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      • KCI등재

        Factors Related to Perceived Life Satisfaction Among the Elderly in South Korea

        정민수,Carles Muntaner,최만규 대한예방의학회 2010 Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health Vol.43 No.4

        Objectives: This study attempted to explore the aging phenomena that now characterize much of Korean society, and assessed issues associated with the life satisfaction experienced during the process of aging. Methods: By employing the National Survey on the State of Life and the Desire for Welfare of the Elderly, 2004 in South Korea this study attempted to identify the factors that determine subjective life satisfaction among the elderly. The data utilized herein consisted of 3278 elderly people aged 65 years or older, from 9308 households. Results: The results of analysis from the final model after the introduction of 19 variables in 8 factors showed statistically similar explanatory power in men (adj. R2 = 0.320) and in women (adj. R2 = 0.346). We found that economic condition was the most influential factor in both men (B = 0.278) and women (B = 0.336) except perceived health condition variables. The second most influential variable in life satisfaction was health checkups in men (B = 0.128) and degree of nutritional diet in women (B = 0.145). Those who had experience with chronic diseases also reported significantly lower perceived life satisfaction and this was particularly true of women. Conclusions: The aging society requires an understanding of the lives of elderly individuals. This study explored factors associated with life satisfaction in old age by using a life satisfaction model. The success of an aging society begins with an accurate understanding of the elderly, and thus political attention will need to be focused on this matter.

      • KCI등재

        A Systematic Review: Effectiveness of Interventions to De-escalate Workplace Violence against Nurses in Healthcare Settings

        Somani Rozina,Muntaner Carles,Hillan Edith,Velonis Alisa J.,Smith Peter 한국산업안전보건공단 산업안전보건연구원 2021 Safety and health at work Vol.12 No.3

        Workplace violence (WPV) is an increasing cause of concern around the globe, and healthcare organizations are no exception. Nurses may be subject to all kinds of workplace violence due to their frontline position in healthcare settings. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify and consider different interventions that aim to decrease the magnitude/prevalence of workplace violence against nurses. The standard method by Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA, 2009) has been used to collect data and assess methodological quality. Altogether, twenty-six studies are included in the review. The intervention procedures they report on can be grouped into three categories: stand-alone trainings designed to educate nurses; more structured education programs, which are broader in scope and often include opportunities to practice skills learned during the program; multicomponent interventions, which often include organizational changes, such as the introduction of workplace violence reporting systems, in addition to workplace violence training for nurses. By comparing the findings, a clear picture emerges; while standalone training and structured education programs can have a positive impact, the impact is unfortunately limited. In order to effectively combat workplace violence against nurses, healthcare organizations must implement multicomponent interventions, ideally involving all stakeholders.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        Factors Related to Perceived Life Satisfaction Among the Elderly in South Korea

        Jung, Min-Soo,Muntaner, Carles,Choi, Man-Kyu The Korean Society for Preventive Medicine 2010 Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health Vol.43 No.4

        Objectives: This study attempted to explore the aging phenomena that now characterize much of Korean society, and assessed issues associated with the life satisfaction experienced during the process of aging. Methods: By employing the National Survey on the State of Life and the Desire for Welfare of the Elderly, 2004 in South Korea this study attempted to identify the factors that determine subjective life satisfaction among the elderly. The data utilized herein consisted of 3278 elderly people aged 65 years or older, from 9308 households. Results: The results of analysis from the final model after the introduction of 19 variables in 8 factors showed statistically similar explanatory power in men (adj. $R^2=0.320$) and in women (adj. $R^2=0.346$). We found that economic condition was the most influential factor in both men (B = 0.278) and women (B = 0.336) except perceived health condition variables. The second most influential variable in life satisfaction was health checkups in men (B = 0.128) and degree of nutritional diet in women (B = 0.145). Those who had experience with chronic diseases also reported significantly lower perceived life satisfaction and this was particularly true of women. Conclusions: The aging society requires an understanding of the lives of elderly individuals. This study explored factors associated with life satisfaction in old age by using a life satisfaction model. The success of an aging society begins with an accurate understanding of the elderly, and thus political attention will need to be focused on this matter.

