http://chineseinput.net/에서 pinyin(병음)방식으로 중국어를 변환할 수 있습니다.
변환된 중국어를 복사하여 사용하시면 됩니다.
개별검색 DB통합검색이 안되는 DB는 DB아이콘을 클릭하여 이용하실 수 있습니다.
통계정보 및 조사
예술 / 패션
<해외전자자료 이용권한 안내>
- 이용 대상 : RISS의 모든 해외전자자료는 교수, 강사, 대학(원)생, 연구원, 대학직원에 한하여(로그인 필수) 이용 가능
- 구독대학 소속 이용자: RISS 해외전자자료 통합검색 및 등록된 대학IP 대역 내에서 24시간 무료 이용
- 미구독대학 소속 이용자: RISS 해외전자자료 통합검색을 통한 오후 4시~익일 오전 9시 무료 이용
※ 단, EBSCO ASC/BSC(오후 5시~익일 오전 9시 무료 이용)
The twentieth Century is a Century of enormous and profound change ; the prime force behind this change is the world - wide phenomena of Industrialism, of all the forces that have determined the course of history, none is as inclusive and general as the force of industrialism in real and effect. Such inclusiveness and generality point to a certain logic governing the process itself. The imperatives inherent in the logic of industrialization are summarized under the following three leadings; a) functionalization b) Rationalization and c) Ideologization. When industrialism is chosen as the guiding policy of nations and groups, how does the logic of industrialization on the on hand, and the traditional understanding of themselves, on the other hand, interact with each other? According to Max Weber's view on the relationship between capitalism and protestant ethics, the development of rational capitalism combine the impulse to accumulation with a positively frugal life-style, Weber found the answer in the worldly asceticism of puritanism, as focused-through the concept of the calling. The idea of the calling was already present in Luther's doctrines, Weber argues, it became more rigorously developed in the various puritan sects; Calvinism, Methodism, Pietism and Baptism. Calvinism, according to Weber's argument, supplies the moral energy and drive of the capitalist entrepreneur. Talcott Parsons traces the roots of the modern industrial Society to the dual tradition of christianity and Roman Law, isolating three cardinal elements in this tradition a) the conception of a transcendental divine Being, b) universal rationality and c) a practical attitude toward life. Parsons attributes the historically first emergence of industrial society in the western world to the identity between the religious-cultural tradition based on christianity and the archetypal values of an industrial society. The industrial society becomes richer, bigger, and better. Industrialism makes life easier for a greater number of people and extends man's mastery of nature. Under these circumstances, the mass media have little difficulty in selling particular interests as those of all sensible man. The political needs of society become individual needs and aspirations, their satisfaction promotes business and the commonwealth, and the whole appears to be the very embodiment of Reason. The industrialized Society is irrational as a whole. Its productivity is destructive of the free development of human needs and faculties, its peace maintained by the constant threat of war, its growth dependent on the repression of the real possibilities for pacifying the struggle for existence - individual, national, and international. Our society distinguishes itself by conquering the centrifugal society forces with technology rather than Terror, the real basis of an overwhelming efficiency and an increasing standard of living. Contemporary Society seems to be capable of containing. Social change - qualitative change which would establish essentially different institutions, a new direction of the productive process, new modes of human existence. Society can be defined as a group of people who share a common culture - a culture includes the formal and informal social arrangements, the mores, the language, the religious institutions and beliefs, and the processes of government, as society becomes more complex, the educational process necessarily change. Education is the process whereby each social inducts the young into its own particular style of social relationships. What is the task of education and what is the role of school? School is presently facing many pressures, population explosion, the exploding of knowledge, pollution, change of values brought about educational problems of modern society. What kind of life is worth living? What is the distinction between true and false consciousness? What shall it profit a man if he gain the whole world and lose his own soul? By taking into consideration of these problems and by laying stress on modern industrial society, restoration of human reason and basic rights, present and future problems of education and basic direction of value system, the goal of this essay is to help concerned people become more aware of the social and educational issues with which all of us must deal.
