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This study is to analyze site layout traditional government office building focused on Chonui-hyon(全義縣) in Chungchong province with Chungchong-do regional maps(忠淸道地方地圖) and Eupjis(邑誌, topography) being compiled in the late Chosun dynasty. The conclusion of analysis can be summarized as follows; 1. Chonui-hyon(全義縣) in Chosun dynasty is gone with a planning principle of the capital city(Han-Seong, 漢城) with disposing Sa-Ji-Dan(社稷壇) and Gaek-Sa(客舍), which are placed to the left and right of Eupchi(邑治), and it is followed in the wake of the spatial structure of Chosun dynasty palace with disposing Dong-Heon(東軒) in front, Nae-A(內衙) at the back of it, or from side to side, also by the Dong-Heon of the center, with organizing each facility around it. 2. Dong-Heon and Gaek-Sa of Chonui-hyon is passed through three step gate, Mun-Ru(門樓), Woi-Sammun(外三門), Nae-Sammun(內三門), from Hong-Salmon(紅門), and are shown hierarchy by haying been placed at the end of approach axis. 3. Dong-Heon can be disposed by Feng-Shui(風水) which have influence on the southeast direction with Jin-San(鎭山) and An-Dae(案對), on the other hand, Gaek-Sa can be disposed by symbolic of the authority of a king. 4. Site layout by function of provincial government office is provided into four ferrite, Dong-Heon, Gaek-Sa, Nae-A, practical business territory, and eve territory is organized by official institution on a social position to radiation, by the compositive axis to be made Woi-Sammun Nae-Sammun Dong-Heon Nae-A 5. Approach process of Chnui-hyon government office is three door system similar to Kam-Young(監營) in a different way two door system in most provincial government office, also approach axis is formed by bending.
The appeal, 〈Cheong Kwon-seol Min-bo Zeung-su Kang-bang So(請勸設民堡增修江防疏)〉 was written by Kang Wi, a well-known reformer and early proponent of enlightenment thought. However, despite its obvious importance, academic circles have so far largely ignored this document. Moreover, the period in which this document was written has been wrongly assumed as being after the foreign disturbance of 1866. This paper undertakes a study of the 〈Kang-bang So〉 with the objectives of uncovering the actual time period in which it was formulated and of identifying the reasons why Kang Wi became a member of the progressives. A statement found in the 〈Bon-jeon(本傳)〉 written by Lee Joong-Ha, which states that, this foreign disturbance occurred in the capital region in 1866, has so far been the main reason why scholars believe that the 〈Kang-bang So〉 was actually written after the foreign disturbance of 1866. While this statement is clearly in reference to what has come to be known as the first foreign disturbance, in which a French fleet attacked Chosun in 1866, the fact that the 〈Kang-bang So〉 was clearly written after this incident is evidenced by the following: First, an identical appeal was recorded in the 《Sin Heon Collections(申櫶全集)》, where it was given the name of 〈Non Byeong-sa So(論兵事疎)>. The following statement is included at the end of this document, disturbance at the end of August 1866. Second, there are no references to the French attack of 1866 within the 〈Kang-bang So〉 itself. On the other hand, the 〈Kang-bang So〉 makes reference to China's experiences with foreign disturbances when laying out his plan for a proper defense, thus implying that Chosun had yet to encounter any real foreign threat. This paper argues that the 〈Kang-bang So〉 was actually prepared in response to an incursion by two Western fleets into the Yanghwajin area of the Han River on August 18th, 1866: an incursion which led King Kojong to order that defense measures be established immediately. As a result Kang Wi was asked by military commander Shin Heon to analyze the condition