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      • KCI등재후보SCOPUS

        Effect of Breed (Lean or Fat Pigs) and Sex on Performance and Feeding Behaviour of Group Housed Growing Pigs in a Tropical Climate

        D.,Renaudeau,M.,Giorgi,F.,Silou,J.,L.,Weisbecker 아세아·태평양축산학회 2006 Animal Bioscience Vol.19 No.4

        The effects of breed and sex on individual growth performance and feeding behaviour were studied between 45 and 90 kg BW in two replicates of forty group-housed pigs. The first and the second replicates were carried out during the warm season (i.e. between February and April 2003) and during the hot season (i.e. between August and October 2003), respectively. During the warm season, ambient temperature and relative humidity averaged 25.3째C and 86.0%. The corresponding values for the hot season were 27.9째C and 83.6%. The pigs were grouped in pens of 10 animals on the basis of breed (Creole or Large White) and sex (gilt or castrated male) and given ad libitum access to a grower diet (9.0 MJ/kg net energy and 158 g/kg crude protein) via feed intake recording equipment (Acema 48). An ear-tag transponder was inserted into each pig and this allowed the time, duration, and size of individual visits to be recorded. The growth performance and feeding pattern were significantly affected by breed, sex, and season. The Creole pigs (CR) had a lower average daily gain (ADG) (642 vs. 861 g/d, p<0.01) and carcass lean content (LC90kg) (35.4 vs. 54.5%; p<0.01) and a higher backfat thickness at 90 kg BW (BT90 kg) (23.4 vs. 10.4 mm; p<0.01) than Large White pigs (LW) whereas the average daily feed intake (ADFI) was not affected by breed (2.34 vs. 2.22 kg/d, respectively for CR and LW pigs; p>0.10). Consequently, the food:gain ratio was higher in CR than in LW (3.65 vs. 2.58; p<0.01). CR had less frequent meals but ate more feed per meal than LW (5.9 vs. 8.8 meals/d and 431 vs. 279 g/meal; p<0.01). The rate of feed intake was lower (27.6 vs. 33.9 g/min; p<0.01) and the ingestion time per day and per meal were higher in CR than in LW (87.1 vs. 69.7 min/d and 15.8 vs. 8.4 min/meal; p<0.01). The ADFI and BT90 kg were higher (2.38 vs. 2.17 kg/d and 18.1 vs. 15.9 mm; p<0.05) and LC90 kg was lower (43.5 vs. 46.4%; p<0.01) in castrated males (CM) than in gilts (G) whereas ADG was not affected by sex (p = 0.12). The difference in lean content between CM and G was greater in CR than in LW. The ADFI and ADG were reduced during the hot season (2.18 vs.2.38 kg/d and 726 vs. 777 g/d, respectively; p<0.05) whereas feed conversion and carcass lean content were not affected by season (p>0.05). Average feeding time per meal and meal size decreased during the hot season (10.9 vs. 13.2 min/meal and 316 vs. 396 g/meal; p<0.01) whereas the rate of feed intake was not affected by season (p = 0.83). On average, 0.69 of total feed intake was consumed during the diurnal period. However, this partition of feed intake was significantly affected by breed, sex, and season. In conclusion, the breed, sex and season significantly affect performance and feeding pattern in growing pigs raised in a tropical climate. Moreover, the results obtained in the present study suggest that differences observed in BW composition between CR and LW are associated with difference in feeding behaviour, in particular, the short-term regulation of feed intake. The effects of breed and sex on individual growth performance and feeding behaviour were studied between 45 and 90 kg BW in two replicates of forty group-housed pigs. The first and the second replicates were carried out during the warm season (i.e. between February and April 2003) and during the hot season (i.e. between August and October 2003), respectively. During the warm season, ambient temperature and relative humidity averaged 25.3째C and 86.0%. The corresponding values for the hot season were 27.9째C and 83.6%. The pigs were grouped in pens of 10 animals on the basis of breed (Creole or Large White) and sex (gilt or castrated male) and given ad libitum access to a grower diet (9.0 MJ/kg net energy and 158 g/kg crude protein) via feed intake recording equipment (Acema 48). An ear-tag transponder was inserted into each pig and this allowed the time, duration, and size of individual visits to be recorded. The growth performance and feeding pattern were significantly affected by breed, sex, and season. The Creole pigs (CR) had a lower average daily gain (ADG) (642 vs. 861 g/d, p<0.01) and carcass lean content (LC90kg) (35.4 vs. 54.5%; p<0.01) and a higher backfat thickness at 90 kg BW (BT90 kg) (23.4 vs. 10.4 mm; p<0.01) than Large White pigs (LW) whereas the average daily feed intake (ADFI) was not affected by breed (2.34 vs. 2.22 kg/d, respectively for CR and LW pigs; p>0.10). Consequently, the food:gain ratio was higher in CR than in LW (3.65 vs. 2.58; p<0.01). CR had less frequent meals but ate more feed per meal than LW (5.9 vs. 8.8 meals/d and 431 vs. 279 g/meal; p<0.01). The rate of feed intake was lower (27.6 vs. 33.9 g/min; p<0.01) and the ingestion time per day and per meal were higher in CR than in LW (87.1 vs. 69.7 min/d and 15.8 vs. 8.4 min/meal; p<0.01). The ADFI and BT90 kg were higher (2.38 vs. 2.17 kg/d and 18.1 vs. 15.9 mm; p<0.05) and LC90 kg was lower (43.5 vs. 46.4%; p<0.01) in castrated males (CM) than in gilts (G) whereas ADG was not affected by sex (p = 0.12). The difference in lean content between CM and G was greater in CR than in LW. The ADFI and ADG were reduced during the hot season (2.18 vs.2.38 kg/d and 726 vs. 777 g/d, respectively; p<0.05) whereas feed conversion and carcass lean content were not affected by season (p>0.05). Average feeding time per meal and meal size decreased during the hot season (10.9 vs. 13.2 min/meal and 316 vs. 396 g/meal; p<0.01) whereas the rate of feed intake was not affected by season (p = 0.83). On average, 0.69 of total feed intake was consumed during the diurnal period. However, this partition of feed intake was significantly affected by breed, sex, and season. In conclusion, the breed, sex and season significantly affect performance and feeding pattern in growing pigs raised in a tropical climate. Moreover, the results obtained in the present study suggest that differences observed in BW composition between CR and LW are associated with difference in feeding behaviour, in particular, the short-term regulation of feed intake.