21세기 디자인의 중요한 주제 중 하나인 감성디자인이 소비심리 분석에 있어서 효과적인 과제임을 인증받고 있는 현 상황을 기반으로 본 연구에서는 한국의 전통문화요소를 산업디자인에 적용하기 위한 소비감성연구를 통하여 전통문화요소를 활용한 디자인 개발방향을 제시하고자 하였다. 본 연구에서는 한국 전통문화 및 전통문양에 대한 소비자들의 감성평가로서 감성소비가치 요인과 감성소비자들의 유형을 분류하여 유형별 감성평가, 감성적 소비가치, 구매 의도는 어떠한 차이가 나타나는지 연구결과를 도출하는데 주안점을 두었다. 이에 따라 유형별 요인분석 연구결과 4가지 감성평가 요인 중 매력성 요인이 가장 중요한 차원임을 확인할 수 있었고, 감성소비자 군집분석결과 각 집단별 다소 차이를 보임을 확인할 수 있었으며, 유형 분류된 네 개의 감성 소비자집단별 감성평가, 감성적 소비가치, 구매의도에서 감성평가 시 매력성 요인을 가장 높게 보고 있음을 확인할 수 있었다. 이러한 연구결과를 바탕으로 개인의 기호나 감성을 중요시하는 감성적 소비성향에 따라 소비자들이 자신의 가치와 만족에 따라 디자인을 선택하게 된다는 점을 인식하여 한국의 전통문화 및 전통문양을 디자인에 효과적으로 적용시켜 개발하여야 할 필요성이 있음을 알 수 있었다.
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
In Korea society "Hakbeol" has been criticized as an essential mechanism for causing pathological phenomena of education such as ranking of universities, instrumentalization of education, obsession with exams, and perversion of education fever. This study was carried out to evaluate the academic validity of such criticisms. For this purpose, the study examines the historical backgrounds of "Hakbeol" formation, analyzes the factors contributing to its growth, discusses relevant issues, and reveals characteristic of "Hakbeol" as human capital, social capital, and cultural capital. The findings of the study can be summarized as follows: First, "Hakbeol" is not a product of factors inherent in education, but a product of status attainment struggles amongst competing status groups. Second, "Hakbeol" has relied on academic cronyism to maintain its hold on society. "Hakbeol" has justified the meritocratic ideology that success depends solely on achievement and popularized the idea that resulting inequality is due to fair process. Third, it is difficult to view acquirement of "Hakbeol" as a result of fair competition. Fourth, "Hakbeol" is seen as an indicator of an individual's ability regardless of the actual ability possessed by that individual. Last, even though "Hakbeol" is a personal, social, and cultural resource based on principle of meritocracy, it serves as a mechanism for establishing and reproducing inequality. 우리사회에서 학벌은 대학의 서열화, 교육의 수단화, 교육의 시험지상주의, 왜곡된 교육열 등의 교육병리 현상을 유발시킨 핵심요인으로 비판 받아 왔다. 이글은 이러한 비판을 학술적으로 검토하기 위해 쓰였다. 이런 목적을 달성하기 위해 학벌주의 형성의 역사적 배경을 살펴보았고, 그 심화요인을 분석하였으며, 이를 바탕으로 도출된 학벌주의의 쟁점을 논의하였고, 이와 아울러 학벌이 지닌 자본적 성격을 밝혔다. 이와 같은 문제에 대한 기술과 분석 내용을 검토한 결과 다음과 같은 결론이 도출되었다. 첫째, 학벌주의는 교육내적인 문제로 인해 생겨난 현상이 아니라 사회의 지위집단간의 지위획득 경쟁의 산물이다. 둘째, 학벌은 연고주의를 통하여 지배력을 유지시켜 왔으며 능력주의 고정관념을 정당화 시키면서 불평등에 대한 공정성을 학립시켜 왔다. 셋째, 학벌획득은 공정한 교육경쟁을 거친 능력의 결과라고 보기 어렵다. 넷째, 학벌은 능력 소지 여부와 관계없이 간판효과를 발휘하고 있다. 마지막으로 학벌은 개인적, 사회적, 문화적 자원으로서 능력주의에 기초해 있으면서도 불평등을 구축하고 재생산하는 요인으로 작용한다.
