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      • KCI등재

        试论唐墓壁画中侍女所持“丁”字形杖的用途

        ???(Zhang Weishen) 한국고대사탐구학회 2016 한국고대사탐구 Vol.24 No.-

        From the early Tang Dynasty to Emperor Gaozong and Emperor Wu zetian's reign time, appreciation of calligraphy and painting was so popular among the upper class in power.During that time, the vertical shaft of calligraphy and painting was called “Zhang”(including paingting zhang, picture zhang, soft zhang etc.).When the upper class in power was appreciating the calligraphy and painting with vertical shaft, three display methods were used. First, Zhang (in the shape of Chinese character “丁”)and fork (in the shape of Chinese character “丫”)were used to hang the calligraphy and painting with vertical shaft. Second, in the Qujiang gala or banquet of aristocrats, calligraphy and painting with vertical shaft were hanged on a shelf by Zhang (in the shape of Chinese character “丁”)and fork (in the shape of Chinese character “丫”). Third, the maidservants used the Zhang (in the shape of Chinese character “丁”) and fork (in the shape of Chinese character “丫”) to hang the vertical shaft of calligraphy and painting to the crossbeam of the hip roof, which was reflected in the tomb of princess or high level.

      • KCI등재

        중국영화의 전통 수묵화 촬영기법 연구 - 장이머우 영화 < 삼국-무영자(Shadow) 2018 > 중심으로

        장서붕 ( Zhang Ruifeng ), 양윤호 ( Yang Yun-ho ) 부산대학교 영화연구소 2020 영화 Vol.13 No.3

        본 연구는 장이머우(張藝謀) 감독의 작품< 삼국-무영자(Shadow, 影), 2018 >에 나타난 중국 전통 수묵화 기법의 대표적인 촬영장면과 영상기법에 대하여 분석하고자 한다. 이 영화를 대표 사례로 선정한 이유는 중국에서 색채를 이용하는 대표적인 감독이라 알려진 장이머우 감독이 시도한 최초의 중국 전통 수묵화 스타일의 영화이기 때문이다. 이는 중국 영화 역사상으로도 주목할 만한 첫 번째 도전이라고 할 수 있다. 따라서 장이머우 감독의 촬영 스타일에 관한 논문 및 인터뷰 등의 자료들을 바탕으로 중국영화의 전통 수묵화(水墨畵) 촬영기법 분석을 구체적으로 분석하기 위해 먼저 회화기법과 중국영화, 장이머우 감독 영상의 특징을 고찰하고 중국 전통 수묵화 기법의 특징을 여백(餘白)과 색채, 구도로 구분하여 고찰하고자 한다. 이러한 선행연구를 바탕으로 영화 <삼국-무영자>에서 활용된 중국 전통 수묵화 촬영기법을 분석함으로써 효과와 결론을 제시하고자 한다. 중국의 대표적인 감독인 장이머우의 중국 전통 수묵화 기법의 운용과 효과에 대한 분석은 향후 중국영화 촬영연구에 있어 새로운 계기가 될 것으로 보인다. First of all, this paper aims to confirm the utilization of Chinese traditional Ink-and-Wash painting skill through the analysis of the filming skills of director Zhang Yi-mou's film Shadow(影, 2018). Specifically, it will be the work of analyzing and interpreting the Ink-and-Wash painting skill of Shadow shooting skills through composition, color, etc. These traditional Chinese Ink-and-Wash painting skills are currently used in Chinese film making. While verifying how it is utilized, director Zhang Yi-mou of filming is aimed at verifying the practice of traditional Chinese Ink-and-Wash painting skills. Zhang Yi-mou's film features a Chinese-style not only in narrative, but also in screen composition. It is clear that Zhang Yi-mou represents a generation in the Chinese film industry, so the author hopes this article will provide a point of view that can be applied in the application of Chinese-style filming skills in Chinese film. The method and procedure of this study are as following. First and foremost, analyze the Zhang Yi-Mou's film Shadow by referring to the papers and interviews of filming style. In his film, traditional Chinese Ink-and-Wash painting skills are realized in any way, and the reason why chose this film because that was the Chinese commercial film which first made by Chinese Ink-and-Wash painting skills. Next, in the main part, director Zhang Yi-Mou, who naturally applies Ink-and-wash painting skills in the screen, examines the characteristics and meaning of the combination of Ink-and-Wash Painting skills and shooting through the composition, space, movement, color, and costume of a specific scene. Finally, the author plans to derive how to use the unique skills contained in traditional culture in the film making process.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Lactobacillus casei Zhang Prevents Jejunal Epithelial Damage to Early-Weaned Piglets Induced by Escherichia coli K88 via Regulation of Intestinal Mucosal Integrity, Tight Junction Proteins and Immune Factor Expression