      • KCI등재후보

        3차원 그래픽 설계와 3D 프린팅에 의한 보조기 쾌속조형 제작 방법 연구

        최봉근(B. G. Choi), 허서윤(S. Y. Heo), 손경태(K. T. Son), 이신영(S. Y. Lee), 나대영(D. Y. Na), 이근민(K. M. Rhee) 한국재활복지공학회 2015 재활복지공학회논문지 Vol.9 No.2

        본 연구에서는 3D 스캐닝에서 획득한 이미지 정보를 바탕으로 3차원 그래픽 제품설계와 3D 프린팅 기술을 적용한 보조기 제작방법을 제시하였다. 뇌성마비 환자를 대상으로 4가지 종류의 보조기를 기존의 수작업이 아닌 전산화된 작업 기술을 적용하여 제작해봄으로써 방법과 절차에 대한 기준을 마련하고, 이 기술이 임상적으로 사용 가능한지 여부에 대해 확인했다. 보조기 사용 시 환자만족도와 보조기 제작시간, 인장강도 등의 비교를 통하여 정량적, 정성적으로 제작방법의 적용 가능성을 검증한 결과 기존의 열가소성 수지가 표출했던 문제를 보완하고 대체가능한 방법이 될 가능성이 있음을 확인하였다. In this paper, we proposed the fabrication methodology of orthotic device using 3D Computer-Aided Design programme and 3D printing technology based on images acquired from 3D scanner. We set the process and methodology of its fabrication method and confirmed whether it is available for clinical by fabricating four kinds of orthotic device for a patient with cerebral palsy. 3D printing technology method was indicated quantitatively and qualitatively about duration, tensile strength stronger comparing with conventional method, and we could propose that the 3D printing technology for the orthosis could be the proper method to mediate and compensate with reported problems related to orthosis.

