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It is essential to understand the infrared signature of a naval ship to survive against various missile attacks under variable environmental conditions. As guided missiles are developing to equip more accurate IR seekers, research works for countermeasure and IR stealth technology are strongly required. But challenging works are continuously suggested for predicting and analyzing IR signal status of naval ships to achieve low observable performance under various weather conditions, variable missions and developing threats. In this study, overall guidelines of setting design criteria for low observable ships are proposed by considering varying environmental conditions including daily and seasonal variations. Test and evaluation criteria for newly constructed ships for target and background temperature difference is proposed as a design criteria which can be predicted by change of condition and ship's speed. Through the proposed techniques and procedures, it is expected to establish the measurement and evaluation criteria by using temperature, IR Signal differences between the ship and the background.
There are many Shakeout phenomena in which the number of entrants in a newly created industry reaches a certain point, and the total number of companies suddenly decreases. On the other hand, according to the view of selection and adaptation of the evolutionary economics, the firm is an active entity that can be selected by the environment but can adapt to the market environment through adaptation efforts. The purpose of this study is to apply the concepts of adaptation and selection of evolutionary economics to product level analysis and expand it to the discussion of industry level as Shakeout. For this purpose, the US automobile market in 1905-1942 was divided into the Shakeout period and pre and post Shakeout period, and the adaptation strategy and the selection mechanism were analyzed using the Cox risk proportional model. As a result of the analysis, it was confirmed that product differentiation strategy in the Shakeout period enhances the survival probability and the product imitation strategy does in the rest of the period. It implies that it is important to form a Dominant Design through mutual imitation process before Shakeout while it is important to develop a unique product through product differentiation because it faces intense price competition when following Dominant Design in Shakeout period. 새로 생성된 산업에서 다수의 진입이 발생하다가 일정 시점에 달하면 총 기업 수가 급감하는 Shakeout 현상이 종종 발견된다. 한편 진화경제학의 선택과 적응의 관점에 따르면 기업은 환경에 의해 선택되기도 하지만 적응 노력을 통해 시장 환경에 적응할 수 있는 능동적존재이다. 본 연구는 진화경제학의 적응과 선택의 개념을 제품수준 분석에 적용하여 이를Shakeout 이라는 산업수준의 논의로 확대하는 것을 목표로 한다. 이를 위해 1905-1942년미국 자동차 시장을 대상으로 Shakeout 시기와 그 전후로 산업단계를 구분하여 적응전략과선택 메커니즘을 Cox 위험 비례모형을 이용하여 분석하였다. 분석결과 Shakeout 시기에서는제품 차별화 전략이, 나머지 시기에서는 제품 모방전략이 생존 확률을 높이는 적응전략임을확인하였다. 이는 Shakeout 이전 시기에는 상호간 모방과정을 통해 Dominant Design을 형성시키는 것이 중요한 반면 Shakeout 시기에는 Dominant Design을 따라가면 치열한 가격경쟁에 직면하기 때문에 오히려 제품 차별화를 통해 독자적인 제품을 개발하는 것이 중요함을시사한다.
The purpose of this study is validating the factors which affect the surface temperature of a cuboid under transient solar irradiance. Thesurface temperature is determined by considering the material property and weather conditions including the solar irradiance which playsa major role in thermal signature profile in clear daytime. This study focuses on verifying the unsteady temperature prediction result obtainedfrom a SW developed in this study by comparing with those results obtained from a commercial SW and measurement. In thispaper, a cuboid on reflecting platforms with different surface reflectivity is used for verifying the measured and calculated temperaturesby considering a diurnal variation of climatic changes. The developed SW predicts the surface temperature of the cuboid considering thereal-time weather data from measurements. From this study it is observed that the developed SW is compared fairly well with the commercialSW RadThermIR, and the developed SW shoes better agreements with the measured data as compared to the RadThermIR data. We also found that the use of proper radiative surface properties is very important to obtain more accurate modeled results especially forhighly reflecting system with solar irradiation.
This paper deals with the development of measuring methodology and the requirement for its evaluation of the infrared radiation from a naval ship to optical sensors, considering the Meteorological conditions. Factors required for measuring the apparent temperature and infrared radiation are identified and two methods are suggested based on the measuring instruments carried by ship or aircraft. and target operation in the Meteorological conditions is considered. This study describes some factors affecting the IR signature, required instruments to obtain the IR signal considering the naval ship.
The purpose of this study is finding the key factors for navy to determine the necessity of naval ship PIP(Performance Improvement Program) against the altered battle field environment and politics. Recently, leading countries try to cope actively with the changing international circumstances and technology development trend in the commercial industry. In the case of domestic situation, based on the regulation, it is possible to modify the ship configurations by PIP, but there are not enough criteria and references to make a decision of necessity for the PIP program considering the naval ship acquisition planning by navy. It is necessary to acquire the obvious decision criteria for determination of PIP commencement, by the operational, political and security environment around the Korean peninsula. Considering these conditions, this study proposes the factors necessary for naval ship PIP for navy.
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An osteochondroma is an osseous protuberance with cartilaginous growth potential, usually arising in skeletal bone and relatively uncommon in the craniofacial bone. Osteochondroma of the craniofacial region usually occurs at the condyle or the tip of the coronoid process, and rarely arises in the mandibular body, symphysis, ramus, and similar areas. Excision of the lesion including the periosteum is curative, and recurrence or malignant change (usually to a chondrosarcoma) after treatment is rare. We present an atypical case of osteochondroma in the left mandibular inferior border with review of literature.
Gastrointestinal cyst found within the oral cavity has been reported as a rare occurrence with less than 40 cases. The tongue is the preferred site with almost 60% of cysts occurring within oral cavity. The cyst usually shows an asymptomatic swelling in the floor of the mouth, about 30% of affected individuals have symptoms related to difficulties with feeding, swallowing and respiration. The histopathologic features of the cyst vary with respect to the type of epithelium lining; gastric, squamous, intestinal and respiratory epithelium. The pathogenesis is not known, but it may be related to entrapment of undifferentiated endoderm within oral cavity during early fetal development. In this article, we report a case of a gastrointestinal cyst of the tongue in a 16-month-old girl.
Osteoblastoma is a rare tumor of bone representing less than 1% of all tumors of the maxillofacial region. This is a neoplasm of bone characterized by a proliferation of osteoblasts forming bone trabeculae. Because the clinical feature of benign osteoblastoma is nonspecific and osteoblastoma has a pleomorphic histologic appearance, the differential diagnosis is difficult problem. We studies the case records 3 new patients with osteoblastoma. We discussed the case from clinical, radiologic, and histologic feature for differential diagnosis. Three cases from our clinic is reported and analized with previously described cases.