of the rivers flowing from Kang-hwa Island to Yang-hwa Jin: which in turn led to Kang"s submission of the 〈Kang-bang So〉, a document that listed the defensive measures that should be taken in order to fend off a Western invasion. The 〈Kang-bang So〉 is a defensive strategy that combines the strategies found in the 〈Ju-hae(籌海)〉 section of the book 《Hae-kuk-do-ji(海國圖志)》, which was written by Wi Won, with the national defense theory introduced by Chong Yak-Yong in the 《Min-bo-eui(民堡議)》. Chong Yak-Yong s national defense strategy, which was still relevant in the middle of the 19th century, first emerged as a means of countering the weaknesses of the defense forces caused by the rampant corruption of the Army Administrative System. However, Chong Yak-Yong"s defense strategy was not effective against Western invasions, or against attacks by Japanese marauders. As such, Kang Wi"s strategy was to mobilize the common people to assure national defense, thus protecting the kingdom and solving the nation's acute shortage of soldiers in one stroke. As mentioned above, Kang Wi adopted a detailed defense strategy that was largely based on the 〈Ju-hae〉 section of the 《Hae-kuk-do-ji》. Kang introduced a defense strategy to protect the rivers against Western invasions that was based on the Sa-nae-ha(守內河) concept found in the euisu(議守) chapter of the 〈Ju-hae〉. The main difference between the strategies adopted by Kang Wi and Wi Won was that while the latter emphasized using local militaries, Kang Wi advocated the use of national defense forces composed of commoners. As such, given the reality of Chosun"s situation, Kang Wi intended to complete the Su-nae-ha strategy found in the〈Ju-hae〉 by combining it with the national defense theory created by Chong Yak-Yong.Two other individuals, Yun Seop and Park Ju-Woon, also formulated strategies to fend off Western invasions. Their strategies were based on the tradit
이 글은 한민족의 정체성을 한반도가 겪은 역사적 경험을 바탕으로 규명하고자 하는 시론(試論)적 성격을 띤다. 한민족의 정체성 문제는 한민족의 자기(自己)를 파악하는 일인데, 이 ``자기``는 한민족이 외부 세력(주변 강대국)과 관계하는 데에서 취한 태도와 깊이 관련되어 있다. 그래서 ``민족``은 초역사적인 실체가 아니라 역사 안에서 형성되는 유동체라는 주장이 힘을 얻는다. 외부 세력과 관계하는 데에서 생겨난 한민족의 ``민족``에 대한 의식은 여기서 향내(向內)적 경향과 향외(向外)적 경향이라는 양가적인 양상을 드러낸다. 전자에는 구한말의 위정척사운동과 일제강점기의 신간회운동이 속하며, 후자에는 조선조의 실학사상과 구한말의 개화사상이 속한다. 그런데 실제 역사에서 볼 때 민족의식이 민족의 안으로 향한다고 해서 모두 민족적인 것은 아니며 민족의 밖으로 향한다고 해서 모두 반민족적인 것이라고 할 수 없다. 또한 그 반대도 성립한다. 그 결과 민족친화적인 외향성과 민족배타적인 외향성이 있으며, 민족친화적인 내향성과 민족 배타적인 내향성이 있게 된다. 향내적 민족주의와 향외적 민족주의의 충돌이 낳는 이율배반은 궁극적으로 민족의 자기(自己)를 둘러싸고 벌어지는 사태이다. 한민족의 자기는 안으로 향하는 자기와 밖으로 향하는 자기로 분열되어 있다. 분열된 각자는 다시 대립하는 두 경우로 나뉜다. 이 구분의 기준은 보수와 진보이다. 향내주의자 가운데 우리 것을 보존하려는 수구세력이 있는가 하면, 혁신의 토대를 우리 것에서 찾으려는 진보세력이 있다. 전자는 위정척 사론자나 증산교/대종교 신봉자가 속할 수 있고, 후자는 동학교도와 신채호, 김구 류의 민족주의자를 들 수 있다. 마찬가지로 향외주의자 가운데 민족 근대화를 추진하는 데에서 지배층의 이익을 정당화하는 세력이 있는가 하면 피지배층의 이익을 대변하고자 하는 세력이 있다. 전자에는 구한말의 개화파나 일제 강점기의 친일파 그리고 근대화 과정에서 박정희를 대표로 하는 자본주의적 민족주의자가 속할 수 있고, 후자에는 근대국가 수립 이후의 박헌영, 여운형 류의 사회주의적 민족주의자와 문익환, 함석헌 류의 기독교적 민족주의자를 들 수 있다. 이렇게 볼 때 안으로 향한다고 해서 모두 보수가 아니며 밖으로 향한다고 해서 모두 진보가 아니라는 사실이다. 말을 바꾸면 우리 것 안에도 진보가 있으며 그들 것 안에도 보수가 있다는 것이다. 이렇게 서로 엇갈리는 힘들의 역학관계 또는 자장(磁場) 속에 ``한민족의 자기``가 자리 잡고 있다. 그런데 한민족은 다양한 방식으로 민족을 앞세웠지만 그 결과는 파국적이었다. 민족은 허울일 뿐이었고 실제에서 남과 북의 위정자들은 자신들의 이해관계에 따라 분열되어 민족을 이용해 왔다. 자기분열의 표면적인 원인은 정치적 주도 세력 간의 이권다툼이지만 그 심층적인 원인은 ``아래로부터의 의지``를 반영하지 못한 채 서로가 ``민족의 대표``이기를 노림으로써 공(公)을 표방하면서도 사(私)에 집착한 데 있다. 그리하여 민족 성원 또는 인민대중의 인간적 권리를 실현하기보다는 지배층 또는 개혁 주도 세력의 사적인 이익 추구 행위가 선행함으로써 민족이 실질적으로 하나로 설 수 있는 토대를 마련하지 못하였다. 여기서 ``민족``이라는 어휘는 사용자에 의해 임의로 만들어지고 또 사라졌다. 민족은 한민족에게 ``텅 빈 시니피앙``에 지나지 않게 되었다.부단한 외세의 침입과 그에 따른 혼란 속에서 한민족은 나름의 생존전략을 체득하였다. 어느 하나의 강자(중심)에 귀속되지 않으면서 또한 자신의 이익에 따라 모두에게 귀속되기도 하는 주변부의 생존논리를 터득하였다. ``주변부 경계인``은 한민족의 현실적인 정체성이다. 자신의 생존을 위해 큰 중심들 ``사이``와 ``경계``에 서서, 그 중심에 속하는 듯하면서도 이를 부정하면서 작은 중심을 보존하고 유지하는 삶을 한민족은 살아왔다. 