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It is true that out society moves towards total arbanization lately. However, this is due to the development or expansion conneting the existing cities rather than an increase in the number of unit cities. A study on the Kwangju metropolitan area can be said to rapresent the general problem of urban spatial stucture resulting from national urbanization. This is because Kwangju city holds a major role in the time and space structure of Honam Province, and because the purpose of this study is to Pinpoint the possibilities of Kwangju's future development based on its present condition, as an administrative and industrial centre. I am confident that this study on systematic process of development might suggest another development possibility to Kwang ju in the 1980's, ten years from now. Surely such a consideration contributes to a new transfiguration of the Kwang ju metropolitan area needed to deal with the social situation and the population problem which Kwang ju faces. Kwang ju has a total are a of 214.79 square kilometres, of which the existing area occupied is about 26 square kilometres ; the possible dwelling area consists of about 101 square kilometres ; and the open to cultivation area amounts to 76 square. kilometres. According to the trend of population growth, Kwang ju will have about 900 thousand people (based on estimated geometrical ratio) in the 1980's and more than one million by 1982. In order to prepare for extensive urbanization, a land utilization plan and an urban development plan are necessary to deal with the population explosion. 1. The plan for Land Use. (1) Dwelling areas 50.6㎦ (2) Commercial areas 5.54㎦ (3) Industry areas 14.2㎦ (4) Parks and playgrounds 6.4㎦ 2. The development plan of Kwang ju metropolitan area. (1) The arrangement of a principal road among Damyoung Hawsoon, La ju, Song jung ri and Chang sung, stellite city centering in Kwang ju is needed. (2) In order to connect with south inshore region, a collecting and distributing center of marine products, and to take a smooth transport of You su industrial products and all kinds of farm produces, and to be in coexistence and prosperity with in land region about Kwang ju, a road should be extensed. 3. The Research problem in the future. The future problem with the increase of population, a housing-shortage of urban city, daily serious pollution problem of the city and dispersion policy of over population should be devised in the future.
In the past, no mechanism was available for citizens to par-ticipate in urban planning either in advance or afterwards, Much of the responsibility for effectuating plans fell on the shoulders of the chief executive, The chief executive was the central coordinator of a11 activities of the government, and the plan provided a framework to assist him in coordinating those activities invoIving physical development, especially capital improvements, The citizenry had few opportunity of being involved through the machinery of public hearings. Since the early 1970, however, the nation has seen a kind of citizen participation in the course of community development through the Sae-maul movement bringing about a new era through self-help and cooperation at the neighborhood level, I n the light of this, the author has performed an analysis of citizen participation and the Sae-maul movement to the effect of community development in relation to environmental as well as social change in urban communities in Korea. We can find an example of citizens participation in the advocacy planning theory of the 1960s in America, which was advocated by Paul Davidoff. But what makes participation of citizens(and planners) meaningful and desirable? How is the need for innovative participation of the residents justified and support for it secured? We can answer these questions by analyzing the Sae-maul movement in its true light in relation to citizen participation As the term "sea" is equivalent to the English word "new" or "renewed", whereas "maul" means " neighborhood" or "community", the whole term "Sae-maul" means new community, renewed community, and community renewal. But when considering as a new community we should be fully careful of maintaining its uniqueness in the world society, as the term had its origin in the U.S. in the early 1900s. "The Contemporary New Communities Movement in the United State" by Gedeon Golany(1974) sheds light on this term. As we can define "Undong" related to "Sae-maul"as ① a driving, pushing force, ② campaign and education, and ③ works or programs of practical philosophy, the whole term "Sae-maul Undong" should be interpreted as Sae-maul movement instead of new community movement in order for it to be accepted as a unique program in the world society. At the same time, we can not but agree to the coincidence between "Undong" (as related to Sae-maul) and "movement" (according to Golany's definition) as far as the Sae-maul movement(Undong) is concerned. How than can the Sae-maul movement be carried out in urban areas? Further, What is the meaning of the movement as applied to social and physical planning at the community or neighborhood level? We can answer th these question by analyzing the personalities of urbanities and their grass-roots participation. Within rapidly changing urban communitles, "anomie" or