This study starts with an attmpt to understand what is the concept of educational inequality. The concept of educational inequality must de understood in the context of the relationship between individual potential, equality in educational opportunity and school education. It is said that Education provides necessary conditions for the maximum development of individual potential and education is a key element for the development of individual potential and in the process of social mobility, and so we have also to think what is the determinant factor to influence educational attainment and achievement. The concept of Educational opportunity has been measured by the equality of school input, but since the publication of Coloman Report, the view point of measuring by the equality of school oupput is being studied. Coleman reported that inequality of educational opportunity was due to the difference of acadimic achievement, and the most influential environmental factor of the difference was domestic environment rather than school environment, that is to say Socioeconomic status is positively correlated with both educational attainment and achievement: the higher a student's socioeconomic status, the greater his or her educational accomplishment is likely to be Many studies have documented this relationship between Socioeconomic status and education, children from more socioeconomically advantdged homes outperform their less affluent peers. So it is easy to see that students from socioeconomically advantaged families will ultimately reach higher levels of educational attainment than those Who are disadventaged. From this point of view the educational differential may be cited as evidence that educational instutions perpetuate present patterns of socioeconomic status. Whatever theoretical orientation is used, However, it is clear that a Statistical description o0f educational attainment and achievement is necessary but not sufficient for a real understanding of the functioning of our educational system. The important question of Why some groups do better in school and stay there longer than other group is really hard to answer. Attempt to explain patterns of educational attainment and achievement can be classified into two general categories: Those that focus on the characteristics of students and their families and those that focus on the characteristics of the schools and the broader Society. Coleman's study, Equality of Educational opportunity, was a comprehensive survey of American school that included information on over 645,000pupils. each student was given a series of achievement tests covering verbal ability, reading comprehension, mathematics, general information, and nonverbal ability. coleman was especially interested in ethnic and racial factors and most of his data are analysed in terms of the six groups he tested. Coleman found that the student's scores on these test were related to race and ethnicity. Coleman's survey included sereral items designed to measure interest in learning and motivation. These items asked students how much time they spent studying, how they would feel if they had to quit school. how much time they spent studying, how they would feel if they had to quit school, how often they stayed away from school because they didn't want to go, and how high in class ravk they wanted to be. In general, those groups with higher achievement test scores showed more positive attitudes toward school. coleman uncovered a similar pattern regarding educational aspirations. Educational aspirations-or how much education an individual wants to acquire-reflect a combination of attitudes, ranging from general beliefs about the value of schooling to feelings about classroom activities. Research has shown that student from socioeconomically advantaged backgrounds tent to have higher educational aspiration than students from less advantaged background. Since the publication of the Coleman Report, there have been a number of criticism of its methods and conclusions. Several Social Scientists have reanalysed various portions of the data, Nevertheless, the basic findings of the Report have, for the most part, been confimed by these other efforts. Until now, we have tired to account for group differenes in educational achievement by focusing on the characteristics of chidren and their family background. We will now turn to a different set of variables and ask how schools contributes to group differencies in educational achievement. Most of us assume that some schools are better than others. If ashed what makes a school good, we would probably answer in terms of the credentials of its teachers, the adequacy of its facilities, the size of its budget, and perhaps, even the characteristics of its student. If asked about the benefits of attending a good school, we would probably answer in terms of higher levels of academic achievement and subsequently higher levels of educational and occupational attainment. Though education may be thought of primarily in terms of formal instruction in the schoolroom., probably most of the significant education experienced by an individual take place before he or she comes to school and during out of school hours. According to the study reported by Han Jeong Shin there are noticeable gap between urban and rural school in learning achievement. The difference in learing achievement between urban and rural areas ranged from 10 to 20 in primary school. In the case of middle and high schools, the difference averaged little more than 10 points. It is said that education is the most influential determinant for the socioeconomic inequality of people. So the maximization of educational attainment for all student with an emphasis on equality of opporturity to achieve is associated with the goals of an open society. And education plays vital role in reducing socioeconomic inequalities and restoring the human dignity of all people. On the basis of this belief mentioned above. Some conclusions may be derived as follows. 1.In order to reduce the deprivation of students from socioeconcomically disadvantaged. it is required to enforce the pre-school education and to develope proper program for it. 2.Enlargement of social education and technical education for the disadvantaged is required. 3.Ceaseless endeavor in financial investment must be taken to roduc the gap between urban and rural areas school.