      • 인공지능을 이용한 3D 콘텐츠 기술 동향 및 향후 전망

        이승욱,황본우,임성재,윤승욱,김태준,김기남,김대희,박창준,Lee,,S.W.,Hwang,,B.W.,Lim,,S.J.,Yoon,,S.U.,Kim,,T.J.,Kim,,K.N.,Kim,,D.H,Park,,C.J. 한국전자통신연구원 2019 전자통신동향분석 Vol.34 No.4

        Recent technological advances in three-dimensional (3D) sensing devices and machine learning such as deep leaning has enabled data-driven 3D applications. Research on artificial intelligence has developed for the past few years and 3D deep learning has been introduced. This is the result of the availability of high-quality big data, increases in computing power, and development of new algorithms; before the introduction of 3D deep leaning, the main targets for deep learning were one-dimensional (1D) audio files and two-dimensional (2D) images. The research field of deep leaning has extended from discriminative models such as classification/segmentation/reconstruction models to generative models such as those including style transfer and generation of non-existing data. Unlike 2D learning, it is not easy to acquire 3D learning data. Although low-cost 3D data acquisition sensors have become increasingly popular owing to advances in 3D vision technology, the generation/acquisition of 3D data is still very difficult. Even if 3D data can be acquired, post-processing remains a significant problem. Moreover, it is not easy to directly apply existing network models such as convolution networks owing to the various ways in which 3D data is represented. In this paper, we summarize technological trends in AI-based 3D content generation.

      • AGREEABLE DOMAINS

        Anderson,,D.,D.,Kwak,,Dong,Je,Zafrullah,,Muhammad 경북대학교 위상수학 기하학연구센터 1995 硏究論文集 Vol.4 No.-

        An integral domain D with quotient field K is defined to be agreeable if for each fractional ideal F of D[X] with F ⊆ K[X] there exists 0 ≠ s ∈ D with sF ⊆ D[X]. D is agreeable ⇔ D satisfies property (*) (for 0 ≠ f(X) ∈ K[X], there exists 0 ≠ s ∈ D so that f(X)g(X) ∈ D[X] for g(X) ∈ K(X) implies that sg(X) ∈ D[X]) ⇔ D[X] is an almost principal domain, i.e., for each nonzero ideal I of D[X] with IK[X] ≠ K[X], there exists f(X) ∈ I and 0 ≠ s ∈ D with sI ⊆ (f(X)). If D is Noetherian or integrally closed, then D is agreeable. A number of other characterizations of agreeable domains are given as are a number of stability properties. For example, if D is agreeable, so is ??Dp_(a) and for a pair of domains D ⊆ D′ with [D: D′] ≠ 0, D is agreeable ⇔ D′ is agreeable. Results on agreeable domains are used to give an alternative treatment of Querre's characterization of divisorial ideals in integrally closed polynomial rings. Finally, the various characterizations of D being agreeable are considered for polynomial rings in several variables.