      • KCI등재

        Gender, Professional and Non-Professional Work, and the Changing Pattern of Employment-Related Inequality in Poor Self-Rated Health, 1995-2006 in South Korea

        김일호,강영호,조성일,천희란,Carles Muntaner 대한예방의학회 2011 Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health Vol.44 No.1

        Objectives: We examined gender differential changes in employment-related health inequalities according to occupational position (professional/nonprofessional) in South Korea during the last decade. Methods: Data were taken from four rounds of Social Statistical Surveys of South Korea (1995, 1999, 2003, and 2006)from the Korean National Statistics Office. The total study population was 55435 male and 33 913 female employees aged 25-64. Employment arrangements were divided into permanent, fixed-term, and daily employment. Results: After stratification according to occupational position (professional/nonprofessional) and gender, different patterns in employment - related health inequalities were observed. In the professional group, the gaps in absolute and relative employment inequalities for poor self-rated health were more likely to widen following Korea’s 1997 economic downturn. In the nonprofessional group, during the study period, graded patterns of employment-related health inequalities were continuously observed in both genders. Absolute health inequalities by employment status, however,decreased among men but increased among women. In addition, a remarkable increase in relative health inequalities was found among female temporary and daily employees (p = 0.009, < 0.001, respectively), but only among male daily employees (p = 0.001). Relative employment-related health inequalities had clearly widened for female daily workers between 2003 and 2006 (p = 0.047). The 1997 Korean economic downturn, in particular, seemingly stimulated a widening gap in employment health inequalities. Conclusions: Our study revealed that whereas absolute health inequalities in relation to employment status increased in the professional group, relative employment-related health inequalities increased in the nonprofessional group, especially among women. In view of the high concentration of female nonstandard employees, further monitoring of inequality should consider gender specific patterns according to employee’s occupational and employment Objectives: We examined gender differential changes in employment-related health inequalities according to occupational position (professional/nonprofessional) in South Korea during the last decade. Methods: Data were taken from four rounds of Social Statistical Surveys of South Korea (1995, 1999, 2003, and 2006)from the Korean National Statistics Office. The total study population was 55435 male and 33 913 female employees aged 25-64. Employment arrangements were divided into permanent, fixed-term, and daily employment. Results: After stratification according to occupational position (professional/nonprofessional) and gender, different patterns in employment - related health inequalities were observed. In the professional group, the gaps in absolute and relative employment inequalities for poor self-rated health were more likely to widen following Korea’s 1997 economic downturn. In the nonprofessional group, during the study period, graded patterns of employment-related health inequalities were continuously observed in both genders. Absolute health inequalities by employment status, however,decreased among men but increased among women. In addition, a remarkable increase in relative health inequalities was found among female temporary and daily employees (p = 0.009, < 0.001, respectively), but only among male daily employees (p = 0.001). Relative employment-related health inequalities had clearly widened for female daily workers between 2003 and 2006 (p = 0.047). The 1997 Korean economic downturn, in particular, seemingly stimulated a widening gap in employment health inequalities. Conclusions: Our study revealed that whereas absolute health inequalities in relation to employment status increased in the professional group, relative employment-related health inequalities increased in the nonprofessional group, especially among women. In view of the high concentration of female nonstandard employees, further monitoring of inequality should consider gender specific patterns according to employee’s occupational and employment status.

