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Dibenzepine is a new dibenzodizepine derivative with tricyclci chemical configuration. Chemically, it is 10-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-5, 10-dihydro-5-methyl-11-H-dibenzo [b,e][1,4] diazepine-11-one Hydrochloride. In the clinical investigation, it was found to have moderate anxiolytic and thymoanaleptic action and to be safe drug. It has mild or transient side effect and good tolerance, even in larger dosage. It shows more rapid drug response, and is suitable to use in outpatient treatment. Many clinicial investigators have suggested that dibenzepine is indicated for depression of endogenous, endoreactive and reactive origin, involutional and organic depression. Also, investigators suggested that any new psychotropic drugs should be tested for its interaction with alcohol, because they might precipitate the risk situation in case of consuming them concurrently. In view of these reports, the author conducted an animal experiment to investigate the effects of dibenzepine on blood alcohol level in rabbits. Material and Method 1. The experimental work was done on mature rabbits of both sexes, weighing about 2 ㎏. 2. The experimental animals were divided into two group: the control anp the experimental group. 3. The control group was given alcohol alone. 4. The experimental group was divided into 4 subgroups: a) alcohol plus dibenzepine, 80㎎/㎏ of body weight daily for 5 days. b) alcohol plus dibenzepine, 80㎎/㎏ of body weight daily for 10 days. c) alcohol plus dibenzepine, 160㎎/㎏ of body weight daily for 5 days. d) alcohol plus dibenzepine, 160㎎/㎏ of body weight daily for 10 days. 5. Dibenzepine was given orally in a single dose at a fixed time. The last dose was given one hour and a half before alcohol administration. 6. In all groups, 20% ethanol solution was slowly given in a dose of 5.0㎖/㎏ of body weight for 5 minutes by intravenous route. 7. All of the blood specimens were obtained by cardiac puncture at both 15 and 45 minutes after alcohol administration 8. The determination of blood alcohol level was made by Cavett's method. Results 1. Alcohol plus dibenzepine, 80㎎/㎏ of body weight daily for 5 day. Dibenzepine did not change the blood alcohol level significantly at both 15 and 45 minutes after alcohol administration (p>0.05). 2. Alcohol plus dibenzepine, 80㎎/㎏ of body weight daily for 10 days. In this group, these was also no significant change in the blood level at both 15 and 45 minutes after alcohol administration (p>0.05). 3. Alcohol plus dibenzapine, 160㎎/㎏ of body weight daily for 5 days. In this group, these was also no significant change in the blood level at both 15 and 45 minutes after alcohol administration (p>0.05). 4. Alcohol plus dibenzapine, 160㎎/㎏ of body weight daily for 10 days. In this group, dibenzepine elevated the blood alcohol level significantly at both 15(p>0.02) and 45 (p 0.02) minutes after alcohol administration. Conclusion 1. Dibenzepine when administered orally in a dose of 80㎎/㎏ of body weight dialy for 5 or 10 days, did not change the blood alcohol level significantly at both 15 and 45 minutes after alcohol administration. 2. Dibenzepine, when administered orally in a dose of 160㎎/㎏ of body weight daily for 5 days, did not elevate the blood alcohol level significantly at both 15 and 45 minutes after alcohol administration. But, dibenzepine, when administered orally in the same dose daily for 10 days, elevated the blood alcohol level significantly at both 15 and 45 minutes after alcohol administration.
본 연구는 2013년 미용전공 일반대학원 개설현황을 조사하고 각 대학원의 교과과정을 분석하고 정리하여 일반대학원 교과과정 방향을 제시하는데 목적이 있다. 또한 각 교과목에 따른 필요성과 불일치 교과목명에 대한 선호도를 알아보기 위해 미용전문가 200명을 대상으로 설문조사를 실시, 회수된 182부의 설문지를 분석한 결과 다음과 같은 결론을 얻었다. 첫째, 일반적인 특성에서 성별은 남자 7명(3.8%), 여자 176명(96.2%)으로 나타났고, 연령은 40-49세 75명(41.2%)로 가장 높게 나타났다. 둘째, 전공영역별 교 과목 필요도에서 공통에서 논문연구(M=4.62), 헤어에서 헤어커트(M=4.20), 메이크업에서 색채학(M=4.18), 피부미용에서 테라피 (M=4.29)가 가장 필요도가 높은 교과목으로 나타났다. 셋째, 불일치 교과목명에 대한 선호도에서 공통에서 논문작성법(42.3%), 헤어 에서 모발과학 특론(34.1%), 메이크업에서 뷰티일러스트레이션 연구(70.9%), 피부미용에서 피부과학 특론(51.1%) 등이 선호도가 높 은것으로 나타났다. This study attempted to investigate cosmetology-related graduate courses in 2013 and analyze related curricula in order to set a direction for graduate programs. And to find out the necessity of each course and the students’ preference for course titles, a questionnaire survey was conducted with 200 cosmetologists. Among them, 182 copies were collected and analyzed. From this survey the following results were obtained. First, in terms of gender, women represented 96.2% (176) of the respondents while men represented 3.8% (7). In terms of age, ‘40-49’ was the highest age group with 75 respondents (41.2%). Second, according??to an analysis on the necessity of courses by major, ‘Study on Thesis (M=4.62)’, ‘Haircut (M=4.20)’, ‘Chromatology (M=4.18)’ and ‘Therapy (M=4.29)’ were the highest in common courses, with hair, makeup and skin care ranking highest respectively. Third, in the preference for course titles, ‘Thesis Preparation Skills (42.3%)’, ‘Special Topics on Hair Science (34.1%)’, ‘Study of Beauty Illustration (70.9%)’ and ‘Special Topics on Skin Science (51.1%)’ were the most preferred titles for common courses, with hair, makeup and skin care ranking highest respectively.
