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A literature review was conducted to survey informations available on the welding metallurgy of aluminum alloys and its effect on fusion weldability, especially on solidification cracking and pore formation. Solidification cracking behavior of Al weld is a complicate matter as compared to other high alloys, where a relatively simple Fe-X(most detrimental elements S, P, B, Si, etc) binary diagram can be successfully applicable. Both additive and synergistic effects of elements should be considered together. A same element play a different role from system to system. Porosity, caused by hydrogen contamination of the weld is one of the most troublesome welding problems. The primary sources of hydrogen are believed to be an absorbed moisture on the filler metal or base metal and in the shielding gas. It is extremely important that reliable quality-control procedures be employed to eliminate all possible sources of hydrogen contamination. Selection of proper process and parameters is sometimes more important than controlling of alloying elements in order to make a defect-free weld.
A literature review was conducted to gather informations available on the welding metallurgy of aluminum alloys, emphasized on characteristics in the heat affected zone(HAZ). Nominal metallurgical reactions that occur in aluminum alloys provide a basis for understanding aluminum welding metallurgy. However, welding reactions differ to some extent because of the relatively short times involved, and the non-isothermal heating excursed. For non-heat treatable alloys, welding primarily affects these alloys by annealing (recrystallization and growth) and to a less extent, changes in low temperature precipitates. In the case of heat treatable alloys, the resulting HAZ properties depend upon alloy composition, starting temper, heat input and post weld heat treatments.
Temperature distribution of thick plate during welding was investigated. Applied weldng process was shielded metal arc welding which was known as one of the most utilized processes in fabrication fields. Heating and cooling cycles were recorded by imploying high fidelity recorded and K-type thermocouple of 0.3mm in diameter. Both analytical and numerical calculations were preformed so as to verify the thermal cycle measurement. Results showed that the temperature of a welded points at given time could be predicted by the theoretical calculations. It was considered that methods could be applied to real structural components with slight modification.
The LASER weldability response (solidification cracking and cold cracking susceptibility) of austenitic, ferritic and martensitic grades revealed a significant alloy to alloy and heat to heat variation. the ferritic and martensitic alloys appeared to be less sensitive to solidification cracking but sensitive to cold cracking such that when the hydrogen content in shielding gas increased the fracture strength and time decreased, indicating that LASER welding of these grades should be kept from absorption of hydrogen. On the other hand, austenitic alloys showed a high propensity to solidification (hot) cracking in stead of cold cracking. Sensitivity was predominantly dependent upon the primary solidification mode (Cr_(eq)/Ni_(eq)) and impurity (S, P, Si) contents.