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We are living in three millennium. This is the important time that we can reflect on past 20th century and make the first step to the next century, so we should love the poor and proclaim Heaven and the Gospel to them to make it the true church that Jesus wants to be. Then who is the poor to us and how can we evangelize them newly method? In the chapter 1, I study the concept of 'New Evangelization' in the problem of new evangelization for the poor. Pope John Paul II referred 'New Evangelization' first and it means the whole activities which are greatly contributed to evangelization with the new enthusiasm, new method, and new expression for realization mature church community, as it has been appeared in his several encyclicals. 'New Evangelization' is related to the signs of the times that new period requires and it urge us to consider on the presence of the God and true sign of His plan. By the way, the important sign of the times today is new evangelization for the poor. In the chapter 2, I examined the Bible and the church document to understand about the poor. First, I looked over the poor in the Old Testament and New Testament. In the Old Testament, the poor mean that the people whose property was forfeited and who are of low social standing with being given an unfair treatment and this also means mental and spiritual condition. In the New Testament, the poor is understood as in not only material but also spiritual meaning, and that is more concrete and practical than in the Old Testament. The poverty of Christ is an act of salvation and love, therefore this act is work of sharing with the poor and being poor. The first thing in the church documents, Documents of the Second Vatican Council says that our church must be church of the poor. At the same time, the mission points to the evangelization for the poor. From encyclical of Pope Leo 13' Rerun Novarum to recently announce Tertio Millennia Adveniente, the message of the social encyclical doctrine related to 'Prior choice of the poor"(announced by Pope Leo 13') says about an effort about overcoming the material poverty in this social political circumstances and maintaining the freedom and dignity of man. Specially, Tertio Millennio Adveniente by Pope John II , says that the church must be concerned about the poor and alienated today. In the chapter 3, I study the church renewal and Solidarity which is contributed to New evangelization for the poor. In the Tertio Millennia Adveniente, Pope John Paul II, urges us repent based on the purport of 'The Second Vatican Council'; church purification and renewal. Solidarity is the core value of Christianity about society and it contradicts the plan of God who wants union of people and fraternal love in a community and circumstances. Korean church make an effort to unite between God and nation, nation and nation through the company life with the poor after the spiritual of The early Christian church. In the chapter 4, I study the evangelization of culture, that is the problem of Incultration and social welfare, it is an effort of New evangelization for the poor. Church must establish righteous humanity based on the teachings of Christ in the culture and must be concerned to "The prior choice of the church about the poor" which is the sign of the times and the core subject of social doctrine. Korean church must accomplish the evangelization of the culture based on this sprit in our world. For this purpose, we must use and apply several teachings from The memorial 200th Pastoral a bill of Korean church which is in progressing inadequately but we try evangelizing the poor and the' alienate over all other people. Korean church was concerned to the welfare of the believe and neighbour in the beginning. But today, many changes in the our society and catholic social welfare activity is placed in a turning point. So we should ' diagnose our church that cope in a positive light with the problems that will be occurred and have ministerial prospect. Therefore, we should study and develop social welfare 'activity in catholic church to being welfare ministry so the poor, church, and society can be union. More over, we should make it to important foundation for new evangelization for the poor. The church must choose the poor, the alienated in the center of the society over all other people and evangelize them by the love of Christ. We will do our best to make the beautiful world of God in which love and peace is overflowing and all the people can live equally by God's will.