the feeling of moral chaos becomes prevalent, But major urban social problems can be solved through changes in the citizens value systems and environmental betterment through grass-roots participation. It is furthermore argued that the development of efficient, as we11 as democratic, city government depends upon grass-roots participation. As the term "citizen participation" is often defined as citizen consideration of and consent to professionally developed programs, or civic activity which is decidedly non-political, and as the Sae-maul movement is understood as a renovation movement in the ways of life and living conditions and thought of the citizens, the question of value changes, order and morality enhancement in everyday living, betterment of the environment and anti-poverty activities as applied to the Sae-maul movement should be approached through means of democratic participation as far as the social and physical effects of the movement are concerned. As we can define "Undong" related to "Sae-maul" as ① a driving, pushing force, ② campaign and education, and ③ works or programs of practical philosophy, the whole term "Sae-maul Undong" should be interpreted as Sae-maul movement instead of new community movement in order for it to be accepted as a unique program in the world society. At the same time, we can not but agree to the coincidence between "Undong" (as related to Sae-maul) and "movement"(according to Golany's definition) as far as the Sae-maul movement(Undong) is concerned. How then can the Sae-maul movement be carried out in urban areas? Further, what is the meaning of the movement as applied to social and physical planning at the community or neighborhood level? We can answer to these questions by analyzing the personalities of urbanites and their grass-soots participation. Within rapidly changing urban communities, "anomie" or the feeling of moral chaos becomes prevalent. But major urban social problems can be solved through change in the citizens value systems and environmental betterment through grass-roots participation. It is furthermore argued that the development of efficient, as well as democratic, city government depends upon grass-roots participation. As the term "citizen participation" is often defined as citizen consideration of and consent to professionally developed programs, or civic activity which is decidedly nonpolitical, and as the Sae-maul movement is understood as a renovation movement in the ways of life and living conditions and thought of the citizens, the question of value changes, order and morality enhancement in everyday living, betterment of the environment and anti-poverty activities as applied to the Sae-maul movement should be approaches as applied to the Sae-maul movement should be approached through means of democratic participation as far as the social and physical effects of the movement are concerned. In our case, however, we should be well aware of "community integration" and " total community" wherein the primary goal of community organization is to further the democratic process and strengthen the community members capacity to work together. Out of this view, a kind of neighborhood council as an effective communication channel with its subsystem of "ban" meetings which currently exist in this country, and a kind of neighborhood unit development committee having financial as well as executive power in the implementation of sub-programs should be institutionally available. At the same time, the existing Sae-maul banks(micro-banks) at the neighborhood unit level should be encouraged in their function to the effect of implementing sub-programs that are directly associated with the residents' want and needs. Because each neighborhood has a somewhat distinctive approach, or a different emphasis in the selection of programs, depending partly on the needs of the residents and partly on the sponsors, it is important to be aware of citizens! dissatisfactions and discontents and to stimulate them to take part actively in improving their own living environment. In a sense this leads to the concept of communal autonomy.
Lactobacillus plantarum LBP-K10 was isolated and identified from Korean traditional fermented food of plant materials. Culture supernatant (CS) from Lb. plantarum LBP-K10 were fractionated by their hydrophobic own nature and collected and characterized by active fraction according to antiviral activity. Antiviral compounds were purified and characterized by using HPLC with C18 hydrophobic column. Structural analysis was performed by GC-MS through electron ionization and chemical ionization, NMR with 1H and 13C, elemental analysis and X-ray crystallography. All compounds from Lb. plantarum LBP-K10 were concomitantly 1,4-diaza-2,5 dioxo-cyclic dipeptides, so called 2,5-dioxopiperazines or 2,5-diketopiperazines. Resulting purified and characterized compounds showed remarkable anti-influenza A (H3N2) activity. Active compounds were cis-cyclo(L-Leu-L-Pro), cis-cyclo(L-Phe-L-Pro), cis-cyclo(L-Val-L-Pro) and cis-cyclo(L-Met-L-Pro), molecular mass about 210, 244, 196 and 228 respectively. Purified cis-cyclic dipeptides from Lb. plantarum LBP-K10 remarkably repressed viral replication in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cell line against various kinds of influenza viral infection through plaque assays.
