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Chin-Ok Yi,Byeong Tak Jeon,Hyun Joo Shin,Eun Ae Jeong,Ki Churl Chang,Jung Eun Lee,Dong Hoon Lee,Hyun Joon Kim,Sang Soo Kang,Gyeong Jae Cho,Wan Sung Choi,Gu Seob Roh 대한해부학회 2011 Anatomy & Cell Biology Vol.44 No.3
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AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an enzyme involved in energy homeostasis, regulates inflammatory responses, but its precise mechanisms are not fully understood. Recent evidence has shown that resveratrol (RES), an AMPK activator, reduces prostaglandin E2 production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated microglia. Here, we examined the effect of RES on nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) dependent cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 activation in LPS-treated RWA 264.7 macrophages. We found that treatment with RES increased AMPK activation. AMPK and acetyl CoA carboxylase phosphorylation were attenuated in cells treated with LPS+RES, compared to cells treated with LPS alone. RES inhibited tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and TNF receptor 1 in LPS-treated cells. Finally, RES inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB translocation into the nucleus and COX-2 expression. Moreover, the effects of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribose and compound C were consistent with the effects of RES in LPS-treated cells. Taken together, these results suggest that the anti-inflammatory action of RES in RAW 264.7 macrophages is dependent on AMPK activation and is associated with inhibition of the LPS-stimulated NF-κB-dependent COX-2 signaling pathway.
This study was designed to characterize the difference of pharmacokinetics in percutaneous absorption of methyl nicotinate (MN) between normal and damaged skin. After topical application of 10 mM MN for 1.5 minutes on the irritated skin sites, we measured the cutaneous blood flow employing laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) in the following time sequence; 0 (immediately after topical MN application), 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 minutes. We could find out the percutaneous absorption pattern of MN through this measurement of blood flow. The results were as follow: 1. The 5% sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), cellophane tape-stripping and delipidization of stratum corneum have induced skin irritation and the cutaneous blood flow monitored with LDV has increased, comparing with normal control group (p<0.05). 2. In 5% SLS-irritated skin group, the percutaneous absorption of MN, as compared with normal control, was significantly increased until 5 minutes (p<0.05). But after 5 minutes, there was no statistical difference in percutaneous absorption between the SLS-irritated and the normal control group. 3. In cellophane tape-stripped skin group, the percutaneous absorption of MN was significantly increased up to 1 minute, and after 3 minutes, it decreased much more significantly than the normal control group (p< 0.05). 4. In delipidized skin group with acetone/ether, ns compared with normal control gorup, the percutaneous absorption of MN was significantly decreased between 5 minutes and 15 minutes (p<0.05), but there was no significant statistical difference in percutaneous absorption of MN at any other time. 5. Among cellophane tape-stripped skin group, delipidized skin group, and normal control group, the cellophane tape-stripped skin group got to the peak response time of blood flow earlier than other two groups, therefore MN was absorbed most rapidly in the cellophane tape-stripped skin group. These results suggested that, in percutaneous absorption, stratum corneum is the most important rate limiting step and removal or irritation of the stratum corneum caused the increased and rapid absorption of MN. It is known that stratum corneum is the main barrier to the percutaneous absorption of various chemicals (1). Many previous studies showed that percutaneous absorption increased after the deterioration of barrier function, due to irritations or diseases (2~4). But most studies of the percutaneous absorption have been performed on intact skin because of the difficulty of eonducting studies on diseased human skin and also the lack of comparable diseases in laboratory animals. In order to fgcilitate accurate determination of the potential for increased absorption through irritated skin and to investigate the role of stratum corneum and its lipid component in the percutaneous absorption, we experimentally induced irritation on the velar surface of the forearm of 10 healthy volunteers. For this purpose, we used three basic methods; patch-testing with 5% sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) for 24 hours, stripping the skin with cellophane tape and delipidizing stratum corneum with acetone/ether mixture (1:1 in v/v). After above irritations, we sequently measured the percutaneous absorption of MN, which induced vasodilation of cutaneous vessel, with LDV.
종래의 방식으로 Grade 60의 나선 철근을 배근한 원형 단면 철근콘크리트 기둥 시험체(HS4)와 6.2mm 직경을 갖는 7가닥으로 구성된 프리스트레싱 스트랜드를 나선형으로 동일한 변형에너지를 갖도록 배근하여 제작한 것(HS5)과 동일한 횡방향 구속력을 주도록 한 것(HS6)에 대하여 유사정적 시험을 행하여 횡방향 휨내진 성능을 측정하였다. 시험결과 고강도 나선 스트랜드는 나선철근의 철근량을 40% 정도 줄이면서 Grade 60의 나선 철근을 사용한 경우와 상응하거나 그 이상의 내진성능을 발휘한다는 사실을 확인 할 수 있었으며 철근콘크리트 기둥의 내진설계에 적용 가능함을 알 수 있었다.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to follow-up the frailty of the old who received home health care by Registered Nurse in Public Health Center over 8 years. Methods: We used the second wave data which was a comprehensive longitudinal data set, Public Health Information System of a public health center located in Seoul from 2010 to 2018. For statistical analysis, a mixed model of repeated measures by R program was used. Results: Frailty (range: 0~31) was getting worse significantly from 5.38 on registration to 6.54 on 4th year, 7.40 on 7th year, 7.69 on 8th year with adjustment for age, sex, economic status, the number of family, and the number diseases. The coefficient of parameters with frailty change was serviced year (β=0.29, p<.001), age (70~79 to 60~69; β=0.98, p=.018) and sex (female to male; β=2.55, p<.001). Conclusion: This study showed that the home visiting health service needs to take attention to aged 70s and over, female. The home health care of public health center need to be extended more practical and effective services in terms of ‘community care’ and ‘ageing in place’.