Today Catholic Churches are facing in complicated social conditions. People gets more and more hopeless in this rapid changing social situation of extreme materialism and scientific development. It is not easy to avoid distress and suffering that is given in the daily life. Specially Vietnamese remains enormously difficult condition under the Communists. After became independent from France in 1954, Christians become free in their religious life in southern Vietnam while it was still suppressed under communist regime in northern. Since the reunification of northern and southern Vietnam in 1975 the religious suppressing was also begun in southern region. Catholic was specially mentioned by the Vietnam communist because they considered that the catholic would have any connection with disquieting imperialism of western countries. After became independent from France in 1954, Christians become free in their religious life in southern Vietnam while it was still suppressed under communist regime in northern. Since the reunification of northern and southern Vietnam in 1975 the religious suppressing was also begun in southern region. Catholic was specially mentioned by the Vietnam communist because they considered that the catholic would have any connection with disquieting imperialism of western countries. The constitution of Vietnam allows the religious freedom including the obligation of fully cooperation to regime. In terms of time the government's suppression to religious activity was decreased but the difficulties are still remained. Under this enormous communist regime Cardinal Nguyen Van Thuan Francis Xavier was jailed in a prison for 13 years. He never forgot the Hope at that time and continued to evangelize to his direct neighbors and the prison officers. This thesis studies life and thoughts of Cardinal Thuan. His whole life was consisted of the love, the humility, and the servant of the people. Whenever he was in childhood, seminarist, priest and bishop, imprisonment, and finally in the time of Rome, he tried to live with love and forgiveness simply according to the Gospel. Sometimes it seemed to be desperate but he never to give up the Hope and the continuous praying. Once he became so weak that he could not pray any more. At that moment he could say only a sentence “Oh God, I am here” and heard a low voice “I am here with you, too.” He experienced the presence of God. Cardinal Nguyen Van Thuan endured trusting to God his all sufferings. He did not want to avoid his suffering but stand against it. He considered of neither today nor tomorrow but of this very moment. He enabled to change the desperate situation to hopeful atmosphere. He changed enemies to friends and also suffering to peace. From now on Vietnam Catholic has to overcome from the facing dilemma via accepting the remaining suffering and changing it into hope as like Cardinal Nguyen Van Thuan did. Cardinal Nguyen Van Thuan said once that even if a word, a small gesture, and a phone call with a whole heart can change the situation. To love and to respect can bend the stubborn heart. In spite of that there still remains difficulties and sufferings even threaten ones life. Jesus was also crucified in order to show us the love and truth of God. In this very moment we all have to hope the power of redemption wherever we are. 현대인들은 희망을 잃어버리고 급속히 발전하는 과학과 물질만능의 사회 환경 속에서 그것을 따르며 살 수밖에 없는 처지에 있다. 복잡한 세상을 살아가는 현대인들은 매일, 매순간에 닥쳐오는 고통과 시련을 피할 수 없게 되었다. 베트남에서도 공산정권하에서 생활하고 있는 베트남인들은 많은 어려움을 겪고 있다. 특별히 베트남 그리스도인들은 1954년 프랑스로부터 독립하고 남북이 분단되면서 남쪽은 자유로운 신앙생활을 할 수 있었지만 북쪽은 공산주의 치하에서 많은 어려움을 겪었다. 1975년 4월 30일 베트남이 통일 된 이후부터는 남쪽의 교회역시 많은 탄압을 받게 되었다. 가톨릭은 많은 종교들 중에서 제국주의와 신 식민주의와 결탁된 불온한 세력으로 인식되어 베트남 정부로부터 특별히 심한 탄압을 받았다. 그러나 베트남 헌법에는 ‘베트남 인민은 신앙의 자유를 향유하며 종교의 자유가 있다’라고 규정하고 있다. 정부는 법률상으로 모든 신앙의 자유를 보장하고 있는 것이다. 종교단체는 절차상 베트남의 조국전선에 참가하고 정부와 당 정책에 협력하는 것으로 되어 있다. 1997년 이후부터는 종교에 대한 탄압의 정도가 비교적 줄어들었으나 베트남에서 신앙생활을 하는데 아직도 많은 어려움이 남아있다. 이러한 공산정권하에서 응우옌 반 투안(Nguyễn Văn Thuận) 프란치스코 하비에르 추기경(이하 투안 추기경으로 표기)은 무려 13년 동안이나 긴 감옥생활을 하면서 수감자들과 교도관들에게도 복음을 전하는 등 단 한 순간도 희망을 잃지 않고 꿋꿋하게 신앙을 증거 하였다. 이 논문에서 투안 추기경의 삶과 사상을 연구하였다. 투안 추기경의 삶 전체가 사랑과 겸손, 봉사하는 삶으로 이루어져 있다. 어린 시절, 신학생시절, 사제와 주교시절, 수감생활 그리고 마지막으로 로마에서 세계교회를 위하여 봉사하던 시절, 그는 늘 단순하고 겸손한 마음으로 그리고 그리스도의 복음을 따라 사랑과 용서하는 마음으로 온 삶을 살았다. 투안 추기경은 또한 아무런 희망도 없어 보이는 절망적인 상황에서도 희망을 포기하지 않았다. 희망하는 삶은 기도와 깊은 신앙심으로부터 생겨나는 것이다. 기도는 그의 삶 자체였다. 육체적으로 허약해져 정신 집중이 잘 안 되고 이로 인하여 영적 메마름으로 치달았을 때 그는 매우 고통스러웠다. 고통스러운 그 순간에도 “하느님 저 여기 있습니다.”라는 화살기도를 드렸기에 예수님의 응답으로 “나도 너와 함께 여기 있다.” 라는 하느님 체험을 할 수 있었던 것이다. 투안 추기경은 사랑이신 하느님께 온전히 의탁하며 믿음과 희망으로 고통을 견디어냈다. 그는 고통을 피하지 않고 고통과 맞섰다. 또한 그는 미래를 기다리지 않았고 과거도 되돌아보지 않으면서 밝은 희망과 함께 지금 이 순간을 사랑하면서 살았다. 아울러 그는 가득한 사랑의 삶과 함께 자신이 처한 혹독한 환경마저도 기쁨으로 변화시킬 수 있었다. 원수를 친구로 변화시켰고 고통을 평화로 변화시킨 것이다. 베트남교회에 속한 각 개인이나 단체 그리고 교구는 투안 추기경을 본받아 베트남사회가 현재 겪고 있는 고통을 사랑으로 받아들이면서 하느님 사랑을 믿고 희망하여야 한다. 투안 추기경이 표현한 것처럼 ‘말 한마디, 손짓 한 번, 전화 한 번이라도 사랑하는 마음으로 표현한다면 주변의 환경을 변화시킬 수 있다.’ 사랑과 존중은 완고한 사람들의 마음까지도 변화시킬 수 있는 것이다. 그럼에도 어려움과 고통은 항상 동반되기 마련이고 경우에 따라서는 목숨까지도 위협받을 수 있는 것이다. 구체적으로 사람이 되신 하느님의 아들 예수 그리스도께서도 인간들에게 하느님의 사랑과 진리를 알려주시기 위하여 고통을 당하시고 목숨까지 바치셨다. 그러므로 지금 이 순간을 사는 우리에게도 그러한 구원사업을 희망하는 권한이 주어져 있는 것이다.
