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Messages to help people far away, such as International relief campaign, are heavily influenced by situational factors. In this light, the study examined whether the message characteristics (gain/loss framing) and the individual characteristics (previous attitude to helping activity) interact to affect the message attitude and behavioral intention. The study was conducted by an experiment involving 220 subjects. The analysis resulted in the significant interactions between gain/loss framing and pre-attitude by the same direction for message attitudes and behavioral intention. It was shown that gain framing worked more effectively for the relatively more friendly group towards helping activities than for the less friendly one. The same direction was shown in the loss framing, but its difference was smaller. The process of the interactions appeared as mediated by anticipated satisfaction. The practical and theoretical implications were discussed for proper planning of messages to help others. 국제기아와 같이 멀리 떨어진 사람들을 돕기 위한 메시지는 상황적인 요인의 영향을 많이 받는다. 이러한 관점에서 본 연구는 메시지의 특성(이익/손실 프레이밍)과 개인의 특성(돕기 활동에 대한 사전 태도)이 상호작용하여 메시지 태도와 행위 의도에 영향을 미치는지 살펴보았다. 연구는 220명이 참여한 실험으로 진행하였다. 메시지 태도와 행위 의도에 대한 분석 결과에서 이익/손실 프레이밍과 사전 태도의 상호작용이 유의미하게 발현되었다. 그러한 상호작용은 사전 태도가 상대적으로 우호적인 집단에 대하여 이익 프레이밍이 더 효과적으로 작용하여 발생하였다. 손실 프레이밍에서도 같은 방향성이 나타났지만 그 크기는 상대적으로 작았다. 이러한 상호작용의 방향성은 기대 만족감이 매개하는 것으로 분석되었다. 본 연구의 결과를 토대로 타인을 돕기 위한 메시지의 적절한 기획을 위한 실용적, 이론적 의미를 논하였다.
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The aim of this paper is to explore the spatial relationships between land and people of a certain local lineage-based-village of Korea through the concept of a ‘precarious peace'. During the last 40 years, based mainly on the notion of Neo-Confucianism, the historical and cultural meaning of the local lineage-based-villages of Korea has been explored not only by Anglophone and Korean but also by Korean human geographers. Despite of the great achievement of their research, it seems to be hard to say that multifaceted-conceptual approaches – peace, materiality, landscape, modernity, etc. - to the local lineage-based-villages of Korea has been unveiled in the context of historical and cultural geography. Using GIS data analysis, on the land registry records of Darsil village between the 1910s and the 1970s-1980s and interview data collected from the villagers, the paper shows that water conflicts for rice cultivation of the village was an ever-present danger, threatening the collapse of the community of Darsil village before the 1970s-1980s. From this empirical basis, a concept of peace as a precarious socio-spatial process emerges, contributing historical and cultural meaning for the local lineage-based-villages of Korea.
The effective concentration of plant growth regulators and organic compounds on LS medium were investigated for In Vitro callus induction and regeneration in Ginger(Zingiber officinale Rosc). 1. Optimum concentration of plant growth regulators supplemented to LS medium for callus induction was 0.5㎎/ℓ of 2,4-D. 2. For shoot and roots regeneration from callus, 2,4-D 0.5㎎/ℓ plus BAP 0.5㎎/ℓ or 0.1㎎/ℓ respectively was relatively effective. 3. Shoot and roots from callus in LS medium with coconut milk was relatively effective.
Effect of zeatin and different concentration of nitrogen sources, alone and its combination, supplemented into Murashige and Tucker's medium (MT) containing zeatin or not on organogenesis was examined in Pulsatilla koreana Nakai. The rate of organogensis from callus was 60% respectively, when 3800 ㎎/l of KNO_3 was supplemented into MT medium containing 1650 ㎎/l of NH_4NO_3, and the rate reduced to 70% in the same medium supplemented with 2.0 ㎎/l zeatin. When the amount of NH_4NO_3 was reduced into 825 ㎎/l, addition of KNO_3 as well as zeatin did not affect on organogenesis, and further the organogenesis was very low when KNO_3 was not added on the medium, regardless addition of zeatin. The rate of plant regeneration occurrance was 52.5% respectively when NH_4NO_3 3300 ㎎/l was added on the medium containg 1900 ㎎/l of KNO_3, and the rate increased into 63.5% in the same medium supplemented with zeatin. When the amount of KNO_3 was reduced into 1900 ㎎/l or zeatin was not added on the medium, the rate was in any concentration treatment of KNO_3. The combining treatment of NH_4NO_3, KNO_3 and zeatin was highly effective.