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      • KCI등재

        Lactobacillus casei Zhang Prevents Jejunal Epithelial Damage to Early-Weaned Piglets Induced by Escherichia coli K88 via Regulation of Intestinal Mucosal Integrity, Tight Junction Proteins and Immune Factor Expression

        Yuying Wang,Xue Yan,Weiwei Zhang,Yuanyuan Liu,Deping Han,Kedao Teng,Yunfei Ma 한국미생물·생명공학회 2019 Journal of microbiology and biotechnology Vol.29 No.6

        Farm animals such as piglets are often affected by environmental stress, which can disturb the gut ecosystem. Antibiotics were commonly used to prevent diarrhea in weaned piglets, but this was banned by the European Union due to the development of antibiotic resistance. However, the use of probiotics instead of antibiotics may reduce the risk posed by pathogenic microorganisms and reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal diseases. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus casei Zhang on the mechanical barrier and immune function of early-weaned piglets infected using Escherichia coli K88 based on histomorphology and immunology. Fourteen-day-old weaned piglets were divided into a control group and experimental groups that were fed L. casei Zhang and infected with E. coli K88 with or without prefeeding and/or postfeeding of L. casei Zhang. The L. casei Zhang dose used was 107 CFU/g diet. Jejunum segments were obtained before histological, immunohistochemical, and western blot analyses were performed. In addition, the relative mRNA expression of toll receptors and cytokines was measured. Piglets fed L. casei Zhang showed significantly increased jejunum villus height, villus height–crypt depth ratio, muscle thickness, and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and tight junction proteins ZO-1 and occludin. The use of L. casei Zhang effectively reduced intestinal inflammation after infection. We found that L. casei Zhang feeding prevented the jejunum damage induced by E. coli K88, suggesting that it may be a potential alternative to antibiotics for preventing diarrhea in early-weaned piglets.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Lactobacillus casei Zhang Prevents Jejunal Epithelial Damage to Early-Weaned Piglets Induced by Escherichia coli K88 via Regulation of Intestinal Mucosal Integrity, Tight Junction Proteins and Immune Factor Expression

        Wang, Yuying,Yan, Xue,Zhang, Weiwei,Liu, Yuanyuan,Han, Deping,Teng, Kedao,Ma, Yunfei The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnol 2019 Journal of microbiology and biotechnology Vol.29 No.6

        Farm animals such as piglets are often affected by environmental stress, which can disturb the gut ecosystem. Antibiotics were commonly used to prevent diarrhea in weaned piglets, but this was banned by the European Union due to the development of antibiotic resistance. However, the use of probiotics instead of antibiotics may reduce the risk posed by pathogenic microorganisms and reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal diseases. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus casei Zhang on the mechanical barrier and immune function of early-weaned piglets infected using Escherichia coli K88 based on histomorphology and immunology. Fourteen-day-old weaned piglets were divided into a control group and experimental groups that were fed L. casei Zhang and infected with E. coli K88 with or without prefeeding and/or postfeeding of L. casei Zhang. The L. casei Zhang dose used was $10^7CFU/g$ diet. Jejunum segments were obtained before histological, immunohistochemical, and western blot analyses were performed. In addition, the relative mRNA expression of toll receptors and cytokines was measured. Piglets fed L. casei Zhang showed significantly increased jejunum villus height, villus height-crypt depth ratio, muscle thickness, and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and tight junction proteins ZO-1 and occludin. The use of L. casei Zhang effectively reduced intestinal inflammation after infection. We found that L. casei Zhang feeding prevented the jejunum damage induced by E. coli K88, suggesting that it may be a potential alternative to antibiotics for preventing diarrhea in early-weaned piglets.

