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Two properties of sodium naphthalenide (2), i.e. a strong base and a good electron donor were utilized for one pot synthesis: 2-alkylthiobenzimidazoles were synthesized in excellent yields from the reactions of benzimidazoline-2-thione (1) with an equimolar amount of alkyl halides in the presence of 2. Continuous addition of a different alkyl halide without the isolation of 2-alkylthiobenzimidazoles afforded 1-alkyl-2-alkylthiobenzimidazoles having different alkyl groups at N and S atoms in excellent yields. Further addition of 2 to 1-alkyl-2-alkylthiobenzimidazoles gave excellent yields of 1-alkylbenzimidazoline-2-thiones. When 2 in THF was added to a suspension of 1-alkyl-2-alkylthiobenzimidazoles in THF, a bond cleavage between N and C of alkyl group as well as S and C of alkyl group occurred. This is in contrast to the observation in which only cleavage between S and C of alkyl group takes place in the homogeneous solution.
Three unit processes such as neutralization with wasted concrete (C), an electrochemical treatment (E), and an ion-exchange with natural zeolite (Z) were performed to estimate the potential for removal of heavy metals from acid mine drainage (AMD) and two combined processes consisting of C-Z-E-C reactors in series (type 1) and C-E-C-Z reactors in series (type 2) were also tested to enhance the removal efficiencies of heavy metals. Results show that heavy metals were effectively removed by precipitation at neutral pH with the aged wasted concrete and by ion exchange with the natural zeolite, but poorly removed by electrochemical treatment except Fe (64%). When it comes to enhance removal efficiencies of heavy metals, two combined processes were performed with high removal efficiencies of Fe 95.3%, Cu 96.5%, Mn 71.3%, Zn 93.7% and Al 58.2% by type 1 and Fe 94.2%, Cu 96.5%, Mn 96.3%, Zn 95.2% and Al 67.6% by Type 2, respectively.
최근 인간 유전체 사업(Human Genome Project)의 완성과 DNA Microarray,Proteomics, Bioinformatics 등의 초고속, 대용량 처리 바이오기술(High Throughput Biotechnology) 의 발전과 함께 생명과학 분야의 연구는 획기적인 변화의 시기를 맞이하게 되었다. 이미 의약품 분야는 이러한 기술을 활용한 연구가 보편화 되어있고 선진 외국 회사들의 화장품연구 또한 이를 활용한 연구가 본격화 되고 있다. 화장품개발에 있어서도 이러한 기술들의 활용이 불가피하게 되었다. 여기서는 이러한 새로운 바이오기술들에 관해 간단히 알아보고 향후 이러한 기술들의 효과적인 화장품개발 관련연구 활용범위와 활용방법에 대하여 알아본다.
Perchlorate contamination generates from the disposal of ammonium perchlorate(AP), a highly energetic compound produced for use in solid rocket propellant of missile. Typical water treatment technologies such as ion exchange, carbon adsorption, and air stripping seem not to be economical for perchlorate removal, which is extremely stable in water and does not react to adsorbents. Biofilm processes have been considered as a cost effective treatment for perchlorate and other anions. The purpose of this research was to investigate the optimum EBCT in a fixed biofilm reactor for destruction of perchlorate. A synthetic water containing average 277μg/L perchlorate was reduced to 40μg/L, 8μg/L, 10μg/L, and 52μg/L perchlorate at 5.4hr, 2.7hr, 1.4hr, and 0.5hr of EBCT in a fixed biofilm reactor. A fixed biofilm reactor with internal recirculation(2:1) reduced perchlorate from 277μg/L to below detection, 4μg/L, 11μg/L, and 47μg/L at 5.4hr, 2.7hr, 1.4hr, and 0.5hr EBCT. Perchlorate removal efficiencies in a plug flow biofilm reactor and internal recirculation biofilm reactor were not significantly different during this experiment.
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At the end of the Korean Empire period, of 48 major leaders of the Righteous Army from Chungcheong North province and conferees, there had been mistakes correction made about great and small deeds of 10 men who died in battle or in prison, 9 who were hanged, 24 who were sent into exile or sentenced to imprisonment, 4 who were exiled or hid themselves and one who was dismissed at the ambassador's command after Japanese Annexation of Korea. Also, 10 men's deeds who were not in the honors list were founded. And it had considered that the Japanese imperialism granted amnesty, issuing 「the imperial order 325」 consisted of 98 articles, which was not true. Regardless of a so-called ‘Decree of Amnesty’, the powerful leader of loyal troops had died for his country by hanging even after at being robbed of national sovereignty. Furthermore, even the pardoned were the people who were sent or sentenced to imprisonment and who surrendered themselves to justice and were cooperated with Japanese positively among those who committed minor offenses or joined the loyal troops.
In recent decades, the prevalence of allergic disease has increased considerably and has become an important health problem worldwide. The skin and lung are the most important targets for allergens. The use of cosmetics can occasionally cause allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). There is currently no general cure for allergic diseases. Therefore, prevention could be an effective approach to addressing the burden of this disease. To prevent ACD, evaluation of the skin sensitization potential is an important part of the safety assessment of new ingredients in cosmetics. The Council of the European Union has banned marketing cosmetics and its ingredients that tested on animals after March 2009. Because of this regulation, the cosmetic industry has been developing alternatives to animal experimentation to test the efficacy or toxicity of cosmetic ingredients and other products. Here, we briefly introduce the current status of the development and application of alternative methods for skin sensitization in AmorePacific.
The removal of heavy metals such as Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cr from the acid mine drainage (AMD) with wasted tiles and sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) was investigated. NaHCO3 in phase 1 and the waste tiles in phase 2 were used to adjust pH of AMD to neutral and weak base in the first reactor and to remove some heavy metals, followed by anaerobic reactor containing SRB to additionally remove them. The HRT was 3 days in phase 1 and 2 days in phase 2. The pH adjustment in phase 1 and 2 was compared each other. The pH increased from 3 to 5 in phase 1 and 2, indicating the wasted tiles (phase 2) was as effective in pH increase as NaHCO3 (phase 1). The removal efficiencies of Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cu and Cr in phase 1 were 80, 30, 60, 61, 44 and 40%, respectively, and 90, 40, 70, 80, 62 and 45% in phase 2, respectively, indicating higher removal efficiencies of heavy metals in phase 2 than those in phase 1. In addition, Fe, Mn, Cr and Cu are removed with higher efficiencies in pH 5~7 compared to those in pH 7~8, although some heavy metals were easily to be precipitated at higher pH. It indicates that the heavy metal removal by SRB might be dominant to the removal of the heavy metals at low pH.