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The presented study investigated the extent to which engaging in a therapeutic sporting programme in males with severe autism spectrum disorder (ASD) improves the debilitating behaviours commonly associ-ated with ASD. Furthermore, the views of parents of the autistic partici-pants were assessed concerning the effectiveness of the programme. Participants were eight 13- to 20-year-old males born in the United Kingdom from a school and sports college for pupils with severe learn-ing difficulties. The selection was using volunteer sampling from the “Monday Club” initiative, run by Saracens Sports Foundation in part-nership with a local school and specialist sports college. The Gilliam Autism Rating Scale, 3rd edition was administered to identify and mea-sure the severity of ASD behaviours at four time periods namely: at pro-gramme entry as the baseline (Time 1, T1), a second time after 8 weeks (Time 2, T2), a third time after 16 weeks (Time 3, T3), and a fourth time post programme (Time 4, T4). The results showed that for the more se-vere cases of ASD (Autism Index >101) there was no positive change in subscale performance from T1 to T2. For milder cases (Autism Index, 71.100) there were subtle non-significant improvements on the sub-scale scores from T1 to T2. Of the 6 subscales at T2, emotional respons-es, cognitive style, and maladaptive speech approached significance at the P=0.05 level. At T3 and T4, there was also no statistically significant improvement in ASD behaviours compared to the baseline for either condition. Finally parents' were “very satisfied” with their child's partici-pation in the physical activity programme.
Much of the sustainability research has orientated around the production side of the business model, changing a consumer's consumption pattern, such as extending the usage of a product and reducing the frequency of purchase and even promoting shared use, is now being recognised as a critical facet of working towards sustainability. The focus on the consumer perspective, their usage and response to alternative modes of garment use is under represented in the research to-date, which has predominantly focused on the point of design or disposal. Employing a multi-method qualitative study, this research engages with consumers to build the critical insights currently pertinent but neglected in shifting consumers towards more sustainable fashion consumption practices. Fashion management is important as evidenced by a global garment industry valued at around US $1.7 trillion and employing approximately 75 million people (Fashion United; International Labour Organisation). However, there are significant environmental costs from resource inputs, manufacture, use and disposal of clothing. This impact occurs while around only 30% of clothing, valued at around £4000, in our wardrobes was worn in the last year (Williams, 2016). Coupled with an increase in clothing purchases, this has led to the phenomena of disposing of garments that may only have been worn a few times. Disposal of clothing is a key tenet of sustainability, with high volumes of purchases propelled by discourses of “fast fashion” (Bianchi and Birtwistle, 2010) resulting in approximately one million tonnes of clothes being disposed annually in the UK (Defra, 2009). Whilst a need for consumer behaviour change is clearly identified for systemic change within fashion management, little insight is provided as to how this can be facilitated. From a production and retail perspective, sustainable clothing discussions have been appropriated into mainstream retail practice (in brands such as People Tree, Patagonia, Everlane, H&M) however one of the presented barriers of a mainstream adoption of this approach, is the lack of trust and weak incentives for consumers. With the premise of extending understandings beyond interested niche fashion groups to mainstream society, we explore tensions and opportunities in extending clothing acquisition practices towards a circular approach. Focusing on fashion consumers (considered as purchasing one fashion item per week) we carried out a multi-method ethnographic study over six months to intervene and challenge consumer fashion consumption habits. We augment the conventional model of fashion consumer behaviour of ‘buy-own-dispose' and contribute an emergent understanding of the challenges, barriers and opportunities of sustainable clothing consumption and the implications for fashion management.
The strategy of the International Council for Coach Education (ICCE) has placed the development of sport coaching as a profession at the core of the mission of the organisation. The authors examine the basis for this aspiration against criteria associated with established professions, taking into account the unique features of sport coaching. It is concluded that, at a global level, sport coaching does not meet a number of the traditional hallmarks of a profession, primarily due to its current position on key descriptors such as purpose, knowledge base, organisation and ethics. In addition, the lack of fit of traditional ‘right to practice' provisions within the established professions is identified as problematic. Sport coaching status categories include volunteer coach, professional coach, and the preparatory category of pre-coach. It is suggested that sport coaching should define its future identity as a blended professional area, operating within the wider field of sport and physical activity. A series of actions is proposed to advance the international agenda, as part of an on-going process of professionalization. The implications for the future research and strategy of ICCE are also identified.