Nowadays humankind are faced with new age of the history. So many persons yet are suffering from starvation and poverty. And new type of social and psychological slavery is appeared. Also conflict of power with each other made extreme disruption. Violent strife occurred in the aspect of politics, society, economy, race, ideology. In these confused environment, the Church promulgated documents, encyclicals and synod statements as the catholic social justice teachings with using the Bible, Church father's teachings, rational principles in order to suggest the activity basis which affect human activity. The Church should accomplish triple subject-promulgation of the truth of human dignity and human right, indictment of unjust situation, participation of true human development and social positive variation in whole time and whole situation. When the Church accomplish these triple subject through social teachings, the Church embodies the kingdom of God correctly. In this viewpoint, this paper studied basic principles of social teaching and the principles about order of social teachings. The principle of catholic social teachings did not derive from a document systematically but are constructed through whole course of historic progress of social teachings. Basic principles of social teaching are consist of the principle of the human dignity and the principle of human rights. The principle of the human dignity is based on the belief which we are made in the image of God (Genesis 1, 27) and we are created to supernatural object transcending earthly life. As a rational and free being, and as a being with rights and responsibilities, the principle of the human dignity is a best principle of social teachings. The principle of human rights indicates that basic rights which whole human has as a inborn rights about life, freedom, equality should be respected because whole human is a "Imago Dei" meaning the image of God. In order that preservation and extension of human rights becomes evangelical evidence effectively and reliably, whole christian should make a common effort. The principles about order of social teachings are consist of the principle of the common good, the principle of solidarity, the principle of subsidiarity, the principle of participation, and the principle of universal purpose of material goods. The principles which induce and restrict social life are originated from human dignity, human right and sociality. The principle of the common good indicates that something is good to all. The common good is the sum of social life condition which need in order to achieve self-completion easily and sufficiently. When it is good in whole aspect such as, politics, economy, society, religion, that is common good. So to spot, common good is good not to individual but to all. Solidarity means interdependency, dependence to each other, solidarity with society of whole person, and reversion to person as a part of society. Primary, the principle of solidarity is a principle of existence derive from social essence of human directly. Because human is a social being, common responsibility, common duty of a person is not a problem of right action morally and personal approvement but a problem of recognition of relationship among communities. This principle is the rule of social existence and progression. Responsibility of solidarity is the responsibility accepting the others and the responsibility of christian love. Solidarity is a may to the peace and the development. Fruit of solidarity is peace. As a starting point, we consider two grounds. First, protection (self-existence)of person and little life community from unjust; interference of general social community. Second, "assistance to down from up." this is liable to ignore. The reason why the Church pay attention to apply this principle is that this principle is a respect of humanlike something in structure of social life and a respect of human dignity itself and that personal rights must be preserved between individual society and general society. Through the principle of participation, individual and society are supposed to develop quality of the life as such, when this principle apply social life, we can live positively and voluntarily. Because the principle of universal purpose of material goods is human inborn right and basic right which divide human and beast, material goods must be given according to human dignity and domestic necessity in order to satisfy right of the life. Created goods must be divided on the basis of justice with love fairly, abundantly. Because earthly goods are created for whole people, Those should be divided to whole people fairly. When the guide of social action which catholic social teaching teaches apply and practice, new evangelization comes true. That means respect of human dignity and realization of dialogue of inter-respect and struggle for justice and possession of social solidarity consciousness. Therefore, new evangelization is cultivation of necessary ability, strengthening of experience of earthly reality and christian belief, practice of love and charity through opening us to the grace of the Holy Spirit. In order to realize new evangelization, social teachings and christian practice should have communion, especially Church can judge and must judge politic action. Through this endeavour, Church social action should be a sign of existence of the kingdom of God through light of the gospel.
