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배정옥. 2006. 06. 30. 쌍방향 한영 이중언어 몰입 프로그램 학습자들의 미국에서의 모국어와 외국어로서의 한국어 쓰기능력 평가 연구. 이중언어학 31. 55-96. 본 연구는 한영 이중 언어 쌍방향 몰입 프로그램에 등록한 두 집단의 학생들이 초등학교 이중언어 몰입 전반기 단계에 발달시키는 한국어쓰기 수행 능력 정도를 조사했다. 학생들은 한국계-미국인 2세 초등학생들과 비한국계-미국인 초등학생들이다. 학년은 유치원, 1학년, 2학년이며, 2학년은 프로그램 출범 시 유치원생으로 시작한 첫 그룹이다. 이 몰입 프로그램은 미국에서 운영되므로, 한국어는 한국계-미국인 학생들에게는 모국어이고, 비한국계-미국인 학생들에게는 외국어이다. 본 보고는 위 학생들을 위해 개발·실시된 한국어 쓰기 수행 능력을 절대평가와 상대평가를 사용하여 유추했다. 몰입 프로그램 두 집단의 한국어쓰기 완수 정도가 초등학교 전반기 단계를 대상으로 규정된 쓰기 능력 영역과 완벽 상태를 표준으로 하여 절대 평가로 보고 된다. 이외, 상대평가로써 한국계-미국인 학생들의 한국어 쓰기 수행 능력 수준이 로스앤젤레스와 서울의 단일 언어 학습 상황 하에 공부하는 학생들과 비교 분석된다. 이 평가 결과는 한국계-미국인 학습자들 (크게는 이민 2세 학생들)의 모국어 보존과 비한국계-미국인 학습자들 (넓게는 영어권 나라 학생들) 의 외국어 습득 주제에 독특한 정보를 기여한다. (UCLA)
In this paper the reading ability developed by two groups of students enrolled in an immersion program during the early phase of elementary immersion implementation is reported. The subjects were Korean-American students and non-Korean-American students from Kindergarten to Grade 2, the second grade students being the first cohort group of this program. This immersion program operates in North America. The Korean language is thus the first language for the Korean-American students; it is a foreign language for the non-Korean-American students in the same program. This report is based on the results of the test of reading in Korean. The degrees of mastery of reading in Korean achieved by the two immersion groups are reported using criterion-referenced measurement. In addition, the reading ability of the immersion Korean-American group is compared with that of Korean-American students in monolingual classes in Los Angeles and Seoul. The results from this study make unique contribution regarding heritage language conservation for Korean-American students (largely, immigrants' second- or third-generation children) and foreign language acquisition for non-Korean-American students (broadly, English- dominant children) in America. Finally, the utility of the reading test instrument developed and used in this study is noteworthy for educators looking for a measure to assess reading skills of children.
This study developed parallel picture forms for a narrative writing task, one version for an English writing task, and the other for a Korean writing task, to assess the extent to which elementary school students in a bilingual immersion program develop writing skills in both languages. One form was assigned randomly to a half of the total number of subjects and the other form to the other half. Across the groups both factor means and factor variances are found to be equal, providing the evidence that the two forms are parallel, namely equivalent. The results indicate that the superficial differences in the picture versions do not have a significant effect on students' performance. Put differently, all else being equal, the forms are found to generate comparable writing skills. Therefore, the picture pair is recommended as high-quality alternate writing prompts for those wanting to compare simultaneous writing skills in two languages or to measure growth of writing skills over time. The alternate measures are to preempt problems with practice effects and translation when repeated test administration takes place. The paper provides helpful guidelines for testers wanting to develop multiple versions of picture prompts and confirm the psychometric comparability of the versions.
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Bae Jungok, Choi, Incheol, Lee, Yae-Sheik, & Shin, Sang-Keun, 2012, Attitudes towards Korean and English Acquisition for Students Learning Both Languages, Linguistic Research 29(2), 435-460, Numerous studies have argued that a learner`s attitude toward a target language is one of the most important factors in determining how well the learner can acquire the language, This is particularly true of young students learning a foreign language, Several years ago, the current Korean government announced a plan to implement school curriculum instruction in English across Korea and yet withdrew it right away because of the tremendous social opposition to the plan, including concerns about possible damage to the status of the Korean language, Strangely, the opposing ideas have not been seriously examined in Korea, Therefore. the aim of the current study was to investigate the attitudes that young Korean learners of English have towards English and Korean learning, To achieve this aim, two questionnaires were administered to 197 elementary school students enrolled in two institutions that conduct curriculum instruction in English, Their responses were analyzed using repeated measures MANOVA and structural equation modeling, Surprisingly, the results show that English learning does not negatively affect the students` attitudes towards learning their mother tongue, Korean. Furthermore, the students showed more positive attitudes towards learning Korean than that of English. A possible explanation is that the social power of the Korean language upheld in the Korean context is at least as strong as. or probably stronger than, that of English. These results rebut the concerns about the deterioration of the status of the Korean language due to English learning experience in Korea.
