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경희대학교 치과대학병원 소아치과에 내원한 환자 중, negative이거나 definitively negative로 분류되는, 전신적으로 건강한(ASA I) 4세미만의 아동 20명(평균 30.8개월, 남아 12명, 여아 8명)을 대상으로 하여, 두 차례의 진료를 시행하였다. 첫 진료시 chloral hydrate(50mg/kg)와 hydroxyzine HCl(25mg)만을 경구투여하고, 동일한 대상에게 두 번째 진료시 chloral hydrate (50mg/kg)와 hydroxyzine HCl(25mg)의 경구투여와 함께 $N_2O-O_2$를 병용하여 통상의 보존적 처치를 시행하였다. 각 치료과정 별로 나타나는 진정효과를 Houpt의 평가표(수면, 울음, 움직임, 전반적 행동지수)에 의해 측정하였고, pulse oximeter를 이용하여 맥박수 및 동맥혈 산소포화도의 차이 등을 비교, 평가하여 그 결과 chloral hydrate와 hydroxyzine HCl의 경구투여와 함께 $N_2O-O_2$를 병용한 경우가 chloral hydrate와 hydroxyzine만을 경구투여한 경우에 비해 어린이의 행동조절에 더 바람직한 진정요법인 것으로 판단된다. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical sedation effect of chloral hydrate and hydroxyzine combination with and without nitrous oxide/oxygen inhalation when young children were sedated for dental treatment. The uncooperative 20 children aged, 21 to 47 months of age(ASA Class I), participated in the study. The author examined 20 children(male 12, female 8). Each patient was assigned to receive chloral hydrate(50mg/kg) and hydroxyzine(25mg). Next appointment, each patient was assigned to receive $N_2O-O_2$, choral hydrate and hydroxyzine. Sleep, crying, movement, and overall behavior response were evaluated, and the sedative effects were evaluated by Houpt's rating scale. Pulse rate and peripheral oxygen saturation were also measured for monitoring the sedated patients during treatment period by pulse oximeter. The result were as follows : 1. In the evaluation of sleep scores, crying scores, and movement scores, chloral $hydrate/hydroxyzine/N_2O-O_2$ combination group was significantly rated high(p<0.05). 2. In the evaluation of overall behavior scores, chloral hydrate/hydroxyzine/$N_2O-O_2$ combination group was significantly rated high(p<0.05). 3. In the evaluation of overall behavior evaluation scores(by Houpt), 93.3% in chloral $hydrate/hydroxyzine/N_2O-O_2$ combination group and 63.3% in chloral hydrate/hydroxyzine combination group were rated "good" or "very good". 4. There was no adverse side effect(i.e. respiratory depression) in both group.
Among the numerous works by Kyokutei Bakin, one of the authors who had the most readership from the late Edo period to the Meiji era, "Musobyoe kocho monogatari" was particularly popular so that it was published in the next edition. In this article, we try to look at the work from a new perspective by adding the keyword 'foreign land' to the existing interpretation. It is pointed out that the publication of "Musobyoe kocho monogatari" has nothing to do with the background of the heightened interest in foreign lands. Through this, we look at the interest in society's foreign land at the time the work was published, and how Bakin portrayed the foreign land when writing the work. It can be understood that Barkin's "Musobyoe kocho monogatari" is a work that solved the reader's curiosity and aroused interest in foreign lands at this time. The various elements related to foreign lands in the work reflect the curiosity of a country that exists in the imagination and cannot go directly, and the characteristics of the times in the late modern times, when foreign cultures are introduced.
日本の近世は、出版業が発達し多くの書物が流通され、読書を楽しむ人が増加した時期である。これに従い、文人の執筆活動も活発になり、文人の間における知的·学問的交流もまた持続的に行われた。 19世紀に活躍した曲亭馬琴は、作品のほかにも日記、書簡、随筆など、様々な記録物を残した。馬琴の作者人生のなかで後半期の記録がほとんどであるが、彼の当時の交友関係と思想、彼をめぐる事件や事故を把握できるという点で、これらの記録物は大変重要な価値を持つ。 その中でも、書簡は馬琴の身近な文人らと交わした安否と問答の内容が中心となっていることから、文人の間における交流の状況を把握するに重要な意味を持つ。馬琴の書簡の研究は、彼の交流した文人との人的交流と作品内容の共有と批評を中心とする知的交流に分けることができる。このように書簡の綿密な分析と検討作業を通じて日本近世後期の文人の交流の様相の一部を把握することができる。 In the modern Japanese era, as the publishing industry developed and many books were distributed, the number of people who enjoyed reading increased exponentially. Accordingly, the writing activities of literary people began to broaden in spectrum, as both intellectual and academic exchanges amongst them kept on expanding and developing actively. In addition to his works, Kyokutei Bakin, who was active in the 19th century, left a variety of documents such as diaries, epistles, and essays. Although most of Bakin's documents are from the latter half of his life, these documents are of great value in that he can grasp the relationship and thoughts of his companionship and the events and incidents surrounding him. Among them, the epistle has an important meaning in examining the exchange situation between literary people as it is centered around the contents of questions and answers and in regards with Bakin exchanged with nearby literary people. The study of Bakin's epistle can be divided into human exchanges with literary people he exchanged and intellectual exchanges centered on sharing and criticizing the contents of his work. As such, it is possible to grasp a part of the exchange pattern of Japanese literary people in the late modern era through a close analysis and review work.