Globalization which combines world together has been caused by the development of mass media and networks of information. Nowadays, the culture is able to be shared to people and nations all around the world through rapid progress. This phenomenon influenced the existing culture and traditions and helped to form a new world view, on the other hand, it caused the confusion of senses of values. It has also appeared to be various form in the Korean society. It is true that the culture of life and sex has been developed by sharing many varied information, but also abused in many cases. Particularly, the culture of sex causing negative effect is threatening the absolute value of sex which has been kept in the tradition and religion. Above all, the dispute about homosexual union legalization has already jeopardized to the value of Catholic Church on sex, marriage and family. The confusion of the value of sex and family that the Church is trying to solve is not only the matter of religion but of all society, because it is foundation of maintenance and development of society. Nevertheless, many Koreans are still avoiding this matter with being ignoring or feeling burdened. On the contrary, some are trying to make an approach to homosexuality to get new point of views, They are trying to get the legalization of homosexual union to win public recognition on homosexuality in the society. Under these circumstances, I tried to consider the matter of homosexual union legalization in the views of Catholic Church. First, I will inquire the reason of homosexuality to find out the right standpoint about homosexual. Then, I will grasp the realities how supporters of homosexual union legalization are playing a role in our society to understand their claim and its justification. Subsequently, I will examine the point of view of the Church about homosexual and homosexual union legalization and show the evident reason why the Church is against homosexual act and homosexual union legalization. Then, I will suggest comprehensively some points how Christians should deal with homosexual and homosexual union legalization in the eyes of Catholic Church. I hope that my research would contribute to understand homosexual better in the eyes of the Church. At the same time, it would be great if my research might help not only Christians but all people to take a better viewpoint about the essence of sex, marriage and family, and also the reason why homosexual union legalization should be objected.
한국 사회의 문제점은 빈익빈 부익부 현상이다. 그 원인은 한국사회의 구조적 문제이며, 정치 공동체에 의해 형성되었다. 지금도 정치에 의해 형성된 사회구조 속에서 대다수의 가난한 사람들은 고통을 받고 있다. 교회는 사회의 복음화, 정치의 복음화란 측면을 생각할 때는 결코 정치에 무관심할 수 없으며 제2차 바티칸 공의회의 가그침대로 '비판적 정치참여'를 해야 한다. 이것은 '영혼 구원을 위해 정치질서에 윤리적 판단을 내리는'(「사목헌장」, 76항 참조) 구체적 모습이다. 하지만 사회정의 실현을 위한 '비판적 정치참여'를 함에 있어 큰 걸림돌이 있으니 바로 교회 안에 있는 정치적 무관심이 그것이다. 정치적 무관심이란 정치 공동체의 정당한 행위는 물론 불의한 행위에 대해서조차 관여하지 않겠다는 것이다. 한국 교회의 정치적 무관심은 현대 사회적 현상이라는 점 이외에도 다음과 같은 원인들이 있다. 즉 한국 정치지도층의 의도, 현세불간섭주의, 정치무비판주의, 정교분리원칙에 대한 오도와 오해, 불이익을 당하지 않으려는 교회 수호주의, 균형 잃은 영성과 수도자적 영성에 대한 지나친 강조 등이다. 이런 현상은 정치부패의 근원이 되며, 불의한 정치에 의해 형성된 사회구조적 악에 대해 눈과 귀를 막게 한다. 따라서 한국교회의 정치적 무관심은 극복되어야 하는데 그 대안은 사목적인 측면과 영성적인 측면에서 제언해 볼 수 있다. 사목적인 측면에서는 사회교리 원리에 입각한 신자교육과 정치분야에 대한 진문인 양성, 정치에 의해 형성되고 조정되는 사회구조의 원리와 불의한 정치에 의해 형성된 한국사회의 구조적 악에 대해서 일반대중과 대화를 통해 고발·비판·선포하는 일, 사회정의 실현을 위해 일하는 단체가 활성화되도록 관심과 재정적 지원을 해 주는 일 등이 있다. 정치 참여에로의 인식변화를 위해서는 장기적 측면에서도 고려되어야 하는데, 그것은 사회정의구현을 위해 투신을 할 수 있도록 '내적 원동력'을 제공해주는 것이다. 바로 영성이 그 역할을 할 것이다. 실제로 한국 교회사 안에서 형성된 정치적 무관심은 '균형 있는 영성'의 부재(不在)에 윈인이 있다. 즉 교회와 사회를 이분법적으로 바라보는 영성관이나 사회와는 결별된 삶으로 비춰진 수도자적인 영성만을 사제나 평신도에게 강조하는 경향이 바로 그것이다. '균형 있는 영성'은 기도(관상)와 실천이 조화되는 것으로서 한 사회의 시대적 징표에 부합하는 시대적 영성의 특징을 지닌다. 그것은 바로 '예언자적 영성'으로 구체화시켜 볼 수 있다. 한국 사회의 '시대적 표징'인 사회의 구조적 불의에 대한 고발과 비판은 성서 예언자적 삶을 요구하기 때문이다. 정치적 무관심은 반드시 극복되어야 한다. 특히 교회 안에 있는 그것은 더욱 그렇다. 정치적 무관심은 정치 부패의 기반이 될 뿐 아니라 이미 형성된 사회 구조악으로부터 고통당하는 이웃 형제들의 아픔에 눈과 귀를 막는 것이기 때문이다 정치 공동체가 정의실현이나 공동선이라는 목적에 미치지 못한다고 해서 불의한 것으로 보고 관심을 가지지 않는 것은 교회의 정치 복음화에도 어긋나며 더욱 큰 불행과 고통을 다른 형제에게 지우는 것이다. The problem of Korean society is a phenomenon of "the rich-get-richer and the poor-get-poorer". The reason for this is the structural problem of Korean society which is formed by political groups. Today many poor people are suffering in this social structure formed by politics. In consideration of "Social Evangelization and Political Evangelization", the Church can not be in political apathy. Moreover according to the teaching of the 2nd Vatican Council, the Church must take part in politics by a critical method. This is a concrete appearance which "decides moral judgments in the political order for the salvation of souls" (Gaudium et Spes, Art. 76). But when the Church takes part in politics by a critical method for the realization of social justice, it is faced with a great obstacle, namely political apathy. It doesn't concern legitimate action of political groups or even illegitimate action. The political apathy of the Korean Church has some reasons which are modern social phenomena, that is: intention of political authority in Korea, world non-interventionism, political non-interventionism, misunderstanding about separation of church and state, church preservation which intends not to suffer any disadvantage, a balance losing spirituality and over-exaggeration of religious spirituality. These phenomena arc the origin of political corruption and show little concern for structural evil in society fanned by illegitimate