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The objective of this study is to devise an alternative strengthening method to the ones available in the literature. So, external steel members were used to enhance both flexural and shear capacities of reinforced concrete (RC) beams having insufficient shear capacity. Two types of RC beams, one without stirrups and one with lacking stirrups, were prepared in the study. These beams were strengthened with external steel clamps devised by the authors and with external longitudinal reinforcements. Although the use of clamps alone didn't have a significant effect on the load carrying capacity of the tested beams, the ductility increased approximately tenfold and the failure behavior changed from brittle to ductile. Although the use of clamps and longitudinal reinforcements together did not significantly increase the ductility of the beams, it approximately doubled their load capacities. The results of the experimental study were compared to the ones obtained from nonlinear finite element analysis (NLFEA) and it was observed that they were compatible. Finally, it can be concluded that the devised method could be applied to structural members as an alternative to methods in application due to lightness, low-cost, easy applicable and reliable.
Purpose: This study evaluated the effectiveness of a 14-week mentoring program for first year nursing students and their ways of coping with stress and locus of control. Methods: The study was designed as a quasi-experimental study. Sixty-six first year students (mentees) and 66 fourth year students (mentors) were eligible to be in the mentoring program. Mentors and mentees contacted each other weekly, as required, to provide information and support. In order to determine the efficiency of the mentoring program, a Locus of Control Scale, the Ways of Coping Inventory and Mentoring Assessment Form were filled out by mentees. Results: In this study the mentoring program increased students' internal locus of control and active coping with stress. The increase in internal locus of control showed parallelism with students' behaviors of seeking social support. Conclusion: It is recommended that in nursing schools, the mentoring program be used as an additional program.
In this study, nanostructured indium selenide (InSe) thin films were deposited on Indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate using electrochemical deposition (ECD) from aqueous solution containing In(SO4)3.H2O and SeO2. The effects of deposition potential (−0.70 to −1.35 V), time (30-3600 s), temperature (25-80 °C) and pH (2.58 for A samples; 2 for B samples and 1.45 for C samples) on growth of the InSe thin films were examined in terms of their structural, morphological and optical properties. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed that the InSe thin films are in polycrystalline structure. It was found that the values of grain size decreased and the full width half maximum (FWHM) values increased with the increasing deposition potential. According to the absorption measurements, optical properties of the thin films varied with changes in deposition conditions. Based on the atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, surface morphology of the thin films was influenced by deposition potential and pH of the electrolyte, and nonhomogeneous depositions distributed across the entire surface were observed. In addition, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analyses were used to further examine crystal quality, vibration, chemical binding conditions, In/Se orientation and structure of the prepared InSe thin films. When Raman results are examined, the B12 sample shows a more intensity and narrow peak at 248 cm−1. XPS measurements sowed that A6 sample exhibited more growth in low potential for a long time and better film stoichiometry compared to the other three samples. Also, FT-IR studies prove the presence of InSe. According to the results, the film did not form at low temperatures and short times. However, the film formation began with the increasing deposition temperature and time at the low potential value of −0.730 V. But, it is clear that a high quality film can be obtained in cathodic potential with −1.3 V and shorter deposition time with 300 s at room temperature respectively. Overall results showed that the high quality thin films can be obtained by the ECD technique. However, deposition conditions must be sensitively adjusted to control morphology of the electrodeposited nanoparticles.
Objective: We aimed to compare the retention characteristics of Essix and Hawley retainers. Methods: Adolescents undergoing fixed appliance treatment at 2 centers were recruited for this study. Twenty-two patients (16 women and 6 men) wore Essix retainers (Essix group) while 20 (14 women and 6 men) wore Hawley retainers (Hawley group). The mean retention time was 1 year, and the mean follow-up recall time for both groups was 2 years. Two qualified dental examiners evaluated the blind patient data. Maxillary and mandibular dental casts and lateral cephalograms were analyzed at 4 stages: pretreatment (T1), post-treatment (T2), post-retention (T3), and follow-up (T4). Results: The results revealed that Essix appliances were more efficient in retaining the anterior teeth in the mandible during a 1-year retention period. The irregularity index increased in both arches in both groups after a 2-year post-retention period. The mandibular arch lengths increased during treatment and tended to return to their original value after retention in both groups; however, these changes were statistically significant only in the Hawley group. Cephalometric variables did not show any significant differences. Conclusions: The retention characteristics of both Essix and Hawley retainers are similar.
Background: Fatigue, stress and pain are common symptoms among cancer patients, affecting the quality of life. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of distant Reiki on pain, anxiety and fatigue in oncology patients. Materials and Methods: Participants in the control group received usual medical and nursing care during their stay. The intervention group received usual care plus five distant Reiki sessions, one each night for 30 min. A face to face interview was performed and patient personal and illness related characteristics were evaluated using the Patient Characteristics form. Pain, stress and fatigue were evaluated according to a numeric rating scale. Results: The experimental group was predominantly composed of women (71.4%), married individuals (40%), and primary school graduates (40%). The control group was predominantly male (72.7%), married (60%), and primary school graduates (60%). The control group demonstrated greater levels of pain (p=0.002), stress (p=0.001) and fatigue (p=0.001). The Reiki group pain score (p <0.0001), stress score (p <0.001) and fatigue score were also significantly lower. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that Reiki may d ecreasepain, anxiety and fatigue in oncology patients.