        Wang,,Yuying,Yan,,Xue,Zhang,,Weiwei,Liu,,Yuanyuan,Han,,Deping,Teng,,Kedao,Ma,,Yunfei The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnol 2019 Journal of microbiology and biotechnology Vol.29 No.6

        Farm animals such as piglets are often affected by environmental stress, which can disturb the gut ecosystem. Antibiotics were commonly used to prevent diarrhea in weaned piglets, but this was banned by the European Union due to the development of antibiotic resistance. However, the use of probiotics instead of antibiotics may reduce the risk posed by pathogenic microorganisms and reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal diseases. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus casei Zhang on the mechanical barrier and immune function of early-weaned piglets infected using Escherichia coli K88 based on histomorphology and immunology. Fourteen-day-old weaned piglets were divided into a control group and experimental groups that were fed L. casei Zhang and infected with E. coli K88 with or without prefeeding and/or postfeeding of L. casei Zhang. The L. casei Zhang dose used was $10^7CFU/g$ diet. Jejunum segments were obtained before histological, immunohistochemical, and western blot analyses were performed. In addition, the relative mRNA expression of toll receptors and cytokines was measured. Piglets fed L. casei Zhang showed significantly increased jejunum villus height, villus height-crypt depth ratio, muscle thickness, and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and tight junction proteins ZO-1 and occludin. The use of L. casei Zhang effectively reduced intestinal inflammation after infection. We found that L. casei Zhang feeding prevented the jejunum damage induced by E. coli K88, suggesting that it may be a potential alternative to antibiotics for preventing diarrhea in early-weaned piglets.

      • KCI등재SCOPUS

        Lactobacillus casei Zhang Prevents Jejunal Epithelial Damage to Early-Weaned Piglets Induced by Escherichia coli K88 via Regulation of Intestinal Mucosal Integrity, Tight Junction Proteins and Immune Factor Expression

        Yuying,Wang,Xue,Yan,Weiwei,Zhang,Yuanyuan,Liu,Deping,Han,Kedao,Teng,Yunfei,Ma 한국미생물·생명공학회 2019 Journal of microbiology and biotechnology Vol.29 No.6

        Farm animals such as piglets are often affected by environmental stress, which can disturb the gut ecosystem. Antibiotics were commonly used to prevent diarrhea in weaned piglets, but this was banned by the European Union due to the development of antibiotic resistance. However, the use of probiotics instead of antibiotics may reduce the risk posed by pathogenic microorganisms and reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal diseases. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus casei Zhang on the mechanical barrier and immune function of early-weaned piglets infected using Escherichia coli K88 based on histomorphology and immunology. Fourteen-day-old weaned piglets were divided into a control group and experimental groups that were fed L. casei Zhang and infected with E. coli K88 with or without prefeeding and/or postfeeding of L. casei Zhang. The L. casei Zhang dose used was 107 CFU/g diet. Jejunum segments were obtained before histological, immunohistochemical, and western blot analyses were performed. In addition, the relative mRNA expression of toll receptors and cytokines was measured. Piglets fed L. casei Zhang showed significantly increased jejunum villus height, villus height–crypt depth ratio, muscle thickness, and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and tight junction proteins ZO-1 and occludin. The use of L. casei Zhang effectively reduced intestinal inflammation after infection. We found that L. casei Zhang feeding prevented the jejunum damage induced by E. coli K88, suggesting that it may be a potential alternative to antibiotics for preventing diarrhea in early-weaned piglets.

      • KCI등재

        崔致远、张乔送别诗比较研究

        Zhang,,Junlan 부산대학교 중국연구소 2019 Journal of China Studies Vol.22 No.1

        During the process of comparing the farewell poems of Qiao Zhang, the poet during the late Tang dynasty, and Choi Chi-Won, the Silla poet, we can not only see the similarities and differences in farewell poems, but also the traits of the cultural communications between Silla and Tang dynasty. This article has compared the objects, forms and content of the fare poems of the two people. By connecting their social background, they have similarities and unique styles in creating farewell poems. The farewell objects of the farewell poems of Choi Chi-Won and Qiao Zhang are very diverse. By analyzing the identities of Silla people-the objects of Qiao Zhang's farewell poems, including literati, monks and envoys, the literati, monks and envoys in this period play a very important role in the cultural communication of the two countries. Choi Chi-Won and Qiao Zhang are all good at using allusions during the process of creating farewell poems. Besides, the scope involved in is very broad. From the precise and broad application of allusions, it can be seen that the two people both have high literary attainments and outstanding creation capacity. From the poems, forms, the usage and options of the poems, it can be seen the characteristics of the two people in creating the farewell poems. Qiao Zhang appears more reserved and euphemistic in expressing emotions and Choi Chi-Won is more bold, unconstrained and direct. The forms of the titles of the poem of Qiao Zhang appear more single, most of which are of the five-character verse and pay attention to the natural sequencing of the scenery, in order to render the feeling of separation. The title of the poems of Choi Chi-Won is diverse, most of which are of the seven-character quatrain and are commonly used the ingenious numbers, or empty words and reiterative words.