This article introduces the types of "Kumiodori", a traditional dance handed down to the kingdom of Ryukyu in Okinawa Prefecture Japan. It also introduces what each piece has and what are its characteristics, and examples of the works used in literary works in the Edo period. The Kingdom of Ryukyu is a country with a short history of 450 years, but it is greatly influenced by China and has the characteristics of both Japan and China. Even if you look only at traditional dances, you will find many unique parts that differ from the traditional forms of Japan. The uniqueness of the traditional dance of the Kingdom of Ryukyu is not to be overlooked in terms of the acceptance of Chinese traditions in addition to the traditional culture of an independent country different from Japan. This paper examines the types and characteristics of Kumiodori, a traditional dance of the Kingdom of Ryukyu, and how the contents of major works were utilized in modern literature. Chokun’s five works are the most common among Kumiodori and appear in various forms in later literary works and literary content.
本硏究は、18-19世紀の日本において盛んに行われた知識人の會と考證隨筆の執筆が「知識」の形成とどのような關わりを持つのかを考察した成果の一部分である。 兎園會とは、曲亭馬琴を中心とする知識人の會で、珍しい話や奇談を交わしながら互いの知識を共有し見聞を廣めるために1825年に結成された。兎園會には樣々な分野で活躍する知識人たちが參加し、そのため異なる關心分野と專門分野の知識が共有できた。兎園會で話し合って共有した知識は、『兎園小說』として編纂された。その內容は、知人の消息から世間の噂話のような「情報」をはじめ、隱語や故事關連の內容などの「知識」も含まれている。このことは兎園會が單に「情報」の共有のみを目的に結成されたのではなく、「知識」共有の性質をも持っていることを意味する。 このように知識人と呼ばれた文人たちが中心となって結成された會を通して多くの「知識」が共有され、これが文字として書かれ書籍が編纂されたことをきっかけに、知識は會から外へ廣がった。江戶や京都、大阪のような書籍流通の中心地で知識が形成され、書籍流通の活性化によって知識が擴散されたのである。 This research is a part of the result of considering how the association of intellectuals vigorously conducted in Japan in the 18th and 19th century and the writing of essay writing correlated with the formation of "knowledge". Toenkai was formed in 1825 to share knowledge and spread the view while exchanging rare stories and strangers at a meeting of intellectuals by Kyokutei Bakin. Intelligent people who are active in various fields participated in the Toenkai, so it was possible to share knowledge of different areas of interest and expertise. The knowledge shared by discussing at Toenkai was compiled as "Toenshosetsu". The content includes "information" such as gossip stories of the public from the fate of acquaintances, "knowledge" such as contents of lyrics and story-related content. This means that Toenkai was not formed solely for the purpose of sharing "information" but also has the property of "knowledge" sharing. Many "knowledge" was shared through the association formed mainly by writers who were called intellectuals, and as a result of the fact that this was written as a letter and books were compiled, and then knowledge spread out from the party. Knowledge was formed in the center of book distribution such as Edo, Kyoto, Osaka, knowledge was spread by revitalization of book distribution.
최근 4차 산업혁명의 신기술의 영향으로 기뢰위협이 고조되고 있다. 러시아는 스마트 기뢰를 개발하여 세계 무기시장에 선보이고 있고, 중국은 고성능 기뢰를 개발하여 미국을 견제하고자 한다. 이에 따라 미국과 유럽국가들은 새로운 기뢰대항 패러다임으로 stand-off MCM 개념을 정립하여 연안전투함이나 소해함이 기뢰원 외곽에서 무인기뢰대항체계를 운용하는 방식을 채택했다. 한편 러시아, 중국의 기뢰성능 고도화는 북한의 기뢰성능 고도화로 연계될 가능성이 높다. 따라서 한국해군은 현존 기뢰위협과 미래 기뢰위협에 대비하여 소해함과 무인기뢰대항체계간 통합운용 개념을 조속히 수립하여 stand-off MCM 개념에 입각한 기뢰대항전력 건설이 필요하다. The mine threat has recently been escalating due to the influence of new technologies in the fourth industrial revolution. Russia has developed smart mines and introduced them to the world arms market, while China wants to keep the United States in check by developing high-sophisticated mines. Accordingly, the U.S. and European countries have established the concept of stand-off MCM as a new MCM paradigm and adopted a method of operating unmanned MCM systems outside the minefield. Meanwhile, the upgrading of mine performance by Russia and China is likely to lead to the upgrading of mine performance by North Korea. Therefore, the Korean Navy needs to establish the concept of integrated operation between the ship and the unmanned MCM system as soon as possible in preparation for existing and future mine threats, and build MCM forces based on the Stand-off MCM concept.