politics. Therefore, political apathy in the Church must be overcome. We can suggest an alternative plan with a pastoral phase and a spiritual phase. In the pastoral phase, there should be expert cultivation about politics, education of the laity according to principles of social teaching, accusation, criticism and proclamation through dialogue with the general public about structural evil in Korean society formed by illegitimate politics and about the principle of a social structure which is formed and mediated by politics. Lastly there should be concern and financial support for groups which work for the realization of social justice. In the long- term phase for change of recognition of political participation in the realization of social justice, spirituality will play an important role. Actually, political apathy found in Korean Church history originated from an absent of a "Balancing Spirituality", so to speak, the view of spirituality which considers church and society a dichotomy and a religious spirituality which differs from Society as such. "Balancing Spirituality" is a harmony with prayer(meditation) and praxis(action) and it has the special quality of a "spirituality of the times" which coincides with "the sign of the times". This spirituality is able to take concrete shape in "Prophetic Spirituality". The accusation and criticism about social unjustice demands the prophetic life of the Bible. Political apathy must be overcome in the Church because it not only is a basis of political corruption but also a turning away from the agony of one's neighbor who suffers from social structural evil.
The Church, which is going on a pilgrimage, considers the mission as its own essence(ref. Ad Gentes Divinitus, 2). So the evangelization of the world, so to speak 'the mission' is the aim of the church(ref. Redemptoris Missio, 14). Therefore when the church preaches the Gospel, it does what it has to do. And unless it does, it would lose its own essence. In 1995 January while FABC(Federation of Asian Bishops' Conferences) was holding in Manila in Philippine the pope John Paul Ⅱ said that the Catholic church had rooted in Europe for the first one millenium, in America and Africa for the next one millenium and finally now should root in Asia the golden and immense fishery for evangelization. And he said that the future of the Catholic church depended on Asian church whose rate of evangelization is only 3 percent, even though the population of Asia is two third of the world's. When the pope visited Korean Catholic Church in 1980s' he already referred that evangelization of Asia is the obligation of Korean Catholic church. Thus, even though the crisis of Korean Catholic is often presented, Korean church, based on its external and internal marvelous growth, is trying to evangelize Asia, as not Europe's but the same region's church, for not only Asian church but also universal church. Korean Catholic church is putting into practice the evangelization of north Korea, Chine and east Asian Church which adjoins Korea. These is fulfillments of Korean church are derived from its own essence. Like this even though Korean Catholic church is trying to evangelize a lot of Asian churches faced with difficult problems, this thesis pays attention to specially Mongolian Catholic church. Though Mongolia had relation with Catholic church in 13th century, the Catholic faith hadn't been preached so Mongolian church is in the first step of the mission now and is the youngest church among all Asian churches. Mongolia had been supported for every field from Soviet in communism. After Soviet collapsed, Mongolia freed itself from communism, having been lasted for a long time, and turned to democracy. Rapid change of the community and crisis of economy let Mongolian pays attention to the western world. So Mongolia entered into diplomatic relation with Vatican in 1992 and on its own initiative asks Vatican to send missionary to Mongolia. On this, Vatican immediately had sent three missionaries, who were belonging to CICM(Congregatio Immaculati Cordis Mariae) and acting in China, to Mongolia and found 'missio sui iuris'. 'Mongolia apostolic prefecture' is founded in Mongolia now. Bishop Wenceslao Padila, Mongolian prefect apostolic, appeal to especially Korean Catholic church to help Mongolian Catholic church which is at an early stage of the mission. Because Korean and Mongolian share cultural, traditional and religious same quality each other among the east Asian people though between Chinese and Japanese. Therefore Korean Catholic church has the advantage of mission for Mongolia. Consequently this thesis deals the role of Korean Catholic church for the mission in Mongolia. I'll conceptualize 'the mission' theoretically and to understand Mongolian and Mongolian religion historically in this thesis. Within this historical comprehension I'll clarify Catholic church's relation with the past and the current Mongolia. At the end, in the ground of these arguments I'll examine the current situation of the missionary activity carried out by Korean Catholic church for Mongolian church which is the youngest among all Asian Church and is in the early step of the mission and I'll consider the future of the mission in Mongolia. Moreover I'll draw Korean Catholic church's concern at the mission in Mongolia and derive more active and systematic cooperation from Korean Catholic church for the mission in Mongolia.