      • 장애령과 이선희 소설에 나타난 신여성상 비교 연구 -『붉은 장미와 흰 장미』와 『계산서』를 중심으로

        장아함 ( Zhang Yahan ) 인천대학교 사회과학연구원 2019 사회과학연구 Vol.12 No.2

        중·한 양국에서 가부장제 사회의 여성상을 다룬 문학 분야에서 장애령과 이선희는 비슷한 시대적 배경과 성장과정을 거친 두 여류 작가로 여성상을 반영한 작품을 많이 집필하였다. 장애령은 여성에 대한 묘사에 초점을 맞춰 여성문학의 새로운 지평을 열었으며, 이선희도 여성 이미지를 부각시키는 데 주력하고 그 시대여성의 의식 변화를 생생하게 재현했다. 이 논문은 장애령의 작품인 『붉은 장미와 흰 장미』와 이선희의 작품인 『계산서』를 연구 대상으로 소설 주인공 왕쟈오루이 (王嬌蕊)와‘ 나'의 신여성상을 비교·대조하는 연구를 진행하여 1930~40년대 서양 문화의 충격을 받은 중·한 양국의 신여성상을 부각시키려고 한다. 연구 결과 첫째, 두 여주인공이 모두 서양문화의 영향을 받음으로써 자아의식의 각성 및 자유연애와 인권평등을 추구하는 신여성의 모습을 갖추게 되는 한편, 왕쟈오루이는 남편 의존적이며 사회현실에서 크게 벗어나지 못하는 도시 여성인 ‘나'에 비해 독립적인 성향을 더 강하게 보이는 여성으로 비춰지고 있다. 둘째, 작품에서 드러나는 장애령의 여성관은 자아 정체성을 가지고 주체적이며 독립적인 삶의 태도를 갖춘 여성이며, 이선희는 여성의 자아 정체성은 중요하지만 결혼, 가정 또는 사회생활에서 완전히 벗어날 수 없는 모습을 보여주고 있다. 셋째, 작품을 통해 1930~40년대 봉건 사상에서 벗어나 남녀평등과 독립을 추구하는 중국의 신여성상과 념녀평등과 여성독립을 추구지만 여전히 가부장적 사회의 테두리를 벗어나지 못하는 한국의 신여성상이 대비되고 있다. In the literature dealing with female images in the patriarchal society of China and Korea, Zhang Ailing and Li Shanxi, two female writers with a similar period background, wrote many works. Zhang focused on a depiction of women and opened a new horizon of female literature, and Li also devoted herself to a portrayal of female images and vividly recreated Korean women's thoughts at that time. This study took Zhang Ailing's “Red Rose and White Rose” and Li Shanxi's “Calculation Book” to conduct a comparative study on the new female image of China and Korea in the 1930s and 1940s, which were influenced by Western culture. Conclusions are as follows. First, a protagonist Wang Jiaorui in Zhang's is a new woman who pursues free love, human rights and equality, and self-consciousness while‘ I' in Li's are dependent on her husband and cannot be separated from social reality. Second, Zhang has a strong self and an independent attitude while Li identifies with her own subjectivity but feels inseparable from her marriage, family and social life. Third, Chinese new females in the 1930s and 1940s tried to get rid of the feudal ideology and pursued equality and independence while Korean new females also pursued equality and independence but still could not remove the patriarch system.

      • 书院、祠祀、家族:历史视域中的张载文化 ― 以《(宣统)眉县志》、《(乾隆)凤翔府志》为中心的考察

        张波 ( Zhang Bo ) 동양예학회 2020 東洋 禮學 Vol.43 No.-

        <眉縣志>, <鳳翔府志> 등과 같은 陝西 지역의 地理志 중에서 書院, 祠廟, 家族 부분과 관련한 항목들이 張載(橫渠) 문화의 전파과정을 가장 잘 보여준다. 이러한 기록을 분석해 보면 元나라의 泰定, 淸나라의 乾隆 등의 시기에 축성된 橫渠書院의 구체적인 위치, 張橫渠의 옛집, 또는 眉縣의 縣 정부 소재지 등을 분명히 알 수 있지만, 이른바 세상사람들이 말하는 지금의 橫渠書院의 정확한 위치는 추정하기 힘들다. 眉縣과 鳳翔府 각지에 세워진 張子祠堂과 橫渠鎭에 있는 張載祠 또한 張載 당시 직접 강학하던 역사적인 장소 崇壽院이라 할 수 없다. 우리는 <張子傳錄>과 <張氏道統錄> 등의 기록들을 통해 張載 문화가 陝西 지역에 전파된 실제 상황을 밝히는 데에 도움 받을 수 있을 것이다. Academy, sacrifice and family were the main aspects of Zhang Zai in the Shaanxi chorography like Meixian Zhi and Fengxiangfu Zhi. According to these records, the location where Hengqu Academy was built during the Emperor Taiding of Yuan Dynasty and the Emperor Qianlong of Qing Dynasty should have been Zhang Zai's home or the seat of Meixian government instead of the present Hengqu Academy. The Zhangzi Temples in County Meixian and County Fengxiang and the Zhang Zai Temple in Hengqu also were not the Chongshou Yuan in history. Additionally, the research also can make up and clear the historical records of Zhang Zai