현재 세계는 지구화와 세계화가 급물살을 타고 진행되면서 ``민족``이 더 이상 화두로 등장하지 않는 분위기이지만, 한민족은 과거에 슬픔과 기쁨을 함께 나누었던 공통의 경험을 가진 공동체로서 ``민족``은 여전히 상징적인 지향점으로 자리 잡고 있다. 한반도가 역사에서 얻은 깊은 상처를 치유해야 할 과제 앞에서 한민족 정체성의 현실적인 의미와 상징적인 의미를 어떻게 조화시킬 것인가 하는 문제로 고민해야 할 것이다. The purpose of this essay is to reveal identity of the Korean nation based on historical experience of the Korean Peninsula. The issue involved in the identity of the Korean nation is to actually understand selfness of the Korean nation itself, and the term ``selfness`` specified in this essay is closely related to the attitude of the Korean nation toward outside forces(surrounding powerful nations) at the time. Accordingly, a statement emphasizing that ``nation`` is rather a fluid developed within history than a supra-historical substance has been encouraged. Consciousness of the Korean nation on ``nation`` developed while relating to outside forces reveals an ambivalent aspect consisting of introverted tendency and extroverted tendency. The former includes the Wijeongcheoksa(衛正斥邪) Movement performed during the latter era of the Joseon Dynasty as well as the Singanhoi(新幹會) Movement performed during the Japanese colonial period, and the latter includes the Silhak(實學) Thought during the Joseon Dynasty as well as the Enlightenment (開化) Thought during the latter era of the Joseon Dynasty. However, in the view of actual history, the attitude of national consciousness leaning toward its own nation is not always national and the attitude of national consciousness leaning toward other nation is not always anti-national, and viceversa. As a result, there are nation-friendly extroversion, nation-exclusive extroversion, nation-friendly introversion and nation-exclusive introversion. The antinomy created due to a conflict between introverted nationalism and extroverted nationalism is ultimately a situation occurring based on selfness of the nation. Selfness of the Korean nation is separated into selfness leaning toward its own nation and selfness leaning toward other nation. Each of these separated selfness is then again divided into two conflicting cases. The standards for such division are conservatism and progressivism. Among introversionists, there are extremely conservative forces desiring to preserve our things and there are also progressive forces desiring to search for the basis of innovation from our things. The former includes supporters of the Wijeongcheoksa Movement as well as believers of Chungsangyo(甑山 敎)/Daejonggyo(大倧敎), and the latter includes believers of Donghakgyo(東學 敎) as well as nationalists such as Shin, Chae-Ho(申采浩) and Kim, Gu(金九). In a similar sense, among extroversionists, there are forces desiring to justify the profit of the ruling class in promoting a national modernization and there are also forces desiring to speak for the profit of the subjugated class. The former includes the enlightenment group during the latter era of the Joseon Dynasty, the pro-Japanese group during the Japanese colonial period and capitalistic nationalists such as Park, Jeong Hee during the course of modernization, and the latter includes socialistic nationalists such as Park, Heon-Young(朴憲永) and Yeo, Woon-Hyung(呂運亨) after establishment of the modern nation as well as christian nationalists such as Moon, Ik-Hwan(文益煥) and Ham, Seok-Heon(咸錫憲). This proves that those leaning toward inside are not always conservative and those leaning toward outside are not always progressive. In other words, our things are both progressive and conservative. ``Selfness of the Korean nation`` lies within dynamics or magnetic field created among such conflicting forces. However, although the Korean nation used diverse methods to place its nation ahead, the result was catastrophic. Its nation was nothing but the gloss. Actually, the politicians from the South Korea and