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<P>In the past years, major efforts have been made to understand the genetics and molecular pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which has been translated into extensive experimental approaches aimed at slowing down or halting disease progression. Advances in transgenic (Tg) technologies allowed the engineering of different mouse models of AD recapitulating a range of AD-like features. These Tg models provided excellent opportunities to analyze the bases for the temporal evolution of the disease. Several lines of evidence point to synaptic dysfunction as a cause of AD and that synapse loss is a pathological correlate associated with cognitive decline. Therefore, the phenotypic characterization of these animals has included electrophysiological studies to analyze hippocampal synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation, a widely recognized cellular model for learning and memory. Transgenic mice, along with non-Tg models derived mainly from exogenous application of Aβ, have also been useful experimental tools to test the various therapeutic approaches. As a result, numerous pharmacological interventions have been reported to attenuate synaptic dysfunction and improve behavior in the different AD models. To date, however, very few of these findings have resulted in target validation or successful translation into disease-modifying compounds in humans. Here, we will briefly review the synaptic alterations across the different animal models and we will recapitulate the pharmacological strategies aimed at rescuing hippocampal plasticity phenotypes. Finally, we will highlight intrinsic limitations in the use of experimental systems and related challenges in translating preclinical studies into human clinical trials.</P>
Innumerable techniques have been used to measure, index, or predict the viability of skin flaps after elevation. However, these are largely indirect and don't accurately reflect the events that occur at kthe cellular level. A method was sought that gives direct, reproducible, and accurate data about physiological and biochemical changes that occur during flap elevation. Because of its ability to monitor changes in the levels of high energy phosphorus metabolites(ATP, or adenosine triphosphate, PC or phosphocreatine, Pi or inorganic phosphate), 31-P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) holds promise of providing direct assessment of the metabolic status and biochemical changes that occur during skin flap elevation. MRS monitoring was performed on three portions of raised random pattern skin flaps of 5 rats. The spectrometer used for 31-P nuclear magnetic resonance analysis was a Bruker Biospec(4.7 Tesla) system, and a modified surface coil constructed of two layers of copper coil was used. The results have validated the ability of 31-P MRS to : 1. define the regional flxes in the levels of ATP, PCr, and Pi in skin flaps. 2. demonstrate that, of these, PCr levels represent the most sensitive indicator of flap well being. 3. measure intracellular pH through the chemical shift of the Pi resonance. 4. establish predictive correlations between profile of normal, compromised, and failing skin flaps and have thus prepared the way for noninvasive in vivo topical magnetic resonance investigations of flaps.
로버트 올리버(Robert T. Oliver)는 수사학과 커뮤니케이션 분야의 선각자이자, 문화 간 커뮤니케이션에서 아시아 중심적 접근법을 사용한 선구자였으며, 1940∼1950년대 초창기 대한민국의 발전에 영향을 미친 중요한 인물이다. 이 논문에서는 올리버 교수가 문화 간 커뮤니케이션 연구에 기여한 네 가지 영향을 중점적으로 살펴보았다. 즉, 수사학 및 커뮤니케이션 연구에서 유럽 중심적 편향에 대한 비판, 수사학 및 커뮤니케이션 연구에서 아시아 중심적 대안의 제시, 수사학 및 커뮤니케이션 연구에 있어서 문화 간 전망의 활성화, 수사학 및 커뮤니케이션 연구를 위한 장으로써의 국제외교의 구상이 그 네 가지 영향이다.
The ekphrastic has become a frequent exercise for contemporary American poets. This study adds to the growing research on varieties of ekphrasis by discussing the various functions of whiteness in works by four poets. Natasha Trethewey, in her most recent volume, Thrall (2012), offers a series of poems inspired by 17th- and 18th-century Latin American casta paintings, which depict and catalogue variations of mixed-race couples and their children. After considering the eclipsing of whiteness in Trethewey’s “ethnic ekphrasis,” I will turn to the whiteness in Robert Hass’s ekphrastic on Vermeer’s Woman Pouring Milk titled “Art and Life,” from his National Book Award and Pulitzer Prize winning collection Time & Materials (2008), as an example of “elliptical ekphrasis.” The play on whiteness continues with Alice Fulton’s “fractal ekphrasis in “Close,” from her volume Felt (2001), in which she considers Joan Mitchell’s White Territory, an abstract expressionist painting. Finally, Harryette Mullens’ “Xenophobic Nightmare in a Foreign Language” from Sleeping with the Dictionary (2002), challenges the traditions of the ekphrastic and of poetry itself in her “post-ethnic/postekphrastic ekphrasis.”
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Moral gravity and ludic energy lie close but uneasily together in the medieval animal fable. These elements are particularly active in Robert Henryson's Morall Fabilis; even as he presents his traditionally didactic tales, Henryson explores the tensions and potentials of this mix. This paper focuses upon Henryson's fifth fable, "The Trial of the Fox"-and explores how that trial (and its animal participants) rewrites the fable form.