Objective: This study is to evaluate the awareness, needs, and barriers in patient counseling for hospitalized foreign patients. As the number of foreign population increases in Korea, demands on quality of Korean health services are rapidly increasing. Previously most of the studies have focused on the availability and utilization of healthcare service, and prevalence of disease for foreigners, however, no study has been conducted on quality of direct-patient care such as patient counseling. Method: In the present study, a survey was conducted on a total of 161 participants between March 7 and May 7 in 2014. The study subjects were consisted with 103 foreign patients who had experienced inpatient care within 1 year and 58 hospital pharmacists who work in the hospital with foreign inpatients. Results: Firstly, the hospital pharmacists were highly aware of the necessity of counseling for foreign inpatients. Secondly, the largest portion of barrier to patient counseling service was accounted a lack of foreign language skills. Lastly, the monitoring of efficacy, potential adverse reactions and discharge follow-up were emphasized. Conclusion: Effective communication skills would be essential to improve pharmaceutical care services to foreign inpatients.
Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the safe medication utilization and the education demands during pregnancy and it further reported the development of educational materials for pregnant women. Methods: A survey was conducted in two tertiary care university hospitals and one community hospital specialized in obstetrics and gynecology from July 2 to 29 2014. The survey questionnaires included the usage of medications and the unmet needs on medication use during pregnancy. Ad ditionally, pregnant women’s requests regarding to medication use were collected through group interviewing of community pharmacists. Based on these results, educational materials were de veloped and implemented. After implementing the education sessions, the satisfaction was evaluated. Results: A total of 152 pregnant women answered completely the questionnaire. Among them, 130 participants (42.8%) were given the medication information from their physicians. Exposure to a teratogenic drug during pregnancy was a major concern for most pregnant women (79.6%). The majority (90.1%) of subjects reported a necessity of medication-related education during their pregnancy. The interview with 48 pharmacists indicated that the most commonly used OTC drugs in pregnancy were vitamins (25.2%), iron supplements (23.7%), and the most frequently used prescription drugs were antiinflammatory-analgesics (25.3%), followed by antibiotics (20.9 %). Based on the results, booklets of drug therapy during pregnancy, leaflet of pregnancy category index were made. Also, on-line flash and presentation materials for instructors were prepared. Through the trial education with the developed materials, it was confirmed that the contents of education materials were well understood and satisfied by the pregnant women. Conclusions: This study showed the need of the medication-related education for the pregnant women. The developed education materials would be helpful sources to provide accurate and reliable medication-related information to health professionals and pregnant women. 본 연구에서는 임신부의 약물복용 현황 및 교육 요구 도를 조사하여 올바른 정보전달을 위한 교육교재를 개발하고자 하였다. 임신부를 대상으로 의약품 안전사용 교육 경험을 조사한 결과 97.4%의 임신부가 경험이 없었으며, 90.1%가 의약품 안전사용에 관한 교육이 필요 하다고 인식하고 있어 본 교재개발이 적절했음을 시사 하였다. 약물에 관한 안전성 및 위험성 정보는 의사, 약사에게서 얻는 경우가 많았으며, 임신 중 의약품 복용시 궁금한 사항으로는 약물노출로 인한 선천성 기형유발 및 임신부에 대한 악물유해반응이 가장 높았고 선호 하는 교육자료 형태는 개별 복약지도용 리플릿이었다. 개발된 교육자료의 현장 시범교육을 통해 임신부의 95 % 이상이 만족하였다고 응답하였으며 91% 이상이 약물복용의 올바른 이해에 도움이 되었다는 평가를 받았 다.
Adolescent substance abuse is a heterogenous phenomenon in context of encompassing diverse substances patterns, and etiologies. Recently there has been a remarkable resurgence in adolescent substance abuse in Korea. Even if majority of adolescents who use substances do not progress to abuse or dependence, carlier adolescent substances use and heavier adolescent substance use are strongly related with greater risk of later drug problems. The etiology of adolescent substance abuse is not involved with a single factor, but multiple eriological pathways including biological factors(generic, temperament), developmental factors, psychological factors, familial factors, social factor, and individual characteristics. There is no single resilence trait, and risk factors interact with protective factors including intelligence, problem-solving ability, positive self-esteem, supportive family relationships, and affect reglulation. The author will review the adolescent substance abuse focusing on multifactorial ctiological pathways in terms of developmental new point of adolescence.
