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본 연구는 부산광역시의 자살로 인한 손상사망 현황을 분석하여 부산시민들의 자살 현황 및 실태를 파악하고자 하였다. 본 연구에서는 부산시민의 자살손상현황을 파악하기 위하여 통계청 사망원인 통계연보, 경찰청 변사통계연보, 부산광역시 주요 종합병원의 응급의료센터의 자료를 토대로 분석하였다. 본 연구를 통해 자살의 위험군으로 남자, 무직, 고연령층이 특히 고위험군으로 나타났다. 또한 자살원인으로는 정신적 문제로 인한 경우가 가장 많았다. 연령으로 보면 65세 이상의 노인에서는 육체적 질병으로 인한 자살사망률이 가장 높게 나타났다. 자살 수단으로는 의사(목을 매어 죽음)가 가장 높게 나타났다. 부산광역시의 자살로 인한 사망손상률을 줄이기 위해 고위험군을 중심으로 구체적이고 현실적인 자살예방 프로그램 수행이 시급한 상황이다. 자살률 감소를 통해 시민의 삶의 활력을 증가시키고 장기적으로 경제적 손실을 줄일 수 있는 효과를 기대할 수 있다. In this study, we used three surveillance data in 2008~2009: National Statistical Office, National Police Agency, and Major General Hospital’s Emergency Medical Center in Busan. Using these Surveillance data, we analyzed annual status of suicidal injury in the point of sex, age, occupation, and cause of suicide. We identified high risk group that it was man, unemployed, elderly person, also it was the most frequent cause of suicide by psychological problems. However, among 65 and older were the highest death rate due to suicide by physical illness. This study gave a very useful and important data to prepare suicide prevention program and prepare suicide prevention strategies.
인터넷을 통한 수많은 지적재산의 이동이 이루어지고 있는데, 이러한 사이버공간에서의 저작권 침해의 문제는 주요 잇슈가 되어 있다. 특히 미국은 사이버스페이스에서의 저작권보호를 위한 여러 가지 법을 제정하거나 법원에서 많은 관련 판례들이 나오고 있다. 따라서 본 논문에서는 미국의 저작권법상 주요한 사이버스페이스에서의 저작권 침해문제로 제기되고 있는 컴퓨터 프로그램, 브라우징과 캐싱, 웹사이트에서의 링크, 데이터베이스, 온라인 서비스 공급업자를 중심으로 제정법상의 규정과 최근의 판례 분석을 통하여 저작권 침해문제를 연구하고 있다.
Nontraumatic spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma is a rare entity, which can be associated with a severe neurologic deficit. The presenting symptoms are usually back or neck pain, either local or radicular, followed by progressive bilateral weakness, and sensory loss hours and even days later. In the absence of precipitating factors such as severe trauma or known coagulopathy, the diagnosis may be delayed. Imaging, including cervical CT or MRI, may play an essential role for the prompt diagnosis and differentiation from other cervical pathologies. With a full review of the literature, we report and discuss a case of nontraumatic cervical epidural hematoma in which a 67-year-old female visited the emergency center for neck and right shoulder pain. She experienced a complete recovery after conservative treatment only.
The modern landscape architectural profession and education of Korea was established in the early 1970s. The former president Park Chung-Hee was a main axis in this process of establishment. This paper critically examines Park Chung-Hee's thoughts on landscape architecture. It can show us the functional relationship between his thoughts and the beginning of the history of modem landscape architecture in Korea. The close relationship between Park Chung-Hee and Korean landscape architecture can be interpreted as double sides. First, landscape architecture was a matter of great interest for Park Chung-Hee. His involvement of landscape architecture went well beyond that of an amateur. Second, landscape architecture was a strategic instrument for practicing his political policy of economic development and nationalism. There are three remarkable tendencies in his thoughts on landscape architecture. First, he regarded that the main role of landscape architecture was to cover and to decorate damaged sites. Second, he had a contradictory notion of tradition and history. Last, the European pastoral ideal was his criterion for the beauty of landscape. His thoughts on landscape architecture were an amalgamation of these three contradictory ideas, and it has left some controversial inheritances for contemporary landscape architecture.
How parks are to be made in the twenty-first century should certainly be different. This is the inevitable conclusion of the recent significant international design competition for Downsview Park in Toronto, 2000. The purpose of this critical study is to investigate new strategies for urban park design manifested in the proposals of that competition and to explore alternative ways of landscape design that could solve the recent crisis of urban parks. Tree City, the winning entry, and other final entries proclaim that city is park and park is city. In this sense, Downsview Park marks the end of traditional Olmstedian parks and the dichotomy between city(culture) and park(nature). Rem Koolhaas and Bruce Mau's Tree City will become the model for urban park design in the near future. There are three reasons for this. First, its design is a strategy rather than a form. We can interpret that Tree City is to be developed over time as directed by six strategies: grow the park, manufacture nature, 1000 pathways, sacrifice and save, curate culture, destination and dispersal. Second, it places faith in landscape as a revenue generator instead of a fiscal liability. Third, its implementation is possible with crude installation, requiring virtually no craft. Koolhaas and Mau intend for Downsview to be an environment that is never actually designed but is formed through natural succession, cultural action, and programmatical insertions. Rather than designed objects and formal solutions, their strategy is to allow the landscape to evolve with changing uses.
During the last two and a half decades, philosophical interest in the aesthetics of nature and environment has been gained momentum. One of the most coherent theories in this arena of debate has been developed over a series of articles by Allen Carlson. The purpose of this paper is to examine Carlson's theory critically and suggest an alternative aspect that remains untouched by his model. Briefly stated, Carlson's view of the appreciation of nature is that it is a matter of under standing nature under suitable scientific categories. His argument, based on the objectivist epistemology, is basically a disjunctive syllogism : a) The concept of appreciation, derived from traditional disinterestedness and Stolnitz's aesthetic attitude, provides an insight into the explanation of aesthetic appreciation of nature, and is objectivistic in the light of its object-oriented character. b) Nature must be appreciated as nature itself, and the natural environmental model is the appropriate loci of our nature appreciation. c) The paradigmatic form of our nature appreciation is order appreciation. d) There can be a correct and objective aesthetic judgment of nature, and the sources of guiding categories pertinent to it is natural science and natural history. In regarding nature as an environment and as natural, his natural environmental model is meaningful. Nevertheless, his stance results in some serious problems : a) The natural environmental model excludes certain very common appreciative responses to nature-responses of a less intellective, more visceral sort. Therefore, the arousal model with appropriate emotions might be one of our characteristic forms of nature appreciation. b) Even if we consider the scientific knowledge as an objective source of our nature appreciation, this gives rise to the question of whether the natural science can be objective or not. Is there an objectivist aesthetic appreciation of nature\ Does aesthetic appreciation of nature need to be science-based\