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In this paper, exhaust gas emissions of moving push-pull Semaul diesel hydraulic car are measured as a function of ambient conditions, rail conditions, the chief stations and in the case of arrival and departure at stations. In result of measurement of exhaust gas emissions, CO and NOx emissions are increased linearly according to increasing of engine speed untill 1,500rpm. On the same ambient temperature, CO emission is decreased and NOx emission is increased according to increasing of ambient humidity. In the chief station, CO and NOx are exceeded a limitation of exhaust gas emissions as 2 times and 1.6 times respectively at Chupungryeong. When the diesel car starts at the station, CO and NOx are approximated and exceeded the limitation.
This pauper consists of five chapter, which can be summarized as follows. Chapter I comprises the object, the necessity and the content of this study as a preface. Several urgent problems motivate this study of brake system. As we know, most trains which are running these days are equipped with disk brake system and maximum. Therefore It is high time that the importance of brake system should be emphasized and studied. This study aims at investigating many effects on braking : Disk and lining represent different braking Characteristics under various conditions in braking ; Disk and lining vary friction coefficient and temperature in relation to changing temperature and speed, which cause the variation of brake distance. And it should be noted how friction coefficient and humidity in the atmosphere affect braking. Chapter II ILLUSTRATES THE METHOD AND APPARATUS USED IN EXPERIMENT, tHE TESTED USED IN EXPEDIENT IS THE SAME TESTED AS k.n.r HAS, AND IS MADE UNDER SAME CONDITIONS COMPARED WITH TRAINS DUNNING RECENTLY. Chapter III shows characteristics and conditions of brake lining, which must produce constant braking power by constant friction coefficient without damaging brake disk friction surface. Chapter IV is composed of three paragraphs, which represents the effects and careful study of experiment acquired by brake tester. Chapter V is mainly made of the most important conclusions in this study. By studying braking characteristics relating disk temperature and running speed variation, the following important conclusions are constructed as to brake tested. 1. The value made by expedient at the time when dunning speed and disk temperature in early stage of braking are constant, is applied to TORQUE and I.F.C by minimum square method and experiment formula is diagrammed and each value can be obtained. 2. After junction braking, to repeat braking under the ascending temperature of disk causes the prolongation of brake distance and the delay of brake time because of the reduction of I.F.C. So, while operating train, it is desirable to avoid repeating sudden braking. 3. It is generally thought that high humidity in the atmosphere bring about the descent of frictioncoefficient when braking, but I,F.C seldom changes according to the variation of humidity. 4. It is predictable that the lining on a large scale can produce the prolongation of brake distance and the delay of brake time because of the reduction of I.F.C. 5. Lining has peculiar characteristics, physical and chemical, which accompany the reduction of friction coefficient, the prolongation of brake distance, and the delay of brake time.
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University programs for activating physical education as a cultural subject. University intend to provide the students with the foundation of life-long physical training, To get the overall view of this, the researcher made a questionnaire. Professors in 83 universities took part in the quiz. The research was made on the basis of the gathered questionnaires. The main items to analyze were as follows: 1. Semesters to complete & credits to take 2. Evaluating method 3. Physical training facileties 4. Practical sport items & trainee members The result was follows: 1. In 56 universities out of 83 universities(68%), physical education was a required subject. In 53 universities out of 83 universities(64%), students are supposed to complete to semesters. 2. Students' achievement was evaluated from both practical skills and theoretical knowledge. In 42 percent of universities, evaluation ratio was that practical skills formed 70 percent and theoretical knowledge did 30 percent. This was the most widely used ratio. 3. In 59 percent of universities, they thought sport facilities was insufficient. In the case of the newly established colleges, it was all the more insufficient. 4. The order of pularity in practical sport items was a ball game, bowling, swimming. Trainee numbers average 40∼60 personals a class in national universities and 40∼80 in private universities. Considering that the proper number to get educational effectiveness was 40∼50 personals a class, it was approaching the approximate number.
This study is choosey yoyasbestos which braking performance excelleyts and sintered friction material which a base is Cu + Sn, and is investigated in comparison with change of friction characteristic of braking in grey cast iron disk for performance improvement of braking friction material of rolling stock. The test methods are carried out bench test which is suited to current conditions of rolling stock in order to performance judgment of the existing nonasbestos lining. In friction characteristic of lining, the test results show that the friction performance depends strongly on compositions of sintered friction material, heat diffusion and friction coefficient improves in according to geometry of lining and can be decreases attractive in regard to disk. As a result, because general friction characteristic of sintered friction materials which this study is tested excelleyts in braking of 100 km/h and less, the sintered friction materials can be contributes to original development of internal for high speed train by improvement of a part composition.
Examined in this paper is effect of frictional characteristics by change of braking lining force. For the specimens 1.38, 1.6, 1.8ton of braking lining force is tested organic and sintered pad. Dynamo tester was used to measure the friction coefficient and lining temperatures wear rate with respect to the braking lining force. In result, mean friction temperature, wear rate with respect to the braking force. In result, mean fraction coefficient and disk temperature etc. is depended on braking lining force. Particularly, the temperature characteristics of friction material is well shown by change of the brake pressure.
This study describes a smoke emission characteristic in the diesel engine. The problem of smoke emitted from diesel engine has been discussed mainly in the viewpoint of environment. This study will be proposal the fundmental characteristics of smoke emission in the diesel engine.