This study attempts to understanding the ‘Joint Declaration On The Doctrine of Justification’ between the Lutheran World Federation and the Catholic Church in view of dogmatic theology. Especially, it is focused on nn. 14-18 in ‘the shared understanding of Justification’ to illuminate the theological ground and the meaning of the joint declaration. Through this study, I hope that we could achieve a better understanding on how both religions – the Lutheran World Federation and the Catholic Church – had been reached to share ‘the understanding of Justification’ and also obtained the fruits of that. The first chapter has covered the importance and the meaning of ‘The Joint Declaration on The Doctrine of Justification’. Although the shared understanding part(nn. 14-18) had a lot of difficulties to agree about the doctrine of Justification, it was bore a fruit from continuous dialogue and studying about the declaration. Especially, the declaration receives attention for importance in the point that it implies an issue of the dispute for justification and theological basis of the agreement considerably. The second chapter examines the historical understanding about ‘The Doctrine of Justification.’ Analyzing the earlier controversies are useful and helpful in gaining a deeper understanding of this doctrine. The Doctrine of Justification, that has developed on the major premise of the cooperation between God’s will and human nature, is indeed related with human salvation. In this process, it is detected for an aspect of Lutheran that had conflicted with the traditional view of Justification in the Catholic Church. In addition, this matter lead also to a theological division between the Lutheran and the Catholic Church. The third chapter has interpreted the contents of ‘the shared understanding of justification(nn. 14-18)’ based on the comprehension of ‘Joint Declaration’. By this interpreting ‘Joint Declaration’(nn.14-18), it is found that the Lutheran World Federation and the Catholic Church have believed and shared legacies of the faith together, based on the Bible. Especially, it is remarkable to be that there are three core concepts on ‘a shared understanding of Justification’. First, Justification is the God-trinity’s gift and then that is based on the Mystery of Pascha. Second, both religions confess that Justification depends on the saving grace of God for our salvation, not on any merits of human. The last, the good deeds and merits, as a result of Justification, lead all laities to the renovation by the Holy Spirit. The Fourth chapter has tried to understand the general meaning which was given for us from ‘the shared understanding of Justification’. Above all, the precious results are to get consensus and the abrogation of condemnation. Going further, the theological study and continuance of conversation for Ecumenism denote that other agreement and advance will be caused also in the other doctrine thesis. Undoubtedly, To not achieve full mutual agreement is, obviously, a limited side that ‘the Joint Declaration’. NN. 19-39 as a interpretation part of the Joint Declaration present this substance. Nevertheless, it seemed important for us to recover and re-analyze common inheritance from the Holy bible and Sacred Tradition between the Lutheran and the Catholic Church. For this way leads us to continue to strive together to deepen common understanding and visible unity. Through this study, it has been suggested that both of the Lutheran World Federation and the Catholic Church believe the word of God and legacies of the faith together. Also their agreement of Justification was on inquiry in this thesis. Although there are some tasks which are left to be treated in the future, we got the fruit named, ‘a shared understanding of Justification’ from dialogue and studying together. This work was the cause to overcome the barriers of misunderstanding and prejudice. Taking this opportunity, I hope a journey for Ecumenism will be continued in a lot of fields. 본 연구는 루터교 세계총연맹과 가톨릭교회의 ‘의화교리에 관한 합동선언문’을 교의 신학적으로 헤아려 보는 시도이다. 특히, “의화의 공동이해(14-18항)”를 중점적으로 다루면서, 양측의 합의에 신학적 근거와 거기에 담긴 의미들을 살펴보았다. 이로써 루터교와 가톨릭교회가 ‘의화의 공동이해’로 나아갔던 과정과 그 결실들이 드러날 수 있으리라 생각한다. 먼저 제Ⅰ장은 ‘의화 교리에 관한 합동선언문’의 의미와 중요성을 밝혔다. 이 선언문은 합의하기 어려운 부분들이 많았음에도 지속적인 대화와 연구를 통해 결실을 맺었다. 특히 ‘의화의 공동이해(14-18항)’는 의화 논쟁의 쟁점과 합의의 신학적 근거를 상당수 포함한다는 점에서 그 의미와 중요성이 무척 큼을 알 수 있었다. 제 Ⅱ장에서는 의화교리의 역사적 이해에 관해 살펴보았다. 그간 쟁점이 된 사항들을 분석하는 것은 의화 교리를 보다 깊이 이해하는데 유익하다. ‘하느님의 자유와 인간 본성의 협력’이라는 대전제 속에서 발전한 의화교리는 인간 구원의 문제와도 맞물린다. 이 과정에서 우리는 가톨릭의 전통적 의화관과 대립한 루터교의 모습을 볼 수 있다. 나아가 이 대립이 적어도 신학적으로 종교분열의 요인이 되었음을 확인하였다. 제 Ⅲ장은 의화 교리에 관한 합동선언문의 전반적 이해를 바탕으로 14-18항의 “의화의 공동이해”를 주해하였다. 본문 주해에서 루터교와 가톨릭교회가 성경을 근거로 신앙의 공동 유산들을 함께 고백하고 있음을 알 수 있었다. 특히 ‘의화의 공동이해’에서 나타나는 핵심은 세 가지로 요약할 수 있었다. 첫째, 의화는 삼위일체이신 하느님의 선물이며 파스카 신비에 바탕을 두고 있다. 둘째, 의화는 인간의 어떤 공로나 선행으로 이루어지지 않고 오로지 하느님의 은총으로 가능함을 선언한다. 마지막으로 의화의 결과로 선행과 공로는 성령의 힘을 통하여 모든 신자들을 삶의 쇄신으로 이끌어 줌을 볼 수 있었다. 제 Ⅳ장은 ‘의화의 공동이해’가 갖는 의미를 살펴보았다. 교회의 기본 진리에 대한 합의, 상호 정죄의 철회는 중대한 결실이다. 나아가 신학적 연구와 대화를 통해 여전히 존재하는 상위성과 여타 다른 교의의 합의를 위해 노력할 필요가 있다. 물론 완전한 합의에 도달하지 못한 것은 합동선언문이 갖는 분명한 한계점이다. ‘의화의 공동이해 해설(19-39항)’은 여전히 남아있는 양측의 입장차를 제시한다. 그럼에도 ‘신앙의 공동 유산’을 재발견하고, 재해석했다는 점에서 교회 일치를 향한 도정의 시작되었음을 알 수 있었다. 본 연구를 통해 루터교 세계총연맹과 가톨릭교회는 ‘성경’과 ‘신앙의 유산’들을 함께 믿고 고백하면서 진전된 합의로 나아갔음을 볼 수 있었다. 여전히 남아 있는 과제들은 완전한 일치로 나아가는데 어려움으로 작용한다. 그럼에도 신학적 대화와 연구 속에서 오해와 편견을 벗고, ‘의화의 공동이해’에 이르렀다. 이를 계기로 더 많은 분야에서 교회 일치를 향한 여정이 지속되기를 소망해 본다.