      • 비타민 D3 의 경구투여 또는 자외선 조사가 브로일러 병아리의 증체 및 비타민 D3 대사에 미치는 영향

        장윤환,김중달,Holick,,M,F,황선일 한국영양사료학회 1995 韓國營養飼料學會誌 Vol.19 No.6

        본 연구는 육계에 대한 vitamin D₃(VD₃)의 경구투여 또는 중파자외선(UVB) 照射가 증체와 VD₃대사에 어떤 영향을 미치는지 구명코자 실시되었다. 1일령 Hubbard 계통 병아리 360수(6 처리 × 3반복 × 20수)에, 기본사료에 VD₃를 1,000, 2,000 또는 3,000IU/㎏(처리 1, 2, 3) 첨가하여 급여하거나, 기본사료만 급여하고 UVB를 30, 45 또는 60분 照射하여(처리 4, 5, 6) 6주간의 증체량, 사료섭취량, 영양소 이용율, 혈장중 Ca, P, VD₃및 25-hydroxyvitamin D₃〔25(OH)D₃〕 함량을 측정하였다. Ca은 원자 흡수 분광광도계로, P은 molybdovanadate 분광광도 계법으로, VD₃와 25(OH)D₃는 HPLC에 의하여 정량되었다. 6주간의 증체량에 있어서 처리간에 유의차가 없었으며, 사료섭취량 및 전환율에 있어서도 유의차가 나타나지 않았다. 가용 무질소물의 이용 효율에 있어서도 각 처리간에 유의차를 보이지 않았다. 3주령 병아리의 혈장중 Ca 농도는 처리 1∼4가 처리 5와 6보다 더 높은 수치를 보였고(P$lt;.05), 6주령 때에는 처리 1과 2가 처리 4∼6보다 높게 나타났으나(P$lt;.05), P 함량은 3주 및 6주령 모두 비슷한 수준을 보였다. 3주령 병아리의 혈장중 VD₃농도는 처리간 유의차가 없었고 25(OH)D₃함량은 처리 2와 3에서 처리 4보다 더 높은 성적을 보였다(P$lt;.05). 6주령 병아리의 VD₃함량은 처리 1과 2가 처리 4와 6보다 높게 나타났으며(P$lt;.05), 25(OH)D₃농도에서는 처리 1∼3이 처리 4와 5보다 높은 결과를 보였다(P$lt;.05). 대체로 혈장 내 Ca, VD₃및 25(OH)D₃함량상 VD₃경구 투여가 UVB 照射 보다 더 높은 값을 보였다. 그 이유로서 VD₃증가 급여는 체내의 Ca 및 VD₃함량을 증가시키고 때로는 중독증을 유발하나, UVB 照射는 불필요한 VD₃의 생성을 억제하기 때문이라 생각 되었다. 본 연구에서는 병아리의 증체를 더 증시하고 처리 1의 VD₃1,000IU/㎏의 경구투여 또는 처리 4의 UVB 30분 照射(매일)를 추천코자 한다. 이 두 처리의 비용을 비교하였을 때 처리 4의 방법이 처리 1보다 경제성이 있었다. 그러므로 육계사육시에 병아리를 태양광선에 노출시키는 연구도 필요 할 것이라 생각된다. This research was carried out to compare the effects of oral administration of vitamin D₃(VD₃) and the irradiation of medium wave ultraviolet(UVB) light for the performance and VD₃metabolism in broiler chicks. Day old Hulbard fine 360 chicks(6 treatment × 3 replication × 20 chicks) were fed the basal diet plus VD₃1,000, 2,000 or 3,000IU/㎏(treatment 1, 2 or 3, respectively) or fed the basal diet only and exposed to UVB light for 30, 45 or 60 min everyday at I'm distance (treatment 4, 5 or 6, respectively). The body weight gain and feed consumption were measured for 6 wk. The nutrient utilization of 2-3 and 5-6 wk period were investigated. The Ca, P, VD₃and 25(OH)D₃contents in plasma of 3 and 6 wk old chicks were analyzed. The Ca and P were quantitated by atomic absorption and molybdovanadate spectrophotometry, and VD₃and 25(OH)D₃by HPLC. The body weight gain, feed consumption, feed Conversion and N-free extract utilization were not significantly different among treatments tested. Ca concentrations in plasma of treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4 at 3 wk was significantly higher than those of treatments 5 and 6 (P$lt;.05). Those were also higher in treatments 1 and 2 than those of rest groups at 6 wk (P$lt;.05). However, the P concentrations in whole groups both of 3 and 6 wk old chicks were similar. The VD₃levels represented no significant difference among treatments at 3 wk age, however, 25(OH) values in treatments 2 and 3 were greater than that in group 4(P$lt;.05). The VD₃contents in plots 1 and 2 were higher than those in treatments 4 and 6 (P$lt;.05), and 25(OH)D₃levels in groups 1-3 were more than those in treatments 4 and 5 (P$lt;.05) at 6 wk old birds. With respect to the concentrations of Ca, VD₃and 25(OH)D₃briefly, the oral VD₃administration presented the higher values compared to the UVB irradiation. It was shown that increasing the dietary supplemental VD₃level presented an increased Ca, VD₃or 25(OH)D₃content in plasma, but increasing the irradiation time of UVB light brought a limited level of those compositions, inhibiting the toxicity of excess VD₃, which was confirmed by other researchers. Consequantly, it was thought that the oral administration of VD₃1,000IU/㎏ that was lowest level among 3 treatments or the UVB irradiation of 30 min, shortest time among 3 applications would be desirable for broiler performance. However, it was known that UVB irradiation for 30 min cost less than VD₃administration of 1,000IU/㎏ did. Furthermore, it was considered that studies on exposing the broiler chicks to the sunlight would be needed in the future.