The emphasis on fluency in regards to communicative language teaching (CLT) played down the explicit teaching and practice of grammar items for a short period of time. Many scholars have subsequently discussed the fact that explicit grammar teaching is, in fact, essential, but that the teaching of grammar rules should be incorporated into communicative contexts providing communicative needs. The issue facing teaching professionals is in regards to the methodology: how to achieve their end. Although language specialists now understand the importance of grammar teaching, illustrative demonstrations regarding how to do so is in great demand. This paper illustrates and supports the method that integrates grammar instruction into a syllabus comprising communicative activities, with both fluency and accuracy emphasized. In doing so, this paper outlines a two-day teaching unit, designed by the author for beginner or intermediate L2 adult learners in ESL/EFL settings. Teaching professionals seeking ways to integrate grammar teaching into communicative activities and combine both fluency- and accuracy- oriented syllabuses, can apply the materials herein as they see fit, according to their classroom needs
Word-writing ability is a key teaching and testing objective for children. Traditional test methods have been inadequate in measuring and representing this ability in testing for children. The purposes of this paper are twofold: to introduce an alternative writing task type to assess children's ability to write single words; and to provide validity information about the task. The paper presents validity evidence supported in the following multiple sources. First the paper outlines a sample task, task characteristics, and scoring criteria, and clarifies domain specifications using task specifications. Second, it provides evidence indicated by ethnographic data that show the process of making the task appropriate for children during the task development. Next, the validity is supported by benefits associated with the task, such as: content representation, content sampling, practicality, utility, authenticity, and impact of this task on learning and instruction. Finally, college students' evaluative comments about the new task further indicate the beneficial influence of the task on student learning, such as higher-order thinking skills and motivation. The alternative task, first used with students in a bilingual immersion program, has been one of the favorite tasks of the teachers and students in this program. We offer possible applications of this method.
The validity of writing assessment has greatly improved since performance-based writing tasks have been used as alternative writing tasks. High reliability of scoring has also been demonstrated in numerous essay assessments. A relatively recent dimension of validity that has been called into question in writing assessment is scoring validity. This paper discusses scoring validity, focusing on the question of diverse reader expectations that contribute to doubts about scoring validity. Reader expectations are discussed in categories such as: differing reader views of what is good writing, issues of content conceptualization, characteristics of texts and their effects on readers, and divergent backgrounds and assumptions held by writers and readers. The paper suggests that readers in essay assessments should be aware of these issues. Finally the paper finds implications for scoring validity in holistic and componential scoring and recommends componential scoring as an alternative to holistic scoring where appropriate and feasible.
This study provides an overseas educational model and a case study developed and implemented by the Global Teachers Program of Teachers' College at K University in conjunction with the Institute of Continuing & TESOL Education of the University of Queensland in Australia. The purpose of the overseas education was to cultivate global and multicultural competences as well as generally increase educational professionalism. This paper will (1) introduce the background, the model, and the procedures used in developing this program during its pioneering period, (2) evaluate the results of its implementation, and (3) draw evaluative feedback and offer suggestions for other teachers' colleges wanting to implement similar overseas program for prospective teachers. Three types of questionnaires were administered, and the results are as follows. The participants evaluated both the weekend pre-program and the main training as satisfactory to excellent and indicated they would recommend the program to other students. Several highly-appreciated segments included: visiting local schools, visiting places of Australian uniqueness, micro-teaching, home-stays, locations and facilities, as well as the services of teachers and staff. The participants' global and multicultural competencies, English expressive skills, as well as reflections on future teaching produced positive results. Participants offered feedback about modifying a few segments to improve the program. The authors conclude that the overseas educational model provided in this study and the case study with the suggested modifications will be useful for those universities interested in raising prospective teachers' global and multicultural understanding and competences. Implications and suggestions are made for those dreaming similar overseas programs. 이 논문은 예비교원들의 글로벌·다문화 교육 역량을 신장하고 교육전문성을 높이기 위해 개발된 해외교육연수 모형을 전개하고 이 모형이 호주 퀸즐랜드대학교 교육연수에 적용된 사례를 평가하고 연구한다. 이를 통해 시사점을 논하고 타 교원양성 대학교들이 유사연수를 시행하고자 할 때 참고와 응용이 되고자 한다. 세 개의 설문지를 사용하여 참여자들의 글로벌·다문화 교육 역량 향상도와 연수 만족도를 조사하였다. 그 결과, 참여자들은 주말 사전 프로그램과 본격적 프로그램을 만족 내지 훌륭한 것으로 평하였으며, 동료들에게 적극 권장한다고 평하였다. 특히 높이 평가된 영역은 지역 학교 방문, 호주 특색의 인근 장소 방문, 동료 대상 마이크로-티칭, 홈스테이, 기관 위치와 시설, 교사 및 직원 서비스와 관련한 부분이었다. 사전-사후 글로벌·다문화 향상도는 유의미하였으며, 영어능력과 자신감도 향상되었다. 참가자들의 의견 서술에서는 호주의 문화·교육적 환경, 한국의 교육, 그리고 자신들의 미래 교수에 대한 성찰이 풍부하게 관찰되었다. 미래 몇 가지 수정사항을 반영한다면 더 훌륭한 해외교육연수의 시범 모델이 될 것이다. 본 연구가 글로벌·다문화 교원전문성 신장의 한 모델과 그 사례로써 유사 해외교육연수를 준비하는 교원양성기관들에게 유용한 참조와 응용이 되기를 바란다.
In this paper I argue that language can never be generated independently from our mental operations such as cognitive and affective functions. I discuss this point based on brain studies which have provided instruction about the structure and operation of human brains. Specifically, I approach the topic by reviewing and integrating the following brain mechanisms: 1) the stimulus appraisal system, which consists of the amygdala and frontal/prefrontal cortex, 2) the Interpreter in the left brain, and 3) subjective mental forces at the top of the brain0000s causal control hierarchy. On the basis of the mentalist or cognitive paradigm, the paper discusses the idea that subjective (cognitive, affective) intentions of the mind control and guide second language production, comprehension, and learning.