<P>Akt is a key downstream effector of the PI3K signaling pathway and plays a role in cell growth and survival. Expression of a myristoylated constitutively active form of Akt (myr-Akt) in PC12 cells could override cell-growth arrest at G<SUB>2</SUB>/M phase and apoptosis that were induced by etoposide treatment. On the other hand, inactivation of Akt by expression of its dominant negative mutant form (km-Akt) inhibited cell proliferation by arresting the cells at G<SUB>2</SUB>/M phase. Expression of myr-Akt also led to an increase in the protein and mRNA levels of CDK1 and cyclin B1. Furthermore, EMSA data revealed that expression of myr-Akt promoted the binding of NF-Y to the consensus CCAAT promoter sequence, whereas expression of km-Akt almost completely abolished it. Moreover, the Akt activity was minimal in the cells that were arrested at G<SUB>2</SUB>/M phase by nocodazole treatment, but reached to a maximal level as the cells progressed to mitosis and G<SUB>1</SUB> phase upon removal of the drug. Treatment with Akt inhibitors, but not with those of MEK or p70S6K, blocked the release of the cells from the nocodazole-induced G<SUB>2</SUB>/M arrest, further revealing that the Akt activity is required for G<SUB>2</SUB>/M phase transition. These results suggest that Akt facilitate cell-cycle progression at G<SUB>2</SUB>/M phase in PC12 cells and this Akt activity is correlated with upregulation of NF-Y DNA-binding activity and cyclin B1/CDK1 gene expression. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.</P>
<P>A novel near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) copper sensor allows rapid and ultra-sensitive detection of copper ions with excellent selectivity and specificity due to the specificity of click ligation and effective dark-quenching mechanism.</P>
<P><B>Background</B></P><P>Starch biosynthesis is one of the most important pathways that determine both grain quality and yield in rice (<I>Oryza sativa</I> L.). Sugary endosperm, <I>sugary-1</I> (<I>sug-1</I>), is a mutant trait for starch biosynthesis. Rice plants carrying <I>sug-1</I> produce grains that accumulate water-soluble carbohydrates instead of starch, even after maturity. Although this trait enhances the diversity of grain quality, sugary endosperm rice has hardly been commercialized due to the severely wrinkled grains and subsequent problems in milling. This study was conducted to identify the genes responsible for the <I>sug-h</I> phenotype through a map-based cloning technology.</P><P><B>Results</B></P><P>We induced a mild sugary mutant, <I>sugary-h</I> (<I>sug-h</I>) through the chemical mutagenesis on the Korean <I>japonica</I> cultivar Hwacheong. Grains of the <I>sug-h</I> mutant were translucent and amber-colored, and the endosperm appeared less wrinkled than <I>sug-1</I>, whereas the soluble sugar content was fairly high. These characteristics confer greater marketability to the <I>sug-h</I> mutant. Genetic analyses indicated that the <I>sug-h</I> mutant phenotype was controlled by a complementary interaction of two recessive genes, <I>Isoamylase1</I> (<I>OsISA1</I>), which was reported previously, and <I>Starch branching enzyme IIa</I> (<I>OsBEIIa</I>), which was newly identified in this study. Complementation tests indicated that <I>OsBEIIa</I> regulated the properties of sugary endosperm<I>.</I></P><P><B>Conclusions</B></P><P>Complementary interactions between the starch biosynthesis genes <I>OsISA1</I> and <I>OsBEIIa</I> determine the mild sugary endosperm mutant, <I>sugary-h</I>, in rice. Our finding may facilitate the breeding of sugaryendosperm rice for commercial benefit.</P><P><B>Electronic supplementary material</B></P><P>The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12284-017-0172-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.</P>
Lee, Moon Hee,Lee, Sung Won,Lee, Eun Joo,Choi, Soo Joon,Chung, Sung Soo,Lee, Jae Il,Cho, Joong Myung,Seol, Jae Hong,Baek, Sung Hee,Kim, Keun Il,Chiba, Tomoki,Tanaka, Keiji,Bang, Ok Sun,Chung, Chin Ha Nature Publishing Group 2006 Nature cell biology Vol.8 No.12
The p53 tumour suppressor has a key role in the control of cell growth and differentiation, and in the maintenance of genome integrity. p53 is kept labile under normal conditions, but in response to stresses, such as DNA damage, it accumulates in the nucleus for induction of cell-cycle arrest, DNA repair or apoptosis. Mdm2 is an ubiquitin ligase that promotes p53 ubiquitination and degradation. Mdm2 is also self-ubiquitinated and degraded. Here, we identified a novel cascade for the increase in p53 level in response to DNA damage. A new SUMO-specific protease, SUSP4, removed SUMO-1 from Mdm2 and this desumoylation led to promotion of Mdm2 self-ubiquitination, resulting in p53 stabilization. Moreover, SUSP4 competed with p53 for binding to Mdm2, also resulting in p53 stabilization. Overexpression of SUSP4 inhibited cell growth, whereas knockdown of susp4 by RNA interference (RNAi) promoted of cell growth. UV damage induced SUSP4 expression, leading to an increase in p53 levels in parallel with a decrease in Mdm2 levels. These findings establish a new mechanism for the elevation of cellular p53 levels in response to UV damage.