      • KCI등재

        崔致远、张乔送别诗比较研究

        Zhang, Junlan 부산대학교 중국연구소 2019 Journal of China Studies Vol.22 No.1

        During the process of comparing the farewell poems of Qiao Zhang, the poet during the late Tang dynasty, and Choi Chi-Won, the Silla poet, we can not only see the similarities and differences in farewell poems, but also the traits of the cultural communications between Silla and Tang dynasty. This article has compared the objects, forms and content of the fare poems of the two people. By connecting their social background, they have similarities and unique styles in creating farewell poems. The farewell objects of the farewell poems of Choi Chi-Won and Qiao Zhang are very diverse. By analyzing the identities of Silla people-the objects of Qiao Zhang’s farewell poems, including literati, monks and envoys, the literati, monks and envoys in this period play a very important role in the cultural communication of the two countries. Choi Chi-Won and Qiao Zhang are all good at using allusions during the process of creating farewell poems. Besides, the scope involved in is very broad. From the precise and broad application of allusions, it can be seen that the two people both have high literary attainments and outstanding creation capacity. From the poems, forms, the usage and options of the poems, it can be seen the characteristics of the two people in creating the farewell poems. Qiao Zhang appears more reserved and euphemistic in expressing emotions and Choi Chi-Won is more bold, unconstrained and direct. The forms of the titles of the poem of Qiao Zhang appear more single, most of which are of the five-character verse and pay attention to the natural sequencing of the scenery, in order to render the feeling of separation. The title of the poems of Choi Chi-Won is diverse, most of which are of the seven-character quatrain and are commonly used the ingenious numbers, or empty words and reiterative words.

      • 장애령과 이선희 소설에 나타난 신여성상 비교 연구 -『붉은 장미와 흰 장미』와 『계산서』를 중심으로

        장아함 ( Zhang Yahan ) 인천대학교 사회과학연구원 2019 사회과학연구 Vol.12 No.2

        중·한 양국에서 가부장제 사회의 여성상을 다룬 문학 분야에서 장애령과 이선희는 비슷한 시대적 배경과 성장과정을 거친 두 여류 작가로 여성상을 반영한 작품을 많이 집필하였다. 장애령은 여성에 대한 묘사에 초점을 맞춰 여성문학의 새로운 지평을 열었으며, 이선희도 여성 이미지를 부각시키는 데 주력하고 그 시대여성의 의식 변화를 생생하게 재현했다. 이 논문은 장애령의 작품인 『붉은 장미와 흰 장미』와 이선희의 작품인 『계산서』를 연구 대상으로 소설 주인공 왕쟈오루이 (王嬌蕊)와‘ 나’의 신여성상을 비교·대조하는 연구를 진행하여 1930~40년대 서양 문화의 충격을 받은 중·한 양국의 신여성상을 부각시키려고 한다. 연구 결과 첫째, 두 여주인공이 모두 서양문화의 영향을 받음으로써 자아의식의 각성 및 자유연애와 인권평등을 추구하는 신여성의 모습을 갖추게 되는 한편, 왕쟈오루이는 남편 의존적이며 사회현실에서 크게 벗어나지 못하는 도시 여성인 ‘나’에 비해 독립적인 성향을 더 강하게 보이는 여성으로 비춰지고 있다. 둘째, 작품에서 드러나는 장애령의 여성관은 자아 정체성을 가지고 주체적이며 독립적인 삶의 태도를 갖춘 여성이며, 이선희는 여성의 자아 정체성은 중요하지만 결혼, 가정 또는 사회생활에서 완전히 벗어날 수 없는 모습을 보여주고 있다. 셋째, 작품을 통해 1930~40년대 봉건 사상에서 벗어나 남녀평등과 독립을 추구하는 중국의 신여성상과 념녀평등과 여성독립을 추구지만 여전히 가부장적 사회의 테두리를 벗어나지 못하는 한국의 신여성상이 대비되고 있다. In the literature dealing with female images in the patriarchal society of China and Korea, Zhang Ailing and Li Shanxi, two female writers with a similar period background, wrote many works. Zhang focused on a depiction of women and opened a new horizon of female literature, and Li also devoted herself to a portrayal of female images and vividly recreated Korean women's thoughts at that time. This study took Zhang Ailing's “Red Rose and White Rose” and Li Shanxi's “Calculation Book” to conduct a comparative study on the new female image of China and Korea in the 1930s and 1940s, which were influenced by Western culture. Conclusions are as follows. First, a protagonist Wang Jiaorui in Zhang's is a new woman who pursues free love, human rights and equality, and self-consciousness while‘ I’ in Li's are dependent on her husband and cannot be separated from social reality. Second, Zhang has a strong self and an independent attitude while Li identifies with her own subjectivity but feels inseparable from her marriage, family and social life. Third, Chinese new females in the 1930s and 1940s tried to get rid of the feudal ideology and pursued equality and independence while Korean new females also pursued equality and independence but still could not remove the patriarch system.