      • KCI등재

        고용관계와 건강불평등

        정혜주(Hae Joo Chung),Carles Muntaner 한국사회정책학회 2011 한국사회정책 Vol.18 No.2

        유연화와 탈규제를 중심으로 하는 노동시장의 개혁이 진행되면서 새로운 노동시장의 현실이 노동자들의 건강에 미치는 영향에 대한 관심이 높아지고 있다. 이 글에서는 세계보건기구(World Health Organization, WHO)의 사회적결정요인위원회(Commission on Social Determinants of Health) 산하 고용조건지식네트워크(Employment Conditions Knowledge Network, EMCONET)의 작업에 기반하여 고용조건이 건강과 건강불평등에 영향을 미치는 경로와 메커니즘을 탐색한다. 이를 위하여 공정한 고용의 개념과 고용조건의 다섯 가지 차원 및 거시적·미시적인 이론적 분석틀을 제시하고 이들을 준거로 하여 기존의 경험적 연구성과를 개괄하고 검토한다. 이를 통해 기존 연구의 한계를 밝히고 향후 연구 과제를 도출하며, 결론적으로 고용조건에 의해 야기되는 건강불형평성을 감소시키기 위한 실천적 과제에 대한 논의를 진행한다. Based on the work of the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health`s Employment Conditions Network, this article describes and analyses the link between employment conditions and health inequalities using a comparative approach. More specifically, we present an overview of our macro- and micro-theoretical framework, a summary of the existing empirical evidence on the effect of employment conditions as cause of health inequalities, and a global typology of employment conditions and health. We end with a summary of scientific findings reviewed in this article, and suggestions for a direction for policy interventions to reduce health inequalities associated with employment conditions in countries at different levels of economic development.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        Gender, Professional and Non-Professional Work, and the Changing Pattern of Employment-Related Inequality in Poor Self-Rated Health, 1995-2006 in South Korea

        Kim, Il-Ho,Khang, Young-Ho,Cho, Sung-Il,Chun, Hee-Ran,Muntaner, Carles The Korean Society for Preventive Medicine 2011 Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health Vol.44 No.1

        Objectives: We examined gender differential changes in employment-related health inequalities according to occupational position (professional/nonprofessional) in South Korea during the last decade. Methods: Data were taken from four rounds of Social Statistical Surveys of South Korea (1995, 1999, 2003, and 2006) from the Korean National Statistics Office. The total study population was 55435 male and 33913 female employees aged 25-64. Employment arrangements were divided into permanent, fixed-term, and daily employment. Results: After stratification according to occupational position (professional/nonprofessional) and gender, different patterns in employment - related health inequalities were observed. In the professional group, the gaps in absolute and relative employment inequalities for poor self-rated health were more likely to widen following Korea's 1997 economic downturn. In the nonprofessional group, during the study period, graded patterns of employment-related health inequalities were continuously observed in both genders. Absolute health inequalities by employment status, however, decreased among men but increased among women. In addition, a remarkable increase in relative health inequalities was found among female temporary and daily employees (p = 0.009, < 0.001, respectively), but only among male daily employees (p = 0.001). Relative employment-related health inequalities had clearly widened for female daily workers between 2003 and 2006 (p = 0.047). The 1997 Korean economic downturn, in particular, seemingly stimulated a widening gap in employment health inequalities. Conclusions: Our study revealed that whereas absolute health inequalities in relation to employment status increased in the professional group, relative employment-related health inequalities increased in the nonprofessional group, especially among women. In view of the high concentration of female nonstandard employees, further monitoring of inequality should consider gender specific patterns according to employee's occupational and employment status.

      • Welfare State Regimes, Gender, and Depression: A Multilevel Analysis of Medium and High Income Countries

        ( Hae Joo Chun ),( Edwin Ng ),( Selahadin Ibrahim ),( Bjorn Karlsson ),( Joan Benach ),( Albert Espelt ),( Carles Muntaner ) 한국정책학회 2013 한국정책학회 춘계학술발표논문집 Vol.2013 No.-

        Using the 2002 World Health Survey, we examine the association between welfare state regimes, gender and mental health among 26 countries classified into seven distinct regimes: Conservative, Southeast Asian, Eastern European, Latin American, Liberal, Southern/Ex-dictatorship, and Social Democratic. A two-level hierarchical model found that the odds of experiencing a brief depressive episode in the last 12 months was significantly higher for Southern/Ex- dictatorship countries than for Southeast Asian (odds ratio [OR]=0.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05-0.27) and Eastern European (OR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.22-0.58) regimes after controlling for gender, age, education, marital status, and economic development. In adjusted interaction models, compared to Southern/Ex-dictatorship males (reference category), the odds ratios of depression were significantly lower among Southeast Asian males (OR = 0.16, 95% CI 0.08-0.34) and females (OR = 0.23, 95% CI 0.10-0.53) and Eastern European males (OR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.26-0.63) and significantly higher among females in Liberal (OR = 2.00, 95% CI 1.14-3.49) and Southern (OR = 2.42, 95% CI 1.86-3.15) regimes. Our results highlight the importance of incorporating middle-income countries into comparative Welfare regime research and testing for interactions between welfare regimes and gender on mental health.

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