The seminary is 'the heart of the church', for it is where the future priests are fostered. Therefore, it is true to say that the themes learned in the seminary have a great effect on the future church; for if 'the future shepherd'(the seminarians) are misguided in their scholar years, than there is a great chance that the 'lambs'(the faithful) are misguided as well. Hence it becomes apparent that the curriculum has to be properly structured in a way so that th 'deposit of faith' could be well delivered. Among many subjects in the curriculum, dogmatics, in particular, has to be carefully reviewed since of its importance of dealing with the core teaching of the church. For this reason in this thesis, we will be focusing on the contents of the curriculum of dogmatics based on the "Catechism Of The Catholic Church", which includes the core teachings of the church. First, in chapter one, we will be looking briefly at the history and the meaning of the catechism, as well as its birth, goal, structure, and authority. Next, in chapter two, we will examine the structure of the curriculum in other seminaries and consider some of the possibilities of its improvements in the curriculum of dogmatics. And in chapter three, on the basis of what we have gone through, we will make a summary for each subject of dogmatics accordingly to the appropriate contents of the catechism. And furthermore, we will consider 'what are the prime subjects that has to be dealt first in the curriculum' as well as the structural problem and its alternatives. Meanwhile, the problem with the curriculum concerning the dogmatics is that each University has its own unique curriculum which makes the reconciliation difficult. Also, another problem is that Mariology and Theology of the Holy Sprit are not Widely given among the Universities. In fact, only two out of seven seminaries were giving these subjects. To this, as a possible solution, if the addition of new courses to the curriculum is not possible, we can suggest to establish a single course that integrate all dogmatics in one. As Pope Jean Paul 2nd mentioned, the catechism is the 'tool for the new evangelization'. Consequently, teaching dogmatics based on the "Catechism Of The Catholic Church" to the seminarians who will become the next leaders in evangelization, is of sure an essential one.
200 years passed whether catholic church are gotten transmitted to this land. Korea Catholic church suffered much troubles and got from experience various experience also in faith history named 200 years. Any person or organization need adaptation to exist in environment inside that is unfamiliar. Therefore, can not estimate adaptation to surrounding environment unartificially. A individual surrounding and that is assimilated truly various method and trial and error need, because it is more complicated and need system that is developed highly that any specific organization is assimilated in the nation much more . Korea Catholic church inclined many efforts to adapt to this land in short history of 200 years. But, great master of adaptation is great truly. And there was Korea Catholic church among him when stand doing whirlpool of change that this land is large. When 'cho-sun' encounters in plunder of external Influence, cloth Catholic church tried to get away in another oppression. Finally, when Japan plundered this territory compulsorily, Korea Catholic church could not but be silent in policy of Japan-dominate. State of Korea Catholic church became target of criticism inside and exterior this Japan-dominate age. And such criticism is goodish never for growth of church. But, razor also that is affirmative while look at contradictory side for church now must see. If lean on one anything, because growth that have balance can not expect . Treatise that see as this attempt tried to clear that Korea Catholic church acted affirmative role Japan-dominate age, and selected national debt compensation campaign that is Whole people's exercise that break out in 1907 by the typical model. As national debt compensation exercise knows part that is many, plunder greed of Japan is exercise of people whole that happen at time that show height. National debt compensation exercise is large meaning that became Central point of Aufklarung, and straw mat of after this anti-Japan independence movement. By the way, it is great important that Catholic Christian in such important national debt compensation exercise became starting point, and accomplished the center. Focused that Catholic Christian participation was active in racial movement Japan-dominate age in this treatise. Of course, it is great difficult that find only Catholic Christian data. Actually, went through insufficiency of data. Therefore, tried to search for all datas that take part in racial movement although recording Catholic Christians number was few. But, did not make out that is worth satisfying treatise properly to the tribe of data and effort. For these reason, Many parts inconvenient standpoint remains as forming end of treatise. But, try to satisfy that desire that much researches about affirmative role of Catholic Christians consist Japan-dominate age forward, and wrote this treatise as the beginning. Special Thank to Father Kim ki-man that guide to write lacking treatise that see finally, and thank judging and map to Father Kim jong-su and Father Bae seung-rok who do same time. Together, thank to parents. But, first of all, thank to God who I deliver so that can spend this treatise in church.