Israel perceives itself to be under a constant and general threat to its existence. Like many other aspects of its security, Israel's small size relative to its neighbors means that even relatively small demographic shifts may have unexpected and threatening political consequences. Israel's struggles with security, identity, and demography therefore serve to highlight a relationship not unique to Israel but particularly intense there: a relationship between demographic shifts and state, regional,and interstate security. This article demonstrates that Israel's demographic shifts have come to be regarded as an existential threat by Israel, and the contemporary salience of demography in Israel explains both (1) Israel's decision to build a ‘security fence' between it and the Palestinian Occupied Territories in the West Bank, and (2) the timing of that decision. The article examines Israel's historical demographic trends and discourse and makes the case that this high-level national policy was a response to the perception among Israel's leaders that demographic threats to both the Jewish and democratic character of Israel were more grave even than the physical threat of terrorism.
The 1979 census conducted across the vast expanse of the Soviet Union revealed that the makeupof the country's population had undergone enormous change. The census recorded lowbirth-rates among the Slavic population relative to their Central Asian compatriots, among othertrends. The results were worrisome to Soviet planners in that they feared that these domesticpopulation trends were going to undermine the country's power. At the same time, Soviets facedthe defeat of communist allies in Afghanistan at the hands of fighters beholden to religion, andan Islamic revolution in Iran. What these dynamics revealed was a complex interplay betweendomestic, regional and international politics. Interpreted through the lens of population dynamics,the convergence of these events revealed 1979 to be a critical turning point in the disintegrationof the Soviet Union.
Background: Companion biomarkers are biomarkers that are used in combination with specific therapies and that prospectively help predict likely response or severe toxicity. In this article we review the role of companion biomarkers in guiding treatment in patients with cancer. Content: In addition to the established companion biomarkers such as estrogen receptors and HER 2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) in breast cancer, several new companion biomarkers have become available in recent years. These include v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) mutations for the selection of patients with advanced colorectal cancer who are unlikely to benefit from anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies (cetuximab or panitumumab), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations for selecting patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) for treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (gefitinib or erlotinib), v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) mutations for selecting patients with advanced melanoma for treatment with anti-BRAF agents (vemurafenib and dabrafenib), and anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase (ALK) translocations for identifying patients with NSCLC likely to benefit from crizotinib. Summary: The availability of companion biomarkers should improve drug efficacy, decrease toxicity, and lead to a more individualized approach to cancer treatment. 배경: 동반생물학적표지자(Companion biomarker)는 특정 치료제와의 조합으로 이용되어 반응성 또는 심한 독성 가능성을 미리 예측할 수 있도록 도와주는 것이다. 이 논문에서는 암 환자에서 치료의 방향을 제시하는 데 있어서의 동반생물학적표지자의 역할이 검토될 것이다. 내용: 유방암에서의 에스트로젠 수용체나 HER 2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2)와 같은 이미 확립된 동반생물학적표지자들 뿐 아니라, 최근 수년간 새로운 몇몇 동반생물학적표지자들이 등장하였다. 이들은 항-상피세포 성장인자 수용체 항체(anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies; cetuximab 또는 panitumumab) 치료효과를 보일 것으로 예상되는 진행성 대장암환자들을 선택하기 위한 v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) 돌연변이, 진행성 비소세포성폐암(non–small cell lung cancer, 비소세포성폐암) 환자들 중 타이로신활성효소 억제제(tyrosine kinase inhibitors; gefitinib 또는 erlotinib) 치료 적용대상을 선택하기 위한 epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) 돌연변이, 항BRAF 제제(vemurafenib and dabrafenib) 치료 대상이 될 수 있는 진행성 흑색종 환자의 선별을 위한 v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) 돌연변이, 그리고 crizotinib에 치료효과가 있을 것으로 보이는 비소세포성폐암 환자들을 찾아내기 위한 anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase (ALK) 전위 등이다. 요약: 동반생물학적표지자의 활용은 약제의 효과 향상, 독성 감소를 가져올 것이며, 암 치료에 대한 보다 개인별 최적화된 접근을 가능하게 할 것이다.
This research examines the effectiveness of collaborative learning pedagogies from the perspective of students. There is a rich history of research on collaborative learning demonstrating the effectiveness and this has led to indexing educational quality by student engagement. However, the findings from this study question the efficacy of collaborative pedagogies in their actual implementation. While collaboration was a part of the most highly rated learning experiences, these pedagogies were typically described as ineffective. Key factors that students see associated with effective collaboration are reported. The students' perceptions of learning as reflected in their comments on collaborative learning, implications for setting expectations for college learning, and needs for faculty development are discussed.