      • KCI등재SCOPUS

        The Effects of Fat-soluble Vitamin Administration on Plasma Vitamin Status of Nursing Pigs Differ When Provided by Oral Administration or Injection

        Y.D.,Jang,M.D.,Lindemann,H.J.,Monegue,R.L.,Stuart 아세아·태평양축산학회 2014 Animal Bioscience Vol.27 No.5

        Four experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of fat-soluble vitamin administration to sows or newborn pigs on plasma vitamin status. In Exp. 1 and 2, a total of 24 and 43 newborn pigs were allotted to control and vitamin treatments (vitamin D3 with variable addition of vitamins A and E) orally or by i.m. injection. In Exp. 3, pigs from Exp. 2 were allotted to 2 treatments (±vitamins D3 and E in drinking water) for 14 d postweaning. In Exp. 4, twenty-four gestating sows were used for 2 treatments (±injection of a vitamin D3/A/E product 2 wk prepartum). In Exp. 1 and 2, when vitamin D3 was administrated orally or by i.m. injection on d 1 of age, pigs had increased plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH D3) concentration 10 d after administration compared with control pigs (p<0.05). The injectable administration with vitamin D3 and E was able to achieve higher plasma 25-OH D3 (p<0.05) and α-tocopherol (p<0.05) concentrations than oral administration. At weaning, the pigs in the injection group had higher plasma 25-OH D3 concentration than those in the other groups in both studies (p<0.05). In Exp. 3, water supplementation of vitamin D3 and E postweaning increased plasma 25-OH D3 and α-tocopherol concentrations at d 14 postweaning (p<0.01). In Exp. 4, when sows were injected with the vitamin D3 product prepartum, serum 25-OH D3 concentrations of sows at farrowing (p<0.01), and in their progeny at birth (p<0.01) and weaning (p<0.05) were increased. These results demonstrated that fat-soluble vitamin administration to newborn pigs increased plasma 25-OH D3 concentration regardless of administration routes and α-tocopherol concentration by the injectable route, and that water supplementation of vitamin D3 and E to nursery pigs increased plasma 25-OH D3 and α-tocopherol concentrations. Additionally, injecting sows with vitamin D3 prepartum increased 25-OH D3 in sows and their offspring. If continued research demonstrates that the serum levels of 25-OH D3 are critical in weanling pigs, a variety of means to increase those levels are available to swine producers.

      • KCI등재

        Dosimetric comparison of axilla and groin radiotherapy techniques for high-risk and locally advanced skin cance

        Malcolm,D.,Mattes,Ying,Zhou,Sean,L.,Berry,Christopher,A.,Barker 대한방사선종양학회 2016 Radiation Oncology Journal Vol.34 No.2

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        Purpose: Radiation therapy targeting axilla and groin lymph nodes improves regional disease control in locally advanced and high-risk skin cancers. However, trials generally used conventional two-dimensional radiotherapy (2D-RT), contributing towards elatively high rates of side effects from treatment. The goal of this study is to determine if three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), or volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) may improve radiation delivery to the target while avoiding organs at risk in the clinical context of skin cancer regional nodal irradiation. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients with locally advanced/high-risk skin cancers underwent computed tomography simulation. The relevant axilla or groin planning target volumes and organs at risk were delineated using standard definitions. Paired t-tests were used to compare the mean values of several dose-volumetric parameters for each of the 4 techniques. Results: In the axilla, the largest improvement for 3D-CRT compared to 2D-RT was for homogeneity index (13.9 vs. 54.3), at the expense of higher lung V20 (28.0% vs. 12.6%). In the groin, the largest improvements for 3D-CRT compared to 2D-RT were for anorectum Dmax (13.6 vs. 38.9 Gy), bowel D200cc (7.3 vs. 23.1 Gy), femur D50 (34.6 vs. 57.2 Gy), and genitalia Dmax (37.6 vs. 51.1 Gy). IMRT had further improvements compared to 3D-CRT for humerus Dmean (16.9 vs. 22.4 Gy), brachial plexus D5 (57.4 vs. 61.3 Gy), bladder D5 (26.8 vs. 36.5 Gy), and femur D50 (18.7 vs. 34.6 Gy). Fewer differences were observed between IMRT and VMAT. Conclusion: Compared to 2D-RT and 3D-CRT, IMRT and VMAT had dosimetric advantages in the treatment of nodal regions of skin cancer patients.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Nutrient Balance and Glucose Metabolism of Female Growing, Late Pregnant and Lactating Etawah Crossbred Goats