      • KCI등재

        한국 근해 참조기의 자원평가 및 관리방안

        장창익,김수암,윤성봉 한국수산학회 1992 한국수산과학회지 Vol.25 No.4

        한국근해 참조기의 지난 20여년 동안의 어획자료를 사용하여 잉여생산량 모델에 의해 추정된 MSY를 비교하여 보면, Shaefer와 Fox 모델에 의하여 추정된 값들은 각각 37,000mt와 33,450mt였고, Zhang 모델에 의하여 자원량과 순간어획사망계수를 적용시킨 MSY는 45,328mt, 자원량과 어획량 자료를 이용하는 방법에서는 40,160mt로 각각 추정되었다 이 현상은 이 모델들이 각기 독립된 다른 자료를 이용하여 MSY를 추정하였으나, 추정된 값은 거의 비슷한 결과를 보였다. 참조기자원을 가입당생산량 모델에 적용시킨 결과를 사용하여 자원관리 방안을 모색해 보면, 가능한 최대 가입당 생산량이 43g임에 비하여 현재의 t_c=0.604, F=1.11에서의 가입당생산량은 약 20g 정도에 불과하다. 여기서 t_c를 현재 상태로 고정시킨후, 가입당생산량을 높이는 방안을 생각해 보면, F를 현재의 1.11에서 0.4 정도로 낮추어야 하나, 가입당생산량의 큰 증가는 없다. 즉, 현재의 20g에서 25g밖에 증가되지 않는다. 그러나, 현재의 어획강도 (F)를 고정시키는 경우에는 t_c를 현재의 0.604세에서 3세 부근으로 조정하면 최대의 가입당생산량 (43g)을 얻을 수 있고, 이 t_c 값은 역시 F_(0.1) 방법에서 추정된 적정어획체장을 연령으로 환산한 결과와 거의 일치함을 알 수 있다. Zhang모델을 이용한 자원의 회복 방안에서 참조기 자원의 최대생산가능 자원량(B^*_MSY)를 유지시키려면 F를 약 0.5 수준으로 낮추어야 하고. 이 수준에서 약 8년 뒤에는 자원량이 적정 수준에 거의 접근하게 된다. Based on surplus production models using fishery data for the last 20 years, a stock assessment was conducted for the small yellow croaker in Korean waters. The maximum sustainable yields (MSY) from the Schaefer and Fox models were estimated to be 37,000 metric tons (mt) and 33,450 mt. Zhang's model using time-series biomass with instantaneous coefficients of fishing mortality (F) and using time-series biomass and catch yielded MSY estimates of 45,328 mt and 40,160 mt, respectively. A yield-per-recruit analysis showed that the current yield per recruit of about 20g with F=1.11 yr^(-1), where the age at first capture (t_c) is 0.604, was much lower than the maximum possible yield per recruit of 43g. Fixing t_c at the current level and reducing fishing intensity (F) from 1.11 yr^(-1) to 0.4 yr^(-1) yielded only a small increase in predicted yield per recruit, from 20 to 25g. However, estimated yield per recruit increased to 43g by increasing t_c from the current age (0.604) to age three with F fixed at the current level. This age at first capture corresponded to the optimal length which was obtained from the F_(0.1) method. According to the analysis of stock recovery strategies employing the Zhang model, the optimum equilibrium biomass (B^*_MSY) which produces the maximum yield could be achieved after approximately five years at the lower fishing intensity (F=0.5).