Background: This study aimed to compare the pain levels during anesthesia and the efficacy of the QuickSleeper intraosseous (IO) injection system and conventional inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) in impacted mandibular third molar surgery. Methods: This prospective randomized clinical trial included 30 patients (16 women, 14 men) with bilateral symmetrical impacted mandibular third molars. Thirty subjects randomly received either the IO injection or conventional IANB at two successive appointments. A split-mouth design was used in which each patient underwent treatment of a tooth with one of the techniques and treatment of the homologous contralateral tooth with the other technique. The subjects received 1.8 mL of 2% articaine. Subjects' demographic data, pain levels during anesthesia induction, tooth extractions, and mouth opening on postoperative first, third, and seventh days were recorded. Pain assessment ratings were recorded using the 100-mm visual analog scale. The latency and duration of the anesthetic effect, complications, and operation duration were also analyzed in this study. The duration of anesthetic effect was considered using an electric pulp test and by probing the soft tissue with an explorer. Results: Thirty patients aged between 18 and 47 years (mean age, 25 years) were included in this study. The IO injection was significantly less painful with lesser soft tissue numbness and quicker onset of anesthesia and lingual mucosa anesthesia with single needle penetration than conventional IANB. Moreover, 19 out of 30 patients (63%) preferred transcortical anesthesia. Mouth opening on postoperative first day was significantly better with intraosseous injection than with conventional IANB (P = 0.013). Conclusion: The IO anesthetic system is a good alternative to IANB for extraction of the third molar with less pain during anesthesia induction and sufficient depth of anesthesia for the surgical procedure.
In order to design industrial scale reactors and proceises for multi-phase biocatalytic reactions, it is essential to understand the mechanisms by which such systems operate. To il-lustrate how such mechanisms can be modeled, the hydrolysis of the primary ester groups of triglycerides to produce fatty acids and monoglycerides by lipased (glycerol-ester hydrolase) catalysis has been selected as an example of multiphase biocatalysis. Lipase is specific in its behavior such that it can act only on the hydrolyzed (or emulsified) part of the substrate. This follows because the active center of the enzyme is catalytically active only when the substrate contacts it in its hydrolyzed form. In other words, lipase acts only when it can shuttleback and forth between the emulsion phase and the water phase, presumably within an interphase or boundary layer between these two phases. In industrial applications lipase is employed as a fat splitting enzyme to remove fat stains from fabrics, in making cheese, to flavor milk products, and to degrade fats in waste products. Effective use of lipase in these processes requires a fundamental understanding of its kinetic behavior and interactions with substrates under various environmental conditions. Therefore, this study focuses on modeling and simulating the enzymatic activity of the lipase as a step towards the basic understanding of multi-phase biocatalysis processes.
This paper reports on the results of a parametric study, which examines the effects of varying aspect ratios on the dynamic response of cylindrical silos directly supported on the ground under earthquake loading. Previous research has shown that numerical models can provide considerably realistic simulations when it comes to the behavior of silos by using correct boundary conditions, appropriate element types and material models. To this end, a three dimensional numerical model, taking into account the bulk material-silo wall interaction, was produced by the ANSYS commercial program, which is in turn based on the finite element method. The results obtained from the numerical analysis are discussed comparatively in terms of dynamic material pressure, horizontal displacement, equivalent base shear force and equivalent bending moment responses for considered aspect ratios. The effects experienced because of the slenderness of the silo in regards to the seismic response were evaluated along with the effectiveness of the classification system proposed by Eurocode in evaluating the loads on the vertical walls. Results clearly show that slenderness directly affects the seismic response of such structures especially in terms of behavior and the magnitude of the responses. Furthermore the aspect ratio value of 2.0, given as a behavioral changing limit in the technical literature, can be used as a valid limit for seismic behavior.
The topic of this study is to strengthen cracked beams with prefabricated RC U cross-sectional plates. The damaged beams were repaired by epoxy based glue. The repaired beams were strengthened using prefabricated plates. The strengthening plates were bonded to the bottom and side faces of the beams by anchorage rods and epoxy. The strengthened beams were incrementally loaded up to maximum load capacities. The experimental results were satisfactory since the load carrying capacities of damaged beams were increased approximately 76% due to strengthening. It was observed that strengthening plates had a dominant effect on the performance of beams in terms of both the post-elastic strength enhancement and the ductility. The experimental program was supported by a three-dimensional nonlinear finite element analysis. The experimental results were compared with the results obtained from the beam modeled with ANSYS finite element program.