        Astuti,,D.A.,Sastradipradja,,D.,Sutardi,,T. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2000 Animal Bioscience Vol.13 No.8

        A study involving nutrient balances and radioisotope labeling techniques was undertaken to study energy and protein metabolism, and glucose kinetics of female crossbred Etawah goats, using 12 weaned (BW $14.0{\pm}2.0kg$), 12 late pregnant (BW $27.8{\pm}1.8kg$) and 12 first lactation does (BW $25.0{\pm}5.0kg$). Each class of animal was randomly allotted into 3 dietary treatment groups R1, R2 and R3, that received 100%, 85%, and 70% of ad libitum feed. The rations offered were pellets containing 21.8% CP and 19.3 MJ GE/kg, except for the lactating does who received pellets (17.2% CP and 18.9 MJ GE/kg) and fresh Penisetum purpureum grass. Energy and nitrogen balance studies were conducted during a two-week trial. Daily heat production (HP, estimated by the carbon dioxide entry rate technique), glucose pool and flux were measured. Equations were found for metabolizable energy (ME) and protein intake (IP) requirements for growing goats: ME (MJ/d)=1.87+0.55 RE-0.001 ADG+0.044 RP $(R^2=0.89)$ and IP (g/d)=48.47+2.99 RE+0.029 ADG+0.79 RP $(R^2=0.90)$; for pregnant does: ME (MJ/d)=5.92+0.96 RE-0.002 ADG+0.003 RP $(R^2=0.99)$ and IP (g/d)=58.34+5.41 RE+0.625 ADG-0.30 RP $(R^2=0.98)$; and for lactating does: ME (MJ/d)=4.23+0.713 RE+0.003 ADG+0.006 RP+0.002 MY $(R^2=0.86)$; IP (g/d)=84.05-5.36 RE+0.055 ADG-0.16 RP+0.068 MY $(R^2=0.45)$, where RE is retained energy (MJ/d), ADG is average daily gain in weight (g/d), RP is retained protein (g/d) and MY is milk yield (ml/d). ME and IP requirements for maintenance for growing goats were 0.46 MJ/d.kg $BW^{0.75}$ and 7.43 g/d.kg $BW^{0.75}$, respectively. Values for the pregnant and lactating does were in the same order, 0.55 MJ/d.kg $BW^{0.75}$ and 11.7 g/d.kg $BW^{0.75}$, and 0.50 MJ/d.kg $BW^{0.75}$ and 10.8 g/d.kg $BW^{0.75}$, respectively. Milk protein ranged from 3.06 to 3.5% and milk fat averaged 5.2%. Glucose metabolism in Etawah crossbred female goat is active, but glucose flux is low compared to temperate ruminant breeds which may implicate its role to support production.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재후보

        Dosimetric comparison of axilla and groin radiotherapy techniques for high-risk and locally advanced skin cancer

        Mattes,,Malcolm,D.,Zhou,,Ying,Berry,,Sean,L.,Barker,,Christopher,A. The Korean Society for Radiation Oncology 2016 Radiation Oncology Journal Vol.34 No.2