      • KCI등재

        Event-triggered Finite-time Consensus with Fully Continuous Communication Free for Second-order Multi-agent Systems

        An Zhang,Ding Zhou,Pan Yang,Mi Yang 제어·로봇·시스템학회 2019 International Journal of Control, Automation, and Vol.17 No.4

        This study deals with finite-time consensus problems of second-order multi-agent systems with intrinsicnonlinear dynamics and external bounded disturbances. First, instead of the time-triggered control algorithm, theevent-triggered control algorithm is developed by using integral sliding mode control strategy. Then, a triggeringfunction is explicitly constructed to generate event sequences, and the triggering function is fully continuous communicationfree. Rigorous proof is given by using Lyapunov stability theory and finite-time stability theory. Severalconditions are derived to guarantee the finite-time consensus and exclude Zeno behavior. Finally, a simulation ofsingle-link robotic arms is given to verify the effectiveness of the results.

      • Sexual Politics and Female Sexuality in Gish Jen’s Typical American

        Zhang,Yanjun 중앙대학교 영미언어와문화연구소 2011 영미언어와문화 Vol.2 No.1

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        In Typical American(1991), Jen tells the stories of Ralph Chang and his intellectual family aspiring to make it into America’s middle and upper classes in the 1950s. She portrays women as resistant to sexism at home and in society. In this paper, I address the stories of women, namely, Helen, Ralph’s wife, and, Theresa, his elder sister, pertaining to their relationship with men in striving for their American dreams of individual freedom and autonomy. I argue that through the conflicts between men and women, Jen presents a tension between the self and family, which symbolizes the tension between her birth cultural value of family unity and her adopted cultural value of individual freedom. Calling for bridging the two cultures, Jen conveys that those who ignore one culture or the other are doomed.

      • A Comparative Study of Compliment Responses between Chinese and Korean EFL Learners

        Zhang, In-Jun 부산외국어대학교 외국어연구소 2021 외국어연구 Vol.34 No.-

        This study focused on investigating the similarities and differences between Chinese and Korean L2 learners shows that there’s no universal pattern that can be used to describe the two groups’ CRs. Both the two groups response to compliments in the following preference sequence, Accept, Evade and Reject. As for micro levels, Chinese L2 learners made more use of Accept strategies while Korean L2 learners used Evade more. Due to different second language acquisition methods, Chinese L2 learners showed to have a more direct attitude towards accepting compliments. However, there are still some limitations in this study. First, the sample of participants is a little bit small. Based on Tang and Zhang’s study (2009), there are people who prefer to use Reject. However, in this study, there were no Reject responses among all the Chinese L2 learners’ replies. This, to some degree, may influence the results and comparative analyses of the two groups. Second, before the DCT, the background survey asked the participants whether they had experiences of being in English speaking countries and why they came there. However, this variable is not analyzed in the study. Since there is no standard criterion for personal experience, it’s difficult to know how much personal experience will influence participants’ expressions. Finally, although the DCT is designed as short as possible, it’s undeniable that it still takes participants some time to finish it. Whether the participant expresses all he/she wants to or not is hard to know and this is also a possible variable that has influences on the experimental data. Further research on the CRs of Chinese L2 learners and Korean L2 learners needs a more sophisticated and accurate experiment design and I hope this study, though imperfect, can be of some help to relevant research. Key words: EFL. compliment response, speech act

      • KCI등재후보

        A New Probe into the Teaching of Listening for Chinese as a Foreign Language.

        Zhang,Tingting 조선대학교 국제문화연구원 2018 국제문화연구 Vol.11 No.1

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        News listening course is an essential course in teaching Chinese as a foreign language. However, due to the influence of mother tongue, the differences between classroom and real language and the influence of cultural factors, students are learning a lot and often lose confidence. By the results of the questionnaire survey, this paper puts forward some methods for the teaching content and means of the news listening class and proposes to establish a news listening corpus. It is hoped that these measures can help learners to master the news information quickly, improve their listening ability, develop their understanding of Chinese culture, and understand the problems of contemporary society.

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