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Submerged arc welding, which is generally used for the corner joint of box-section columns, is a welding process with a high heat input. The influence on the strength and toughness of the heat-affected zone is an important concern, especially when used with a high-performance steel that may be more susceptible to heat input. The ductility of the welded corner joint is one of the important factors to ensure safety against external forces, such as during severe earthquakes. In this study, a series of material and cyclic loading tests of the corner joint comprising SA440C high-performance steel fabricated by submerged arc welding were conducted. The experimental results indicated that the welded corner joint comprising SA440C steel is ductile enough to dissipate input energy caused by the strong ground motion from an earthquake.
Study Design: A retrospective comparative study. Purpose: To clarify the risk factors related to the development of postoperative C5 palsy through radiological studies after cervical double-door laminoplasty (DDL). Overview of Literature: Although postoperative C5 palsy is generally considered to be the result of damage to the nerve root or segmental spinal cord, the associated pathology remains controversial. Methods: A consecutive case series of 47 patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy treated by DDL at our institution between April 2008 and April 2015 were reviewed. Postoperative C5 palsy occurred in 5 of 47 cases after DDL. We investigated 9 radiologic factors that have been reported to be risk factors for C5 palsy in various studies, and statistically examined these between the two groups of palsy and the non-palsy patients. Results: We found a significant difference between patients with and without postoperative C5 palsy with regards to the posterior shift of spinal cord at C4/5 (p =0.008). The logistic regression analyses revealed posterior shift of the spinal cord at C4/5 (odds ratio, 12.066; p =0.029; 95% confidence interval, 1.295–112.378). For the other radiologic factors, there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Conclusions: In the present study, we showed a significant difference in the posterior shift of the spinal cord at C4/5 between the palsy and the non-palsy groups, indicating that the “tethering phenomenon” was likely a greater risk factor for postoperative C5 palsy.
Ductile fracture is one of the most common failure modes of steel beam-to-column connections in moment resisting frames. Most proposed evaluation methods of the plastic deformation capacity of a beam until ductile fracture are based on steel beam tests, where the material's yield strength/ratio, the beam's moment gradient, and loading history are the most important parameters. It is impossible and unpractical to cover all these parameters in real tests. Therefore, a new attempt to evaluate a beam's plastic deformation capacity through analysis is introduced in this paper. Another important issue is about the loading histories. Recent years, the effect on the structural component under long-duration ground motion has drawn great attentions. Steel beams tends to experience a large number of loading cycles with small amplitudes during long-duration earthquakes. However, current research often focuses on the beam's behavior under standard incremental loading protocols recommended by respective countries. In this paper, the plastic deformation capacity of steel beams subjected to long duration ground motions was evaluated through analytical methodology.
Recently warm compaction techniques are focused on and commercialization of one high-density compaction process in the P/M industry. Another development is a new SEGLESS using a developed lubricant that reduces ejection force at room temperature compaction. It is possible to achieve high-density by reducing lubricant amount. In this paper we confirmed that green density was 7.35 g/cm3 at 686MPa of compaction pressure when the new SEGLESS was applied to relatively lower temperature warm compaction process, such as 80℃.
An application of contra-rotating rotors, in which a rear rotor is in tandem with a front one and these rotors rotate in the opposite direction each other, has been proposed against a demand for developing higher specific speed axial flow pump. One prototype rotors, which we have designed with a conventional method, has given the positive slope of head characteristic curve especially in the rear rotor. It is necessary to understand the internal flow behavior in the rear rotor to establish the design guideline for achieving higher and more reliable performance. In the present study, we carried out the experimental investigations of the internal flow field of the rear rotor, especially at the partial flow rate, by Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) for the main flow and the limiting streamlines observation on rotor surfaces for the boundary layer flows.
People"s Notion of Samurai in the Late Middle Ages: Diversity of Samurai and Their Ties with Emperors in the Age of CivilWars Satoshi Kaneko, associate professor of Hyogo University (Economic andInformation Department) Recent studies have contradicted the common belief that Bushi(武士) andSamurai(侍) are synonymous. In the Ancient Ages, Bushi was "Zaichou(在廳: asection chief of prefectural office in the Heian era)" who derived from"Kokuzou(國造)" and "Gunji(郡司)". Bushi in the Heian era served thearistocracy in the Imperial Capital and acquired "Samurai Mibun(侍身分:Samurai status)" of which the main rank was "Shichii(七位: Seventh Rank)."Hence the identification of Bushi and Samurai. In the Middle Ages, however,besides these "Samurai who serve noblemen," there were also various kinds of"Samurai without masters" who serve Shintoist and Buddhist deities. Amongthem were "Akutou(惡?:rogue," pirates and bandits. "Samurai withoutmasters" were eager to attach themselves directly to the sacred authority ofEmperor over the heads of Shugo Daimyo(守護大名) or Sengoku Daimyo(戰國大名). "Samurai who serve noblemen," descended from Kokuzou who wereoriginally regional high priests, also got attracted to Emperor once theyabandoned the character of warrior. Documents found in Katada of Otsu City,Shiga Prefecture--a large self-governing commune in the late MiddleAges--corroborate the existence of "Samurai without masters" and theattachment of non-warrior Samurai to Emperor. This dependency of Samurai onEmperor"s authority apparently helped to ensure the continuance of theEmperor System.
More than 110 radar stations are in operation at the present time in Asia and Oceania countries, which is nearly half of all the existing radar stations in the world, for purposes related to marine safety, oil spill response, tsunami warning, coastal zone management and understanding of ocean current dynamics, depending mainly on each country's coastal sea characteristics. This paper introduces the oceanographic radar networks of Australia, China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan, presented at the 1st Ocean Radar Conference for Asia (ORCA) held in May 2012, Seoul, Korea, to share information about the radar network developments and operations, knowledge and experiences of data management, and research activity and application of the radar-derived data of neighbouring countries. We hope this overview paper may contribute as the first step to promotion of regional collaborations in the radar observations and data usages and applications in order to efficiently monitor the coastal and marginal sea waters along the western Pacific Ocean periphery.