the North Korea were split according to their own interests and only used such nation as a tool. The superficial reason for such self-split was struggle of interests among leading political forces, but the in-depth reason was that such political forces were obsessed with fulfilling their private interests while claiming to stand for the public by attempting to become the ``representative of the nation`` without reflecting the ``will from the bottom``. Accordingly, instead of responding to the nation``s support or realizing humane rights of the people, the ruling class or the reformation-leading force pursued their private interests and eventually failed to establish basis for the nation to practically stand as one. At this point, the term ``nation`` was temporarily created and removed by the users. To the Korean nation, such nation was nothing but an ``empty signifiant``. Throughout the constant invasions by outside forces and the chaos created due to such invasions, the Korean nation acquired its own survival strategy. It acquired a logic to survive as a marginal nation by not belonging to just one certain strong nation(center) and also by belonging to all strong nations depending on its profit. The realistic identity of the Korean nation is ``marginal man``. In order to survive, the Korean nation stood in ``between`` and on ``border`` of the main centers, and it preserved and maintained its small center by almost belonging to those main centers but denying such belonging. Currently, the world is going through a rapid globalization and the term ``nation`` no longer serves as the main topic. However, the Korean nation is a community with a common experience in sharing grief and happiness in the past, and the term ``nation`` still serves as a symbolic directing point. With regards to the task on how the Korean Peninsula would cure its deep wound gained from its history, the problem of how to integrate realistic meaning and symbolic meaning of identify of the Korean nation must be considered. The main purpose of this paper is to elucidate the concept of perception and thing by Hegel and Locke. In the chapter on perception in the Phenomenology of Spirit, Hegel examines the modern theory of physics, in which thing is determined by property and matter. Here we discover a theory of Locke, which grasps a thing in respect to property. Accepting the theory of Boyle in which thing is understood as property and corpuscular, Locke proceeds his empirical theory of perception. Hegel also takes over this concept of thing in his theory of perception and further develops it as an essential moment in the dialectical system of spirit. Of course Hegel insists that the power of understanding that conceives of a totality of things in terms of a relation of power is prior to the perception that only grasps thing in terms of property and corpuscular. Here in order to elucidate thing, Hegel puts a more emphasis on dynamics than the corpuscular hypothesis. For this reason, Hegel``s theory of perception has been overlooked. However, in order to understand the philosophy of Hegel, it is important to grasp the theory of perception. And we can discover this importance in the chapter of perception in Phenomenology of Spirit. According to Hegel, perception unveils the dialectics of thing which forms the basis for the force, the movement of organism and eventually the movement of spirit. Also in perception and thing, we can discover a clue to understand the relation of unity and manifolds or the relation of identity and difference, which is an essential structure in Hegel``s concept of dialectics. And Hegel``s theory of perception presupposes Locke``s theory. Hence to understand Hegel``s theory of perception, it is necessary to investigate the empirical theory of perception by Locke.