본 논문의 1부에서는 Graham Greene이 그의 작품 The Quiet American의 주인공 Alden Pyle을, 1950년대 전반과 중반에 걸쳐 월남에서의 실재인물이며 OSS대원인 Edward G. Landsdale을 어느 정도로 모델로 하였는가를 밝혀보고자 하였다. 특히 중요한 것은 Landsdale과 Trinh minh th?장군과의 관계를 둘러싸고 있는 사실들에 관한 규명이니, 왜냐하면 Greene의 Alden Pyle이 소설속의 Th?장군에게 많은 월남 민간인들을 죽게하였던 테러 폭발 사건에 사용된 플라스틱 폭탄들을 제공하였기 때문이다. 2분에서는 Greene의 The Quiet American의 성격묘사 인물들의 상호관계, 분위기와 mood, 철학과 도덕의 문제, 그리고 문체등과 Hemingway의 The Sun Also Rises와의 유사성을 증명하려고 시도하였다.
This paper is about some aspects of the late-modern representation of antiquity in Western countries. The timeframe is mostly the decades since the 1980s, but some works are also mentioned from previous phases. Some information is given on the late-modern historical novel, characterized by mixture of genres and intertextual references to historical events and contemporary varieties of discourse. Eclecticism would seem to be a characteristic feature, and it mainly consists of a mixture of real events and imagination, cohabitation of ancient settings and modernized characters, and interaction between high and low culture. Commercialization often accompanies novels on antiquity in the 21st century. And ideologies such as romanness, germanism and barbarianism are employed by some authors to refer to contemporary realities. A number of films and novels are mentioned. More specific analysis focuses on Valerio Manfredi’s The Last Legion and the film based on the book; Simon Scarrow’s Gladiator: The Fight for Freedom; and Robert Harris’s Pompeii.
The turning point is one of the more evocative concepts in the critic’s arsenal, as it is equally suited to the evaluation and analysis of a given moment in one’s day as to those of a historical event. But how does one recognize a turning point? As we find ourselves always “in the middest,” both spatially and temporally, we inhabit sites that may be points at which many things may be seen to turn. Indeed, it is usually only possible to identify a turning point, as it were, from a distance, from the remove of space and time which allows for a sense of recognition, based in part on original context and in part of perceived effects. In this article, Robert T. Tally Jr. argues that the apprehension and interpretation of a turning point involves a fundamentally critical activity. Examining three models by which to understand the concept of the turning point—the swerve, the trope, and peripety (or the dialectical reversal)—Tally demonstrates how each represents a different way of seeing the turning point and its effects. Thus, the swerve is associated with a point of departure for a critical project; the trope is connected to continuous and sustained critical activity in the moment, and peripety enables a retrospective vision that, in turn, inform future research. Tally argues for the significance of the turning point in literary and cultural theory, and concludes that the identification, analysis, and interpretation of turning points is crucial to the project of criticism today.
Economic, energy, and environmental security is a tripartite challenge to developing and develped countries of the Asia-Pacific region. Greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from the burning of fossil fuels are growing rapidly in Asia. Flexible economic instruments, such as joint implementation (JI) and emissions trading, offer a means concomitantly to facilitate economic, energy, and environmental security. The U.S. Initiative on Joint Implementation (IJI) was established as a pilot program to facilitate voluntary project investments by U.S. entities to reduce GHG emissions worldwide. U.S. IJI, working under guidelines established by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), has developed a set of operational criteria for evaluating project proposals. To date, U.S. IJI has received more than 150 project proposals, of which thirty-one have been accepted into the pilot program. These projects represent a diverse set of innovative technologies and practices in thirteen countries. Preliminary estimates suggest that cumulative net emission reductions as a result of these project are expected to be more than 30 million Mt C (megatons of carbon). Descriptions and case studies of two U.S. IJI projects in Southeast Asia are considered: carbon sequestration in Indonesia through reduced impact logging, and a rural electrification project in Sri Lanka. Experiences from U.S. IJI provide a basis for considering ways to implement emissions reductions under the UN FCCC Kyoto Protocol.
This article, adapted from Robert Dujarric`s Korea After Unification: Challenges for US Strategy (Indianapolis: Hudson Institute, 2000), argues that in the coming decade, perhaps much sooner, the North Korean military threat will end, probably with unification of the peninsula under the aegis of the Republic of Korea (ROK). Some 11Uly think that this development should be followed by the withdrawal of the United States Forces Korea (USFK). But even after unification, the United States should retain a large military presence in Korea. This will help prevent deterioration of Korean-Japanese relations and defuse rivalries in Northeast Asia, between China, Japan, Russia, and Korea that could emerge after unification. To further strengthen the ROK-US military partnership, the Korean military should establish permanent bases in the United States, to provide the ROK with enhanced training possibilities and further strengthen ROK-US military cooperation. Korea should also take a leading role in international peacekeeping. These developments should 11Ulke the ROK-US partnership more equal and give Korea the opportunity to play a greater role in world affairs.