Higher Education is indeed being buffeted by change in society on every side. During the Japanese colonial times, It was very hard to have higher learning and to establish the institution of higher education. But in spite of the severe restriction and oppression of higher education by Japanese colonial government, our people had burning desire for having higher learning. Since the restoration of our country, colleges and universities have established and these institutions have been playing an important role as the public education institutions, but their development has been in quantity but not in quality. Institutions of higher learning are in crisis because society has altered, and intensified its demands on their capacities to fulfill their fuctions. With understanding of the transition of higher education on our country, the purpose of this study is to understand the direction of reformation on higher education which have been proceeded since 1970's.
1.Problems Curriculum tracking has been viewed as one of the educational mechanism for selecting and socializing students to disparate roles. The dual school system of secondary education, which is made up of the general high schools and vocational high schools, has permitted schools to differentiate their curricula as well as to sort and socialize students to different occupational roles. Given this, an evaluation of the role curriculum tracing plays in structuring conditions of distributing students into positions in the social division of labor requires discussions of whether and to what extent academic differentiation in high schools relate to the existing class structure, prospect for labor market, and social mobility. 2.Purpose The study aimed at not only exploring the actul characteristics of student served by two different types of high school, but also identifying some of the consequences of academic differentiation by eamining the relationship of curriculum tracking to educational and occupational aspirations of the students. In addition, the syudy also attempted to discover the association of curriculum tracking with students, attitudes toward social inequality by investigating the degree of acceptance of social reward system resulting from education. 3.methods The data for this study were collected from a questionnaire survey. The sample comprised 32 classes from 8 achools. A total of 1396 students responses were analysed in this syudy. The data were analysed by utilizing Crosstabulation, Two, Three, Four-Way ANOVA,Multiple Discriminant analysis, and Multiple Classification Analysis. 4.Results The major findings in this study could be summarized as follows: First, students from affluent homes were most likely to be found in the general high schools, while students with poor family backgrounds were most likely to be found in the vocational high schools, regardless of their academic performance level. Second, students who attend the same type of school shared a common set of expectations about their future career, regardless of their social class origin and present academin performance level. Third, students in the vocational high schools and those with poor academic performance in the general high schools expressed negative attitudes in accepting the legitimacy of social reward system attributable to education.
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
고등학교의 교육분화 체제인 계열화(tracking)는 동일한 수준의 교육단계에서 교과내용, 교사-학생상호작용 및 기타의 학교생활경험에서의 차이는 물론 장래의 진로 계획과 사회ㆍ경제적 역할지각형성에도 영향을 미치는 요인으로 지적되고 있다. 따라서 이 연구는 계열배치요인이 개인의 능력에 기인하는지 혹은 가정배경에 기인하는지와 아울러 계열화를 통한 차별적 사회화가 학생들의 직업적 지위지각형성에 미치는 영향을 분석함 으로써 교육분화체제와 관련된 사회불평등현상을 밝히고자 했다. 실증적 자료를 다양한 검증방법을 통해 분석한 결과 도출된 결론은 계열화는 개인의 능력과 적성에 따른 효율적인 인력선발체제로 작용하고 있다고 보기는 어려우며, 그리고 계열화는 위계화된 사회ㆍ경제적질서체제에 상이한 지위와 역할을 분배하는 차별적인 인력양성제도로 기능하고 있음이 드러났다. 또한 위계화된 사회ㆍ경제적지위 구조에서의 역할이해관계가 계열화 교육의 과정을 통해서 구체화되고 있음이 밝혀졌다.