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Background: The purposes of the study were to develop Motivation Scale for health behavior in elderly population and to test the psychometric characteristics of the scale. Data collection procedure was performed from April, 2001 to February, 2002 with 134 older adults either institutionalized or living in the community. Methods: The subjects of the study were 72 years of age in average, and the majority of them (78%) were female. Those with no formal education were about 50%, and 10% reported with the higher education. Most of them were married but widowed, and 28% of them were still living with their spouse. Results: The motivation scale was applied to the subjects to test the psychometrics and the findings were as follows. 1) The motivation scale consisted of 28 items with 4 point Likert scale, including subscales of self-efficacy, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, and emotional salience. 2) The reliability test showed that Cronbach alpha of the new instrument of motivation scale was 0.71, which was, according to Nunally, acceptable level considering that the instrument was still in an early stage of development. 3) The validity test of the instrument was performed by specifically assessing content validity, criterion validity, and construct validity. For criterion validity, the correlation between motivation and health behavior was moderately high (r=0.6, p < 0.001), and the subscales of the motivation were also significantly correlated with health behavior performance except for perceived barriers. 4) For construct validity, factor analysis was performed to show that 45% of variance in motivation scale was explained by 4 sub-dimensions of the motivation. Conclusion: The study findings confirmed the applicability and usefulness of motivational scale for health behavior in older adults, and further study for applying the modified motivation scale would be focusing on this population with various characteristics in living situation and health status.
Three major factors influencing students' general well-being of school life were investigated: environmental, health, and welfare. A Survey was conveyed among all attending students of Soonchunhyang University by a structured questionnaire method to which was follwed by a complementary survey to explore and identify the housing situation of school area residents by the trained interviewers. Respondents tended to show relatively low degree of satisfaction regarding almost items regarding environmental and welfare conditions adressed. Residence types were significantly related to three factors. Research results suggest that more programs to meet the students' needs of environmental, health, and welfare services and facilities be provided.
The purpose of the study was to develop the curriculum of medical welfare based on the perspectives from the disciplines of medicine, nursing and social welfare. The final goal of the study is to enhance the clinical competency of the graduates to effectively deal with the situations required for skills and approaches from both disciplines. The study has been designed to conduct in 3 phases; the first phase to explore the potential employment for the graduates of medical welfare by describing the specific areas which their clinical competency would fit in, the second phase to identify the level of recognition made by students regarding the medical welfare program, the third phase to develop the curriculum of medical welfare according to the student classification. In the first phase of the study, total of 115 questionnaires were sent to the institutions and hospitals specifically selected for their relevancy to the medical welfare program and 53 responses (reply rate 46.1%) were included in the analysis. Most respondents (87%) were familiar to the definition of medical welfare and 77.4% reported that they believe this program would be helpful to do their job. More than 90% of respondents assessed the future of the medical welfare program is rather good. In the second phase of the study, 301 students from the first and second year of Soonchunhyang University received a questionnaire regarding the medical welfare program that has been recently listed in their option for secondary major. Thirty percent of the respondents were aware of the program, and 65% expressed their interests in this program. Majority of the students (86%) considered this program would be helpful to find a job after their graduation, assessing the future of the program as promising. Most respondents (83%) were willing to refer this program to their family and friends. In the third phase, the specific curriculums of medical welfare program were developed according to the background of the potential participants. The first module is for those from social welfare discipline (14 subjects, 35 credits), the second is for those in medicine and nursing disciplines (14 subjects, 40 credits), and the third module is for those with other major (15 subjects, 41 credits). At the completion of each module, the students are allowed to take the exam for Advanced certificate of care worker. The study findings confirmed the need to develop the new approach combined in medicine and social welfare to accomplish the required role of social welfare related to the medical situation. Further studies would be required to evaluate the pilot application of each curriculum module of the medical welfare program as an evidence of practice-oriented education in university setting.
Cough is one of the common symptoms, which is usually related to respiratory infections for children. This symptom is not considered crucial. Published data reported that the community prevalence of chronic cough in primary school children is 5%-10%, while the prevalence is likely to be higher in younger children. The cause of persistent cough should be investigated. There were significant differences in the causes and management for cough according to age. Chronic cough is defined as duration of 4 weeks or longer. Common culprits for chronic cough in children are different from those in adults. The authors reviewed articles about chronic cough of children to help improve the understanding and management for pediatric chronic cough. (Allergy Asthma Respir Dis 2016: 4:235-247)
Introduction: Obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus are risk factor of coronary artery disease (CAD). Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is secreted primarily from liver that exerts potent anti-diabetic and lipid lowering effects in animal models of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In recent studies showed FGF21 has similar effects in human subjects and also related with obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, the relationship between serum FGF21 level and CAD is not yet unknown. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the relationship among serum FGF21 levels, various cardiometabolic parameters and CAD in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: In a total of 168 Korean adults with diabetes mellitus, in whom coronary angiogram were performed and classified into CAD group (n=99) and non-CAD group (n=69). Significant coronary artery stenosis was defiened as a coronary angiography finding of more than 50% stenosis in 1 ≥ coronary arteries. Fasting serum FGF21 level were measured using ELISA. Results: Serum mean FGF21 level in type 2 diabetes mellitus with CAD showed lower than in type 2 diabetes mellitus without CAD (1.10±0.22 pg/mL vs. 1.27±0.16 pg/mL, p<0.05). Conclusions: The Result suggest that fasting serum FGF21 levels might be a predictive marker of coronary artery diseases in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
The purpose of this study was to investigate how many and what kinds of utterances pre-sevice English teachers and their students uttered during English classes through the modified method of FLint (Foriegn Language Interaction) analysis. Data sources consisted of five pre-service English teachers’ short versions of English teaching and their lesson plans. They presented for eight or ten minutes to show a little bit of every step of their English classes. Thier English classes were videotaped during their presentation and transcribed for analysis, and analyzed by the FLint Analysis. The results of the study revealed that pre-service English teachers showed questioning the most in their classes, and providing information was the second. Second, the results indicated that students showed showing responses, whether they are individual, or collective ones, the most in their utterances during their Englsih classes. This study suggests that the nature of utterances of teachers and students during their English classes may be very mutual and interactive between teachers and students. Therefore, it is very important for teachers to realize that teachers’ utterances during their classes are very powerful in attracting students’ responses.
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The purpose of this paper was to gain insight into the reading process and literacy proficiency of a third-grade English as a Second Language (ESL) learner, through the way of Reading Miscue Analysis (RMA) which was initiated by Y. Goodman, Watson and Burke (1987) and developed and supported by Teachers Applying Whole Language (TAWL). This study attempted to provide a case study of one English learning reader"s reading miscues, and to suggest instructional directions for her literacy development based on the data analysis of reading miscues, stating that the participant has demonstrated her comprehension ability to understand narrative text by reading the story (90.47%) and retelling it through the way of reading miscue analysis.