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Exposure to Diesel Particulate Matter (DPM) potentially causes adverse health effects (e.g. respiratory symptoms, lung cancer). Due to a lack of data on Elemental Carbon (EC) exposure levels in underground copper ore mining (unlike other underground mining industries such as non-metallic and coal mining), this case study aims to provide individual miners' EC exposure levels, and information on their work practices including use of personal protective equipment. EC measurement was carried out during different work activities (i.e. drilling, driving a loader, plant fitting, plant operation, driving a Specialized Mining Vehicle (SMV)) as per NIOSH Method 5040. The copper miners were working 10 h/day and 5 days/week. This study found that the most significant exposures to EC were reported from driving a loader (range $0.02-0.42mg/m^3$). Even though there were control systems (i.e. water tanks and DPM filters) on the diesel vehicles, around 49.5% of the results were over the adjusted recommendable exposure limit ($0.078mg/m^3$). This was probably due to: (1) driver's frequently getting in and out of the diesel vehicles and opening the windows of the diesel vehicles, and (2) inappropriate maintenance of the diesel vehicles and the DPM control systems. The use of the P2 type respirator provided was less than 19.2%. However, there was no significant difference between the day shift results and the night shift results. In order to prevent or minimize exposure to EC in the copper ore mine, it is recommended that the miners are educated in the need to wear the appropriate respirator provided during their work shifts, and to maintain the diesel engine and emission control systems on a regular basis. Consideration should be given to a specific examination of the diesel vehicles' air-conditioning filters and the air ventilation system to control excessive airborne contaminants in the underground copper mine.
최근 한국철도기술연구원이 개발한 한국형 틸팅열차(TTX) “한빛 200”은 현재 호남선, 중앙선, 충북선 그리고 태백선에서 시험 운행 중에 있다. 본 논문은 TTX가 기존선로에서 시험 운행하는 동안 TTX에 공급되는 전압을 계측하여 각 기존선로에서 공급하는 전압의 상태를 분석하였다. TTX에 공급되는 전압을 직접 계측하기 위해 TTX의 판토그래프 밑단인 부분에 PT를 설치하여 변압기 1차측 전압을 계측하였다. 정확한 분석을 위해 계측 시 TTX외의 다른 열차와 교차 상황과 주변상황에 대해 기록하였으며, CBEMA 커브를 이용하여 가선전압 상태에 대한 분석을 하였다. 그 결과 호남선, 중앙선, 태백선 모두 정격전압(25[kV])의 110[%]이상의 전압이 200[s]이상 공급되는 구역도 있었으며 빈번하게 110[%]를 초과하고 있는 것으로 분석됐다. 특히 태백선의 가선전압의 상태가 가장 좋지 않은 것으로 분석됐다. 이렇게 가선전압 분석결과는 앞으로 중앙선 및 태백선에 상용화될 TTX의 동력장치 및 전력변환장치를 안정화하는데 도움이 될 것으로 사료된다. Recently, the Korea Tilting Express(TTX), “HANVIT 200”, KRRI(Korea Railroad Research Institute) developed runs for test on the conventional railroad, Honam line, Center line, Chunk-buk line and Tae-baek line. In this paper, we measured the service voltage while TTX ran on the conventional railroad and analyzed the condition of voltage. For measuring voltage directly, we installed PT under the pantograph and measured the voltage of the primary winding. In addition, we record situations that other trains pass by TTX and environments while TTX ran. And then we analyzed the condition of voltage using the records and CBEMA curve. In result, over 110[%] voltage of rated voltage(25[kV]) often occurred and the voltage of some place continued over 110[%] for about 200[s]. Especially, the voltage condition of Tae-baek line is the worst. The results in this paper can help to stabilize the power device and power converter of TTX.
Tilting trains are now an established feature of railway operations throughout the world. For intercity traffic, tilt provides operators with increasing speeds, and therefore enhanced competitiveness, on existing routes where insufficient traffic or a lack of funds precludes the construction of a dedicated new high-speed railway. Appling the tilting train, we can expect 30% of speed up on existing lines, but the stability of the electric current would be low because of tilting the train. Also, the spark between the catenary and pantagraph cause environmental problems such as noise, radio wave malfunction. Therefore, the tilting on pantagraph for the power suppling device is very essential for stable electric power supply.
This paper presents a Train Communication Network simulator (TCNS) that can be used to evaluate the performance of TCN. TCN was accepted as the standard of the protocol for the communication network in trains. We carry out some simulation tests using the TCNS to show practical uses of the simulator. Results of some simulation tests are also reported. This paper presents a Train Communication Network simulator(TCNS) that can be used to evaluate the performance of TCN. TCN was accepted as the standard of the protocol for the communication network in trams. TCN of fieldbus was adopted as international standardization IEC 61375 in 1999. It has been operating on G7 train in korea. This paper developed TCNS(Train Communication Network simulator) as a simulator for performance evaluation. We can verify TCNS for preventing many kinds of occurring problems between the devices in data-communication. This study was developed TCNS as a simulator for the performance evaluation. We analyzed correlation between token, transmission data per paket and transmission speed of bus, through the TCNS, also analyzed result according to error rate of TCN. We carry out some simulation tests using the TCNS to show practical uses of the simulator. Results of some simulation tests are also reported.