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Structural insulated panels, structurally performed panels consisting of a plastic insulation bonded between two structural panel facings, are one of emerging products with a viewpoint of its energy and construction efficiencies. Of the SIPs, Cyclic test was conducted by two kinds of specimens: single panel and double panels. Cyclic test results, which were equivalent to static test results, showed that maximum load was 45.42kN, allowable shear load was 6.3kN/m. Furthermore the accumulated energy dissipation capability for double panels was as 2.3 times as that for single panel. From performance of structural tests, the allowable shear load for panels was suggested to be at least 6.1kN/m.
The torque shear high strength bolt is clamped normally at the break of pin-tail specified. However, the clamping forces on slip critical connections do not often meet the required tension, as it considerably fluctuates due to torque coefficient dependent on lubricant affected temperature. In this study, the clamping tests of torque shear bolts were conducted independently at indoor conditions and at construction site conditions. During last six years, temperature of candidated site conditions was recorded from -11℃ to 34℃. The indoor temperature condition was ranged from -1 0℃ to 50℃ at each 10℃ interval. As for site conditions, the clamping force was reached in the range from 159 to 210 kN and the torque value was from 405 to 556 Nㆍm. The range of torque coefficient at indoor conditions was analyzed from 0.126 to 0.158 while tensions were indicated from 179 to 192 kN. The torque coefficient at site conditions was ranged from 0.118 to 0.152. Based on this test, the variable trends of torque coefficient, tension subjected temperature can be taken by statistic regressive analysis. The variable of torque coefficient under the indoor conditions is 0.13%/℃ while it reaches 2.73%/℃ at actual site conditions. When the indoor trends and site conditions is combined, the modified variable of torque coefficient can be expected as 0.2% /℃. and the modified variable of tension can be determined as 0.18%/℃.
The clamping of torque shear high strength bolt is induced when the pin-tail is broken. However the tension forces induced shank of the bolt do not be known by now. This study focused to develop a quantitative method to identify the induced tension by analyzing the electric energy of which electric torque wrench (rpm 20) was applied to high strength bolt at the break of pin tail. Based on this co-relation between tension and accumulated current, the regressive analysis was derived. The error rate between tension and accumulated current was 5.06%.
The clamping force of a high-strength bolt reduces within a certain time period after the initial clamping force. When special treatments are used on a faying surface, the clamping force is relaxed severely. Tests were conducted for slip critical joints subjected to various faying surface parameters. Relaxation occurred for slip resistant joints with an uncoated surface that had been shot-blasted, cleaned, milled or rusted. It was observed that the initial clamping force dropped from 6.2% to 8.0% after 744 hours. For joints with a 5 mil thick zinc coating, the clamping force of the bolts decreased by 8.37%, and in the case of 4.9 mil thick red lead painted treatment, the relaxation ratio was 24.6%. The standard deviation of the slip coefficients between the time immediately after tightening and 1,000 hours after tightening was 0.223. It is particularly noteworthy that, for red lead painted treatment, the slip coefficient dropped from 2.5 times to 2.8 times when compared with the slip coefficient before relaxation. Joints with inorganic zinc should not have thickness exceeding 5 mils, and joints with a red lead painted surface should not be allowed regardless of the thickness of coating.
The initial clamping forces of the high strength bolts depending on the different faying surface conditions drop within 1,000 hours regardless of loading any other external force or loosening of the nut. This study focused on the mathematical model for relaxation confined to creep on coated faying surface after initial clamping. The quantitative equation for estimating long term relaxation was derived from nonlinear regression analysis for relation between the creep strain of coated surface and the elapsed time.
Cyclic test was conducted by two kinds of specimens : single panel and double panels. Cyclic test results, which were equivalent to static test results, showed that maximum load was 45.42kN, allowable shear load was 6.3kN/m. Furthermore the accumulated energy dissipation capability for double panels was as 2.3 times as that for single panel. From performance of structural tests, the allowable shear load for panels was suggested to be at least 6.1kN/m.
The paper presents an experimental result to characterize the behaviour of steel beams reinforcement by pultruded reinforced polymer strips. Steel beam members reinforced with different thick AFRP on bottom flange plate were tested under one point bending configuration. Test results showed that the member force of one ply reinforced specimen was increased as 11% than control specimen when the two ply overlapped specimen was increased as 14% as usual.