        Purpose: Radiation therapy targeting axilla and groin lymph nodes improves regional disease control in locally advanced and high-risk skin cancers. However, trials generally used conventional two-dimensional radiotherapy (2D-RT), contributing towards relatively high rates of side effects from treatment. The goal of this study is to determine if three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), or volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) may improve radiation delivery to the target while avoiding organs at risk in the clinical context of skin cancer regional nodal irradiation. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients with locally advanced/high-risk skin cancers underwent computed tomography simulation. The relevant axilla or groin planning target volumes and organs at risk were delineated using standard definitions. Paired t-tests were used to compare the mean values of several dose-volumetric parameters for each of the 4 techniques. Results: In the axilla, the largest improvement for 3D-CRT compared to 2D-RT was for homogeneity index (13.9 vs. 54.3), at the expense of higher lung $V_{20}$ (28.0% vs. 12.6%). In the groin, the largest improvements for 3D-CRT compared to 2D-RT were for anorectum $D_{max}$ (13.6 vs. 38.9 Gy), bowel $D_{200cc}$ (7.3 vs. 23.1 Gy), femur $D_{50}$ (34.6 vs. 57.2 Gy), and genitalia $D_{max}$ (37.6 vs. 51.1 Gy). IMRT had further improvements compared to 3D-CRT for humerus $D_{mean}$ (16.9 vs. 22.4 Gy), brachial plexus $D_5$ (57.4 vs. 61.3 Gy), bladder $D_5$ (26.8 vs. 36.5 Gy), and femur $D_{50}$ (18.7 vs. 34.6 Gy). Fewer differences were observed between IMRT and VMAT. Conclusion: Compared to 2D-RT and 3D-CRT, IMRT and VMAT had dosimetric advantages in the treatment of nodal regions of skin cancer patients.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        The Effects of Fat-soluble Vitamin Administration on Plasma Vitamin Status of Nursing Pigs Differ When Provided by Oral Administration or Injection

        Jang,,Y.D.,Lindemann,,M.D.,Monegue,,H.J.,Stuart,,R.L. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2014 Animal Bioscience Vol.27 No.5

        Four experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of fat-soluble vitamin administration to sows or newborn pigs on plasma vitamin status. In Exp. 1 and 2, a total of 24 and 43 newborn pigs were allotted to control and vitamin treatments (vitamin $D_3$ with variable addition of vitamins A and E) orally or by i.m. injection. In Exp. 3, pigs from Exp. 2 were allotted to 2 treatments (${\alpha}$vitamins $D_3$ and E in drinking water) for 14 d postweaning. In Exp. 4, twenty-four gestating sows were used for 2 treatments (${\pm}injection$ of a vitamin $D_3$/A/E product 2 wk prepartum). In Exp. 1 and 2, when vitamin $D_3$ was administrated orally or by i.m. injection on d 1 of age, pigs had increased plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH $D_3$) concentration 10 d after administration compared with control pigs (p<0.05). The injectable administration with vitamin $D_3$ and E was able to achieve higher plasma 25-OH $D_3$ (p<0.05) and ${\alpha}$-tocopherol (p<0.05) concentrations than oral administration. At weaning, the pigs in the injection group had higher plasma 25-OH $D_3$ concentration than those in the other groups in both studies (p<0.05). In Exp. 3, water supplementation of vitamin $D_3$ and E postweaning increased plasma 25-OH $D_3$ and ${\alpha}$-tocopherol concentrations at d 14 postweaning (p<0.01). In Exp. 4, when sows were injected with the vitamin $D_3$ product prepartum, serum 25-OH $D_3$ concentrations of sows at farrowing (p<0.01), and in their progeny at birth (p<0.01) and weaning (p<0.05) were increased. These results demonstrated that fat-soluble vitamin administration to newborn pigs increased plasma 25-OH $D_3$ concentration regardless of administration routes and ${\alpha}$-tocopherol concentration by the injectable route, and that water supplementation of vitamin $D_3$ and E to nursery pigs increased plasma 25-OH $D_3$ and ${\alpha}$-tocopherol concentrations. Additionally, injecting sows with vitamin $D_3$ prepartum increased 25-OH $D_3$ in sows and their offspring. If continued research demonstrates that the serum levels of 25-OH $D_3$ are critical in weanling pigs, a variety of means to increase those levels are available to swine producers.

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