이 논문은 함석헌의 포괄적인 종교사상이 오늘 우리 시대에 제공해주는 교훈이 무엇인지를 밝히려는 목적을 갖고 있다. 이 과제를 수행하기 위해, 이 글은 함석헌의 사상을 과정사상과 민중신학에 대비시키면서, 이 두 사상의 주요 관심사가 함석헌의 범재신론적이고 역사참여적인 종교사상에 창조적으로 결합되어 있음을 드러내는 방법론을 사용한다. 함석헌은 범우주적인 세계의식을 담은 종교정신을 강조하면서도, (씨알)민중이 당하는 고난으로부터의 해방에 대해서 매우 독특한 방식으로 답변했다. 그의 사상은 관계성의 철학에 입각해 있으면서도 사회역사적 비판의식에 철저하기 때문에, 오늘날의 포스트모던 세계가 당면한 딜레마를 해결하는 데 지혜를 준다. 사물의 관계성에 대한 강조와 다양한 억압으로부터의 해방이라는 주제가 오늘 우리 시대가 관심하고 있는 두개의 큰 가치라면, 과정사상과 민중신학은 그 주제에 답변하고자 하는 대표적인 사상이요, 따라서 함석헌의 종교사상이 지닌 가치는 이 두 사상을 어떻게 자신의 사유체계 안에 포괄하고 있는지를 드러냄으로써 밝혀질 수 있다고 할 수있다.이 논문은 크게 세 부분으로 구성되어 있다. 첫째 단락에서는, 함석헌의 종교적 세계관을 범재신론과 연관 지어 서술한다. 함석헌이 강조한 보편적인 세계의식이란 근대의 자연주의적 무신론과 동양사상의 범신론적 내재주의를 뛰어넘는 것으로서, 신과 세계(씨알)의 관계에 대한 포괄적인 우주사를 담아내고자 하는 사상이라는 점을 주장한다. 둘째 단락에서는, 함석헌의 범재신론적 사유체계가 갖고 있는 특징을 인식론의 관점과 존재우주론의 관점에서 더 세부적으로 서술한다. 셋째 단락에서는, 함석헌이 주장한 “새 종교”가 무엇을 비판하고 무엇을 지향하고 있는지를 과정사상과 민중신학의 관심사와 관련하여 대화한다.
Background: Acute variceal bleeding is a serious complication of liver cirrhosis, which has an attendant mortality of approximately 60% over two years, and a variety of treatments, such as balloon tamponade, endoscopic varix ligation, sclerotherapy, histo
The lack of consideration for statistical properties in Taguchi's threelevel linear graphs is rectified. We propose a new set of linear graphs for the threelevel orthogonal arrays according to the maximum resolution criterion. In the presence of twofactor interactions however, the serious bias of all the estimated effects as well as the estimated variance shows that these designs should not be employed. The various alternative designs are discussed.
( Sung Heon Song ), ( Young Jin Jun ), ( Seung Sam Paik ), ( Hyun Jung Kwak ), ( Sang Heon Kim ), ( Tae Hyung Kim ), ( Jang Won Sohn ), ( Dong Ho Shin ), ( Sung Soo Park ), ( Ho Joo Yoon ) 대한결핵 및 호흡기학회 2011 Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases Vol.71 No.6
Non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) frequently metastasizes to brain, bone, liver, and adrenal glands. While an autopsy of NSCLC reveals some cases of metastasis to the kidney, clinical detection of renal metastases is extremely rare. Furthermore, metastases to the kidney usually present as multifocal or bilateral lesions and solitary renal metastases are usually suspected to be renal cell carcinoma. We now report a case of asymptomatic solitary renal metastasis from a primary squamous cell carcinoma, which was detected by routine surveillance with abdominal CT after curative surgery.