      • KCI등재

        張戒論杜

        張駿?(Zhang Jun?hui) 동아인문학회 2010 동아인문학 Vol.18 No.-

        Zhang Jie's Comment on Poetry in Suihantang in South Song Dynasty is an important work in the Chinese aesthetics history and Chinese poetry comment history. Understanding and discussion Du Fu's poetry is not only an important element of this work, but also an important part of aesthetics; especially the volume 2 was specialized in commenting on Du Fu's poem. This suggested that Zhang Jie took Du Fu as a model and respected and followed him, and this is the implementation of Zhang Jie's theory in the critical practice.

      • KCI등재

        이광수의 '무정'과 장한수의 '제소인연' 비교연구

        장춘매(Zhang, Chun-Mei) 한국문학회 2010 韓國文學論叢 Vol.56 No.-

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        20세기 초에 유가사상에 젖어 있었던 중한 양국은 서구문화의 영향으로 근대화로 진입하기 시작했다. 중한 양국 근대과도기의 연애와 혼인에 관한 인식을 밝히기 위해 본고는 한국 작가 이광수의 <무정>과 중국 작가 장한수의 <제소인연>을 비교했다. 두 작품은 모두 당대 사람들에게 익숙하지 않은 자유연애 이야기를 서술하고 있다. 본고는 이 두 작품을 주제, 인물, 서사법 등 여러 측면에서 비교하여 그 공통점과 차이점을 찾아낼 뿐만 아니라 작가 이광수와 장한수가 자유연애에 대해 주장하는 관점도 규명했다. 그리고 주제와 문체의 차원에서 두 작품이 전통문학을 계승하면서 개혁해 나아가는 측면도 고찰하였다. As the twentieth century began, both Korea and China featured with the traditional Confucianism started towards modern societies thanks to the influence of western culture. To expound the general viewpoints of the two countries on marriage at the transitional time, the paper is intended to make a comparative study of two works--Mu Jeong by Korean writer Lee Kwang-soo and Ti xiao yin yuan by Chinese writer Zhang Hen-shui. The two works both tell stories about people's freedom to choose their spouses--a new concept unfamiliar to peoples at that time in both countries. The paper is designed to seek out the differences and similarities between the two novels from the aspects of themes, characterizations, and narrative methods and is an attempt to make a study of the propositions of both Lee Kwang-soo and Zhang Hen-shui on the freedom to choose one's spouse. Besides, the paper is also an effort to study what the two writers inherit from their respective traditional literatures and what is invented by the two.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Association between Polymorphisms of MSTN and MYF5 Genes and Growth Traits in Three Chinese Cattle Breeds

        Zhang,,R.F.,Chen,,H.,Lei,,C.Z.,Zhang,,C.L.,Lan,,X.Y.,Zhang,,Y.D.,Zhang,,H.J.,Bao,,B.,Niu,,H.,Wang,,X.Z. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2007 Animal Bioscience Vol.20 No.12

        The objective of this study was to assess the association of polymorphisms in MSTN and MYF5 genes with growth traits in three Chinese cattle breeds. Only one homozygous animal with BB genotype at MSTN locus was observed in Jiaxian population which was at Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium (p<0.05). The frequencies of allele A at MSTN locus and allele B at MYF5 locus in the three Chinese breeds were 0.9550/0.9730/0.9720 and 0.8275/0.7581/0.7523, respectively. Allele A at MSTN locus and allele B at MYF5 locus were dominant in these three populations. No statistically significant differences in growth traits were observed between the genotypes of the Jiaxian breed at MSTN and MYF5 loci and the Nanyang breed at MYF5 locus. However, there were statistically significant differences between the genotypes at MSTN locus of the Nanyang breed for WH, HG, HGI and HGBLR (p<0.05), and of the Qinchuan breed for BLI (p<0.05). The SNP in MYF5 had significant effects on WH and HHC of Qinchuan animals (p<0.05). These results suggest that MSTN and MYF5 are strong candidate genes that influence growth traits in cattle. Other SNPs of MSTN and MYF5 or other linked genes should also be studied, which could lead to the development of selection plans to improve the performance of Chinese cattle and also promote the breeding of genuine beef cattle in China.

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