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Original Article : Effects of Korean White Ginseng (Panax Ginseng C.A. Meyer) on Vascular and Glycemic Health in Type 2 Diabetes: Results of a Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-controlled, Multiple-crossover, Acute Dose Escalation Trial
Korean red ginseng (steam treated Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer), among most prized traditional herbal remedies, has been clinicallyshown to improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Whether this holds true for the dried non-steamed variety, known as Korean white ginseng (KWG) is unclear. This study therefore, investigated the efficacy and safety of escalating doses of KWG on vascular and glycemic parameters in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Using an acute, randomized, placebo-controlled, double- blind, crossover design, 25 participants with well-controlled T2DM (12-males: 13-females, age: 63 ± 9 years, A1c: 6.9 ± 0.7%, BMI: 29.3 ± 4.3 kg/m2) underwent five visits during which they received 1 g, 3 g, or 6 g KWG or 3 g wheat-bran control (twice) together with 50 g-glucose load. For the duration of 240 minutes, augmentation index (AI), and central blood pressure were measured at baseline and at 60 min-intervals, and ambulatory blood pressure was assessed at baseline and at 10 min-intervals. Additionally, capillary blood was collected at time zero and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 180 minutes post-treatment. A symptoms questionnaire was used to assess safety and adverse events. Two-way ANOVA demonstrated a significant time-treatment interaction effect on AI (p = 0.01) with one-way ANOVA showing significant reductions in AI with 3 g KWG relative to control (p = 0.04). Compared to control, acute administration of KWG appeared to be safe, but did not affect any other postprandial, vascular or glycemic parameters. KWG might have a beneficial effect on AI, a cumulative indicator of arterial health. However, these results are preliminary and highlight the need for long-term investigation with a focus on its accountable components. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT01699074
The antimicrobial effects of sodium benzoate against Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were investigated. The MIC90 of sodium benzoate were 64 mg/L for E. faecalis and 32 mg/L for E. faecium, while the MBC90 were 128 mg/L and 64mg/L, respectively. Although further studies are required for clinical evidence, sodium benzoate seems to be effective against Enterococcus spp.
The flexural behaviour of steel beams significantly affects the structural performance of the steel frame structures. In particular, the flexural overstrength (namely the ratio between the maximum bending moment and the plastic bending strength) that steel beams may experience is the key parameter affecting the seismic design of non-dissipative members in moment resisting frames. The aim of this study is to present a new formulation of flexural overstrength factor for steel beams by means of artificial neural network (NN). To achieve this purpose, a total of 141 experimental data samples from available literature have been collected in order to cover different cross-sectional typologies, namely I-H sections, rectangular and square hollow sections (RHS-SHS). Thus, two different data sets for I-H and RHS-SHS steel beams were formed. Nine critical prediction parameters were selected for the former while eight parameters were considered for the latter. These input variables used for the development of the prediction models are representative of the geometric properties of the sections, the mechanical properties of the material and the shear length of the steel beams. The prediction performance of the proposed NN model was also compared with the results obtained using an existing formulation derived from the gene expression modeling. The analysis of the results indicated that the proposed formulation provided a more reliable and accurate prediction capability of beam overstrength.
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This study examined the importance of hospitality and tourism curriculum, and students' self-evaluation of knowledge, skills, abilities and attributes in the hospitality operation of restaurant, bar, and cuisine based on the International Labour Organization's (ILO) standardized occupational qualifications to understand the gap between the hospitality and tourism education in Turkey and the ILO's occupational standards. Findings indicated that students lacked international and communication skills and evaluated themselves as almost adequate in the area of functional skills that form the 68% of the curriculum. This study concluded that, providers of hospitality and tourism education in Turkey need to revise and reshape the national educational system with the aims of internationalization and standardization of knowledge, skills, abilities and attributes so that students are qualified to find positions internationally and / or locally working with tourists around the world.
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ObjectiveaaChronic inflammation is associated with cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and psychiatric disorders. The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been investigated as a new biomarker for systemic inflammatory response. The aim of the study is to investigate the relation of NLR with severity of depression and CV risk factors. MethodsaaThe study population consisted of 256 patients with depressive disorder. Patients were evaluated with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D). Patients were classified into four groups according to their HAM-D score such as mild, moderate, severe, and very severe depression. Patients were also evaluated in terms of CV risk factors. ResultsaaPatients with higher HAM-D score had significantly higher NLR levels compared to patients with lower HAM-D score. Correlation analysis revealed that severity of depression was associated with NLR in depressive patients (r=0.333, p<0.001). Patients with one or more CV risk factors have significantly higher NLR levels. Correlation analysis revealed that CV risk factors were associated with NLR in depressive patients (r=0.132, p=0.034). In logistic regression analyses, NLR levels were an independent predictor of severe or very severe depression (odds ratio: 3.02, 95% confidence interval: 1.867–4.884, p<0.001). A NLR of 1.57 or higher predicted severe or very severe depression with a sensitivity of 61.4% and specificity of 61.2%. ConclusionaaHigher HAM-D scores are associated with higher NLR levels in depressive patients. NLR more than 1.57 was an independent predictor of severe or very severe depression. A simple, cheap white blood cell count may give an idea about the severity of depression.