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
The reliability of the thickness measurement of the lumbar multifidus (LM) using real-time ultrasonography (US) was determined in only the superficial fiber of the lumbar multifidus (SM). However, previous studies have not examined the reliability of the deep fiber of the LM (DM). The purpose of this study was to determine the intrarater and the interrater reliability of the thickness measurements of DM using US. Eleven healthy males participated in the study. The thickness of the DM was measured with an US in the prone position. Reliability was examined using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), standard error of the measurement (SEM), and the Bland and Altman plot. ICC(3,1) was used to calculate the interarater reliability of the thickness measurement of DM using the values from both the first and second test sessions. Additionally, ICC(3,1) was used to calculate the intrarater reliability of the measurements over two days using the measurements obtained in test session 1 and test session 2. The results of this study were as follows: 1) the ICC(3,1) value for interarater reliability was .94 in the first test session, and .93 in the second test session. 2) the ICC(3,1) values for intrarater reliability of the measurements over two days was .90 in both the first examiner and the second examiner The intrarater reliability and interrater reliability of the DM measurements, obtained via the US protocol used in this research was excellent. Therefore, we conclude that the thickness measurement of the DM obtaioned from the US protocol used in this research would be useful for clinician assessment of the thickness of the DM
Objective : Cervical expansive laminoplasty is an effective surgical method to address multilevel cervical spinal stenosis. During surgery, the spinous processes of C2 and C7 are usually preserved to keep the insertion points of the cervical musculature and nuchal ligament intact. In this regard, dome-like laminectomy (undercutting of C7 lamina) instead of laminoplasty is performed on C7 in selected cases. However, resection of the lamina can weaken the C7 lamina, and stress fractures may occur, but this complication has not been characterized in the literature. The objective of the present study was to investigate the incidence and risk factors for C7 laminar fracture after C7 dome-like laminectomy and its impact on clinical and radiological outcomes. Methods : Patients who underwent cervical open-door laminoplasty combined with C7 dome-like laminectomy (n=123) were classified according to the presence of C7 laminar fracture. Clinical parameters (neck/arm pain score and neck disability index) and radiologic parameters (C2–7 angle, C2–7 sagittal vertical axis, and C7–T1 angle) were compared between the groups preoperatively and at postoperatively at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Risk factors for complications were evaluated, and a formula estimating C7 fracture risk was suggested. Results : C7 lamina fracture occurred in 32/123 (26%) patients and occurred at the bilateral isthmus in 29 patients and at the spinolaminar junction in three patients. All fractures appeared on X-ray within 3 months postoperatively, but patients did not present any neurological deterioration. The fracture spontaneously healed in 27/32 (84%) patients at 1 year and in 29/32 (91%) at 2 years. During follow-up, clinical outcomes were not significantly different between the groups. However, patients with C7 fractures showed a more lordotic C2–7 angle and kyphotic C7–T1 angle than patients without C7 fractures. C7 fracture was significantly associated with the extent of bone removal. By incorporating significant factors, the probability of C7 laminar fracture could be assessed with the formula 'Risk score = 1.08 × depth (%) + 1.03 × length (%, of the posterior height of C7 vertebral body)', and a cut-off value of 167.9% demonstrated a sensitivity of 90.3% and a specificity of 65.1% (area under the curve, 0.81). Conclusion : C7 laminar fracture can occur after C7 dome-like laminectomy when a substantial amount of lamina is resected. Although C7 fractures may not cause deleterious clinical outcomes, they can lead to an unharmonized cervical curvature. The chance of C7 fracture should be discussed in the shared decision-making process.
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
The lumbrical muscles contribute to the intrinsic plus position, that is simultaneous metacarpophalangeal (MCP) flexion and interphalangeal (IP) extension. The strength of the lumbrical muscles is necessary for normal hand function. However, there is no objective and efficient method of strength measurement for the lumbrical muscles. In addition, previous studies have not investigated the measurement of the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the lumbrical muscles using ultrasonography (US) and the relationship between lumbrical muscle strength in the intrinsic plus position and the CSA. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify the measurement method of the CSA of the lumbrical muscles using US and to examine the relationship between maximal isometric strength and the CSA of lumbrical muscles. Nine healthy males participated in this study. Maximal isometric strength of the second, third, and fourth lumbrical muscles was assessed using a tensiometer in the intrinsic plus position which isolated MCP flexion and IP extension. The CSA of the lumbrical muscles was measured with an US. The US probe was applied on the palmar aspect of the metacarpal head with a transverse view of the hand in resting position. There was no significant difference between maximal isometric strength of the lumbrical muscles, but the fourth lumbrical muscle was stronger than the others. The CSA of the lumbrical muscles was significantly different and the fourth lumbrical muscle was significantly larger than the second lumbrical muscle. There was moderate to good correlation between maximal isometric strength and the CSA of the lumbrical muscles. Therefore, we conclude that maximal isometric strength of the lumbrical muscles was positively correlated to the CSA of the lumbrical muscle in each finger, while the measurement of the CSA of the lumbrical muscles, using US protocol in this study, was useful for measuring the CSA of the lumbrical muscles.