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The purpose of this study was to verify the validity and reliability on the 4 types of volleyball serve skill testing model. Subjects were 2 grade women's middle school(n=122) student which had practiced underhand serve for 6 week before the trial. They were tested 4 types of volleyball serve skill testing model in randomly order. The 4 types of testing model included AAHPERD, Russell-Lange Choi's model and new designed professional model which was invented by physical education teacher at middle school. We tested twice in randomly order and evaluated the validity, reliability and skill improvement on the 4 types of volleyball serve skill testing model. The results were as follows; 1) There were high correlation(r=.80) in validity among 4 types of volleyball serve skill testing model(p<01). 2) We examed a pre and post serve skill test for each model, and there were significant correlation in reliability for Choi's model(r=.839) and AAHPERD(r=.794) in order. 3) For the compensating the validity and reliability on the 4 type testing model, we have compared the scatter gram to normal curve and evaluating the skeness and kurtosis. Ther were high values on the Choi's model which was .833 and AAHPERD(.675) in skewness. In addition, there were positive value in kurtosis on the Russel-Lange which was .037 and negative values on the 3 testing model. 4) It has showed that success of serve test was 63.5% following 6 week practice and 30% of the students did not make any serve in the trial. 5) There were significant correlation between physique and serve skill among 4 types of volleyball serve skill testing. Specially, we have verified that height showed highest correlation with success of volleyball serve(r=.303). In summary, evidence for the combined evaluation of normal curve, reliability and validity on the 4 types testing model, we have concluded that choi's model showed the best evaluation method for middle school student. Furthermore, Choi's model revealed the easiest way to drawing court in class exam. Therefore, we recommended that Choi's model was the most valuable underhand volleyball serve skill testing model among the 4 model and very effective testing method for middle school student.
The purpose of this study was investigate the competitive state anxiety of elementary school handball players. For the purpose, elementary school handball players were selected. The levels of competitive state anxiety, cognitive state anxiety, physical state anxiety and self-confidence were classified by game record(mastery/defeat) and by gender(male/female) with the use of the sports competitive state anxiety investigation(CSAI-Ⅱ) questionnaire developed by martens et al.(1990). For the analysis, 2-wasy ANOVA was conducted using the SPSS 10.0 with grouping game record(mastery/defeat) and gender(male/ female) as independent variables and competitive state anxiety as dependent variables. One-way ANOVA was conducted to investigate the difference on sports competitive state anxiety according to rival cognitive levels. The level of significance was set at α= .05. As a result, the following findings were obtained: (1) As for Handball player`s level of cognitive state anxiety, male Handball players showed a not statistically significant lower level than female players. The excellent players had the lower level than ordinary players, which was statistically significant(p= .000). (2) As for Handball player`s level of physical state anxiety, male Handball players showed a not statistically significant lower level than female players. The excellent players had the lower level than ordinary players, which was statistically significant(p= .004). (3) As for Handball player`s level of self-confidence, male Handball players showed a statistically significant higher level than female players(p=.000). Also the excellent players had the higher level than ordinary players, which was statistically significant(p= .002). (4) The difference on sports competitive state anxiety according to rival cognitive levels showed a statistically significant on sports competitive state anxiety(p= .000).
The purpose of this study was to discover ways of promoting boardsailing and some important conclusions were drawn by means of taking the following four aspects into consideration. 1. General characteristics 2. Actual participation 3. Economic factors 4. Special excise tax. 1) The analysis has suggested that a remarkable discrepancy exists in the recognition of special excise tax with regards to average monthly income. 2) As for the government's attempt to impose special excise tax on boardsailing, the predominant public opinion is that it is irrational. It is discovered that the longer the participation period, the stronger the opposition on tax. 3) Following the imposition of special excise tax, the highest proportion has complained that the sailing equipment have become much difficult to aford. 4) It has been found that the imposing of special excise tax has a negative effect on the promotion of boardsailing. 5) On the relationship between popularization, development and pricing most respondents have commented that there is an absolute close relationship. 6) There is a notable discrepancy in recognition of special excise tax implementation for varying participation period, and the longer the participation, the more he is aware of the tax implementation. 7) The majority of respondents have suggested that boardsailing deserves neither a treatment as high class sport nor subjection to special excise tax.