[Purpose]The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between physical environment and student satisfaction, physical environment and class concentration, class concentration and student satisfaction, and student satisfaction and class concentration, focusing on service landscape, which is relatively lacking in education service research. [Methodology]For this purpose, 300 students were selected from 30 university and graduate school. Based on the collected data, statistical analyses were applied to verify the hypotheses. [Findings]The results showed that there were positive relationships among physical environment and student satisfaction, physical environment and class concentration, student satisfaction and class concentration, and class concentration and student satisfaction. [Implications]In this study, it was demonstrated that environmental factor and design factors affect student satisfaction and class concentration in addition to social interaction factors which were relatively overlooked in quality improvement research of existing college education. Therefore, it implies that social interaction is important besides institutional factors in educational service environment. [연구목적]본 연구에서는 교육서비스 연구에서 상대적으로 연구가 부족했던 서비스스케이프를 중심으로 강의실의 물리적 환경과 수업 집중도, 물리적 환경과 학생만족, 수업 집중도와 학생만족, 학생만족과 수업집중도의 관계에 대해 파악하고자 한다. [연구방법]이를 위해 전국의 4년제 국립․사립․전문대학외 대학원을 포함하여 총 30개 대학․대학원에서 자료를 300부 배포하였다. 회수된 300부의 응답지는 모두 유효․분석에 활용하였다. 수집된 자료를 바탕으로 회귀분석을 적용하여 연구가설에 대한 검증을 실시하였다. [연구결과]대학교육서비스에서 물리적 환경이 수업 집중도와 학생만족에 미치는 연구 결과는 다음과 같다. 물리적 환경은 수업집중에 정의 영향을 미치며, 물리적 환경 요인중에서도 환경적 요인이 가장 많은 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 또한, 물리적 환경은 학생만족에 정의 영향을 미치며, 사회적 상호 작용 요인이 학생만족에 가장 많은 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 학생만족과 수업 집중도, 수업집중도와 학생만족간의 관계 역시 모두 정의 영향 관계를 나타냈다. [연구의 시사점]본 연구에서는 상대적으로 간과되었던 사회 상호작용 요인외에, 환경적 요인, 디자인 요인 등이 학생만족과 수업집중도에 영향을 미치고 있음을 실증하였다. 이로 인해 교육서비스환경에서 시설적 요인외에 사회적 상호작용이 중요하다는 시사점을 제공하였다.
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본 연구는 고교생을 중심으로 청소년이 농촌에 대하여 어떻게 인식하고 있는지, 농촌에 대한 정주의사를 탐색함으로써 농촌의 지속가능성을 위한 기초자료를 제공하는데 목적이 있다. 이를 위하여, 2014년 4월부터 6월까지 전남지역 22개 시·군의 고교 중 설문조사에 응한 40개 고등학교의 학생을 대상으로 설문조사를 실시하였으며, 거주지, 성별 등 인구사회학적 집단에 따른 인식 차이를 비교 분석하였다. 조사결과, 도시 청소년에 비해 농촌 청소년이 상대적으로 긍정적인 농촌성 인식을 갖고 있으며, 지역사회소속감과 정주의사가 높은 것으로 나타났다. 농촌에 거주하고 있는 고등학생 중에서는 여학생이 남학생보다 부정적인 농촌 성 인식을 갖고 있으며, 지역사회소속감과 정주의사가 낮은 것으로 나타났다. 또한 정주의사가 높은 집단이 긍정적인 농촌성 인식이 높았고, 지역사회소속감이 높은 것으로 나타났다. 그러므로 농촌의 지속가능성을 위해서 농촌 청소년이 정주하기에 매력적인 방안 모색으로 긍정적인 농촌의 이미지를 높이고, 지역사회소속감을 증진시킬 수 있는 접근이 필요하다. 특히 농촌 여학생의 정주 환경을 개선하는 정책이 필요함을 제안하였다. 마지막으로 학교사회복지가 농촌 고등학교에 우선적으로 도입되어야 할 필요성이 있음을 제안하였다. The purpose of this study is to explore how high school students recognize rurality and rural settlements with the objective to provide a basis for the sustainability of rural areas. For this, high school students of 40 different schools in 5 cities and 17 counties in Jeollamdo province were surveyed from April to June 2014. Recognition of rurality and settlement consciousness among groups of different demographic and socioeconomic backgrounds were analyzed. The results showed that rural youths have a relatively more positive rurality than urban youths; and rural girls have more negative views on settlement consciousness and sense of belonging in rural areas than boys. Additionally, rural youths with high settlement consciousness show more positive rurality awareness and sense of belonging to the community. Therefore, for the sustainability of rural areas, more attractive policies should be explored in order to encourage more positive rurality awareness, the sense of belonging in the rural community and the settlement of rural youths; giving particular emphasis on policies for rural girls. Moreover, the introduction of school social work for rural high school students should also be considered.