Nowadays, with the increasingly important role of technology and internet in our world, it has become not only possible, but necessary for organizations that work globally to cooperate in teams that are spread out worldwide. These "Virtual Teams" (VTs) are imperative to the effective functioning of globalized organizations. Therefore, to improve the work of such organizations, it is necessary to study and understand the dynamics of information sharing and international cooperation among these geographically separated VTs. There are many researchers who talk about VTs, but they do not go into deep details about the importance of leadership, conflicting management, and communication tools. We start this research from the points of view of the people who play different roles in VTs. In order to get more realistic results, all the given suggestions and solutions must be more practical and meaningful. Our paper focuses on the factors that should be taken into consideration to get a dynamic VT. As a result, we come up with some advices and recommendations to lead VTs to become as successful as possible based on using communication tools, conflicting management, and leadership skills.
The root rot pathogen Phytophthora capsici can severely damage production of peppers (Capsicum annuum). This study examined the effect of exogenous spermine and spermine in combination with proline on disease severity inpepper inoculated with P. capsici, as well as the effect of the treatments on P. capsici growth and zoospore development. Peroxidase, catalase, and polyphenol oxidase activity, the levels of phenolic compounds, malondialdehyde (MDA), andhydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and fresh and dry weight were measured on the 3rd, 5th, and 7thdays after P. capsici infection. Disease severity and size of the necrotic lesions increased with the degree of injury caused by the pathogen anddecreased in resistant varieties. The cultivar CM-334 exhibited the highest resistance to P. capsici followed by AmazonF1 whereas other genotypes were susceptible to the disease. Treatments with spermine and spermine + proline priorto inoculation decreased the severity of disease, the length of the necrotic lesions, and the MDA and H2O2 levels inall genotypes, and increased peroxidase, catalase, and polyphenol oxidase activity, the total level of phenolics, andfresh and dry weight, when compared to the untreated, inoculated plants. In addition, 1 mM spermine, 1 mMspermine + 1 mM proline, and 1 mM spermine + 10 mM proline decreased colony growth of P. capsici and zoosporeproduction. This study showed that spermine and spermine + proline induced defense responses and increasedresistance to P. capsici infection in pepper
Bio-oxidation of sulfide under denitrifying conditions is a key process in the treatment of gas and liquids that are contaminated with sulfide and nitrite. A lab-scale continuous flow stirred tank reactor (CFSTR)was operated with nitrite as the electron acceptor for the evaluation of the effects of loading rates, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and substrate concentrations on the performance of the autotrophic denitrification process. The influent sulfide concentration was maintained at 0.16 kg/m3and the HRT was decreased from 8.4 to 2 h and for the entire study period, the sulfide removal efficiency was above 80% for the loading rates that ranged from 0.47 to 2.16 kg S-2/m3day. However, lower influent loading of NO2--N that correspond to the stoichiometric ratios was used and the nitrite removal efficiency was close to 100%. The stoichiometry of sulfide oxidation was calculated by assuming the different end-products based on thermodynamic approach. We compared the calculated values with experimental yield values. Bio-oxidation of sulfide under denitrifying conditions is a key process in the treatment of gas and liquids that are contaminated with sulfide and nitrite. A lab-scale continuous flow stirred tank reactor (CFSTR)was operated with nitrite as the electron acceptor for the evaluation of the effects of loading rates, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and substrate concentrations on the performance of the autotrophic denitrification process. The influent sulfide concentration was maintained at 0.16 kg/m3and the HRT was decreased from 8.4 to 2 h and for the entire study period, the sulfide removal efficiency was above 80% for the loading rates that ranged from 0.47 to 2.16 kg S-2/m3day. However, lower influent loading of NO2--N that correspond to the stoichiometric ratios was used and the nitrite removal efficiency was close to 100%. The stoichiometry of sulfide oxidation was calculated by assuming the different end-products based on thermodynamic approach. We compared the calculated values with experimental yield values.
Composite columns have superior strength and ductility performance, and they have become more widely accepted in the engineering applications. However, the filled tubular columns require more attention. This study aims to present a new formulation for the axial load carrying capacity ( Nu ) of circular concrete filled steel tubular (CFST) short columns having various geometrical and material properties. Although there have been some empirical relations for predicting Nu in the literature, genetic algorithm based explicit formulation is not available. In the current study, 314 comprehensive experimental data samples presented in the previous studies were examined to prepare a data set for training and testing of the prediction model. The prediction parameters were selected as outer diameter of column (D), wall thickness ( t ), length of column ( L ), compressive strength of concrete ( fc ), and yield strength of steel ( fy ). The prediction model was obtained by means of gene expression programming (GEP). The proposed model was compared with available ones presented in the current design codes (ACI, Australian Standards, AISC, AIJ, Eurocode 4, DL/T, and CISC) and some existing empirical models proposed by researchers. The prediction performance of all models were also evaluated by the statistical parameters. The results indicated that the GEP model was much better than the available formulae, yielding higher correlation coefficient and lower error