예수 그리스도로부터 위임받은 복음화의 사명을 영속적으로 지켜나가야 할 교회는 그 책무를 지도적으로 수행할 성직자들에 대한 양성에 온갖 노력을 기울여왔다. 교회 또한 세상의 일부라는 측면에서 역사성에 의해 제약을 받기에, 필연적으로 성직자 양성을 위한 교육은 시대의 흐름에 따라 많은 변천을 겪었다. 제대로 된 양성 체계를 마련하지 못했던 초창기를 거쳐, 교회는 세속 권력과의 밀접한 관계 안에서 성직자 양성 역시 점진적으로 발전시켜나갔다. 그러나 점차로 극에 달하는 교회의 세속화와 그에 따른 전반적인 쇄신의 요구는, 새로이 출현한 인문주의적 사조와 더불어, 르네상스를 거쳐 종교개혁으로까지 이어진 대내외적 위기의 상황을 초래하였다. 이러한 과정에서 개신교회는 체계적인 목회자 양성을 수반한 인문주의적 교육 개혁을 단행하여 전성기를 구가하였고, 이는 가톨릭교회의 성직자 양성 체계에도 새로운 응답을 요청하였다. 특별히 “예수회”는 이 요청에 본격적으로 투신하여 특유의 개방적 영성과 활동력으로 교회의 교육 사업을 선도해나갔고, 그 범위는 성직자 양성으로까지 확장되었다. 이는 체계적이고 일관되게 시행된 교육과정을 통해 시류(時流)를 비판적으로 반영한 전인적인 지성 함양을 지향했다는 점에서, 종래의 양성과는 확연히 다른 차별성과 효율성을 가져다주었다. 본 연구는 특히 예수회가 최초로 마련한 교육 준칙(準則)으로서의 「보편적 학습 지침」(Ratio Studiorum)과 그 적용에 중점을 두고, 이에 힘입어 전 교회적 차원으로 확산된 성직자 양성 개혁을 살펴보며, 그 의의와 한계를 밝혀보고자 시도하였다. 극도의 다원화를 그 주요 특징으로 삼을 수 있는 현 시대에, 세상과 공존하는 교회는 균형 잡힌 지성과 올바른 식별력을 바탕으로 세상과 교회에 봉사하는 성직자를 필요로 한다. 이러한 여정에서, 「보편적 학습 지침」을 활용한 예수회의 교육을 기반으로 삼은 가톨릭교회의 성직자 양성 개혁과 그 배경을 고찰하는 것은 오늘날에도 유의미한 계기를 마련해줄 것이다. The Church, which must perpetually keep the mission of evangelization entrusted by Jesus Christ, has made every effort to train the clergy who will lead the duty. Since the Church is also constrained by course of history in terms of being a part of the world, inevitably education for the training of priests has undergone many changes with the passage of the times. After an early period when it was not possible to establish a proper formation system, the Church gradually developed clergy training within a close relationship with secular power. However, the gradual secularization of the Church and its overall demand for renewal, along with the newly emerged humanist trend, met a situation of internal and external crisis that led to the Renaissance and the Reformation. In this process, the Protestant Church made its heyday by implementing a humanistic education reform that accompanied systematic training of pastors, and this requested a new response to the Catholic Church's system of training the clergy. In particular, the “Society of Jesus” committed to this request in earnest and led the Church's educational work with its unique and open spirituality and vitality, and its scope was extended to the clergy training. This brought a distinct difference and efficiency from the conventional training in which it aimed to cultivate holistic intelligence that critically reflected the currents through a systematic and consistent curriculum. This study specifically focuses on the Ratio Studiorum, an educational rule first established by the Jesuits and its application, and looks into the reform for the clerical formation that has spread throughout the Church, and attempted to reveal its significance and limitations. In the present age, where extreme pluralism can be made its main feature, the Church, that coexists with the world, needs the clergy who serve both the world and the Church with a balanced intellect and correct discernment. Considering the reform and background for the training of priests in the Catholic Church based on the education of the Jesuits using the Ratio Studiorum is worth even today.