (1 hour/session/week) of education and counseling. Data were collected before and after the intervention from September 2018 to April 2019 at a women's hospital in Daejeon, Korea, with demographic data forms, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, Maternal-Fetal Attachment Scale, Korean Newborn Care Confidence Scale, Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire, and Dyadic Adjustment Scale-10. Results: The pregnant women and their husbands were on average 32.30±3.10 and 33.21±6.25 years old, respectively. The mean marriage duration was 2.34±1.63 years, the gestational age was 31.30±2.66 weeks, and 78.8% of the couples had a planned pregnancy. After the program, both the pregnant women and their husbands showed significant improvements in attachment to the fetus and confidence in providing infant care. Prenatal depression, prenatal stress, and fear of childbirth in pregnant women significantly decreased after completing the program. However, the dyadic adjustment score did not change significantly either in the pregnant women or their husbands. Conclusion: A couple-centered antenatal education program seems to be effective for couples adjusting to parenthood, but further studies should explore ways to have a positive impact on couples' relationships.
This paper asks why South Korea's relations with Japan is so vulnerable to disputes over history in the post-Cold War period. It argues that South Korea's identities vis-a`-vis Japan and North Korea respectively conflict with each other and leads to inconsistent policy towards Japan that hovers between cooperation and discord. By analyzing South Korea's relations with Japan as well as its policies and behavior in the post-Cold War period, this paper aims to show how identity factor affects a state's foreign policy and behavior towards other states. In doing so, it questions the rationality assumption of state behavior in IR and offers alternative explanations on how to better understand ‘‘emotional'' foreign policies.
Chemical accidents can cause a variety of damage, including damage to human health and ecosystems. In Korea, there are a limited number of crops that can be used to calculate damage done to plants after chemical accidents, and there are insufficient data on testing of damaged plants and methods for evaluation thereof because damage calculation methods and procedures have not been specifically established. Therefore, in order to estimate economic losses due to chemical accidents, it is necessary to establish specific calculation methods and procedures. At this point, improvements in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy are needed to improve the accuracy and precision of assessment of plant damage caused by chemical accidents. The purpose of this study is to standardize sample pretreatment methods for NMR application and to develop a methodology for estimation of plant damage via testing and evaluation methods for solid samples such as plants and powders at chemical accident sites.
Bio-liquid is a liquid by-product of the hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) reaction, converting wet biomass into solid hydrochar, bio-liquid, and bio-gas. Since bio-liquid contains various compounds, it requires efficient sampling method to extract the target compounds from bio-liquid. In this research, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) in bio-liquid was extracted based on hollow fiber supported liquid phase microextraction (HFLPME) and determined by Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). The well-known major components of biodiesel, including methyl myristate, palmitate, methyl palmitoleate, methyl stearate, methyl oleate, and methyl linoleate had been selected as standard materials for FAME analysis using HF-LPME. Physicochemical properties of bio-liquid was measured that the acidity was 3.30 (± 0.01) and the moisture content was 100.84 (± 3.02)%. The optimization of HF-LPME method had been investigated by varying the experimental parameters such as extraction solvent, extraction time, stirring speed, and the length of HF at the fixed concentration of NaCl salt. As a result, optimal conditions of HF-LPME for FAMEs were; n-octanol for extraction solvent, 30 min for extraction time, 1200 rpm for stirring speed, 20 mm for the HF length, and 0.5 w/v% for the concentration of NaCl. Validation of HF-LPME was performed with limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), dynamic range, reproducibility, and recovery. The results obtained from this study indicated that HF-LPME was suitable for the preconcentration method and the quantitative analysis to characterize FAMEs in bio-liquid generated from food waste via HTC reaction.
<P>Autocrine stimulation via coexpression of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor (Met) has been reported in many human sarcomas, but few in carcinomas. In this report, we found that one gastric cancer cell line, SNU-484, among 11 gastric cell lines tested has an autocrine HGF- Met stimulation. RT-PCR, ELISA and scattering assay using MDCK cells revealed that SNU-484 cells secreted a significant amount of active HGF (about 1.25 +/- 0.41 ng/24 h/10(6) cells) into conditioned medium. Resultantly, Met in this cell line was constitutively phosphorylated. Neutralizing antibodies against HGF reduced the tyrosine phosphorylation of Met, resulting in the inhibition of cell proliferation and migration (P <0.005). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on autocrine HGF-Met signaling in a gastric cancer cell line. Our observations with SNU-484 cells suggest that HGF is involved in the development and/or progression of some gastric carcinoma through an autocrine mechanism.</P>
Park,,Minseon,Lee,,Bok-Soon,Jeon,,Soung-Hoo,Nam,,Hyun-Ja,Lee,,Gwang,Kim,,Chul-Ho,Cho,,Hyeseong,Lee,,Jae-Ho American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Bi 2015 The Journal of biological chemistry Vol.290 No.3
<P>Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor, Met, regulate skeletal muscle differentiation. In the present study, we identified a novel alternatively spliced isoform of Met lacking exon 13 (designated Δ13Met), which is expressed mainly in human skeletal muscle. Alternative splicing yielded a truncated Met having extracellular domain only, suggesting an inhibitory role. Indeed, Δ13Met expression led to a decrease in HGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Met and ERK phosphorylation, as well as cell proliferation and migration via sequestration of HGF. Interestingly, in human primary myoblasts undergoing differentiation, Δ13Met mRNA and protein levels were rapidly increased, concomitantly with a decrease in wild type Met mRNA and protein. Inhibition of Δ13Met with siRNA led to a decreased differentiation, whereas its overexpression potentiated differentiation of human primary myoblasts. Furthermore, in notexin-induced mouse injury model, exogenous Δ13Met expression enhanced regeneration of skeletal muscle, further confirming a stimulatory role of the isoform in muscle cell differentiation. In summary, we identified a novel alternatively spliced inhibitory isoform of Met that stimulates muscle cell differentiation, which confers a new means to control muscle differentiation and/or regeneration.</P>