The purpose of this study is to investigate general L2 proficiency (measured by TOEIC scores), the speed of lexical access (measured by reaction time), and lexical comprehension accuracy based on error rates from the LAT (Lexical Access Test). According to some SLA studies(Akamatsu, 2001; Ackerman, 1988), speedy lexical access ability is regarded as one of the most important factors in achieving automaticity. Therefore, the speed of lexical access was tested to judge learners' cognitive processing ability in an indirect way. The following research questions were examined for this study: 1) To what extent are L2 general proficiency and the speed of lexical access related? 2) In terms of the speed of lexical comprehension, what differences are attested between native speakers and Korean learner groups? 3) Does L2 general proficiency affect lexical comprehension accuracy? 4) In terms of accuracy of lexical comprehension, what differences are attested between native speakers and Korean learner groups? A total of sixty Korean university students and some university graduates participated in the study. They were divided into two groups: the advanced learner group and the lower learner group, each of which had 30 participants. The advanced learner group was compared to a group of 17 native speakers in order to ascertain the difference in terms of the speed and accuracy of lexical comprehension. The LAT (Lexical Access Test) was conducted to measure lexical comprehension speed and accuracy by all participants. The findings can be summarized as follows: First, there were not statistically significant differences in the speed of lexical access between the advanced learner and lower learner groups. This indicates that L2 proficiency measured by TOEIC does not lead to speedy lexical access ability. Secondly, in terms of the speed and accuracy of lexical comprehension between the native speakers and the Korean learners, there were significant differences. This implies that even if advanced learners have highly developed linguistic knowledge, continuous efforts are required to become a native-like speaker. Thirdly, it appeared that L2 proficiency was related to lexical comprehension accuracy (measured by error rates from LAT). This demonstrates that L2 proficiency measured by TOEIC is considered to include formal aspects of language such as grammar and lexis. These findings bring about some consideration for enhancing automaticity: to get a high score on the TOEIC test could help to improve linguistic knowledge. However, it does not guarantee speedy cognitive processing. Therefore, learners should recognize that promoting speedy cognitive processing and acquiring linguistic knowledge from an SLA point of view are two different processes. With respect to these results, it is recommended that learning English accompany linguistic knowledge with repetitive practice and experiences for practical performance development. 현대사회의 급격한 변화에 따라 우리의 의식과 가치관은 물론 우리의 생활을 담는 공간까지 변화가 일어나고 있다. 기존의 정형적인 틀에서 벗어나 보다 새로운 프로그램들에 적합한 융통성을 지닌 공간을 필요하게 되었다. 근대건축에서의 공간구성의 원리는 기능과 프로그램을 바탕으로 하는 기능주의적 원리로 볼 수 있으나 현대건축에서는 기존의 형태나 공간구성 방식을 탈피하려는 시도들이 나타나고 있다. 최근에 새롭게 나타나는 일련의 건축 디자인은 여러 가지 유기체의 특징 이런 다양한 요구를 수용하기 위해 과거부터 여러 건축가들이 드로잉으로 유기체의 형상을 구현하였듯 현재 다양하게 적용되고 있는 디지털 건축과의 연관성을 찾아내어 유기체의 형상을 건축적으로 구축하기 위한 최적의 방법을 도출해 보고자 한다. 유기적 특성을 확인하고, 디지털 건축으로 구축하기 위한 매개체로서 위상기하학의 특성을 분석하여 유기체와 위상기하학 그리고 디지털 건축으로 이어지는 가능성을 찾아내어 비선형적(nonlinear)이고 혼성적(heterogeneous)인 특성을 가지고 있는 연속적인 공간의 구축의 가능성을 모색해 본다. 본 논문에서는 실제로 위상기하학 기반의 디지털 건축기법이 유기체의 형상을 구축하는데 얼마나 효율적이며 적합한지를 확인해보기 위해 서귀포 수족관을 직접 설계하고 그 과정에 직접 유기적 디자인의 디지털 구축기법을 적용함으로서 기존의 건축과는 어떠한 부분에서 차이점이 있는지 확인한다.
현재 정부에서 엔지니어링 산업의 육성과 관련하여 대학교육, 일, 기술자격의 연계 시스템 구축을 추진하고 있으나 관련 자료가 부족한 실정이다. 따라서 엔지니어링 인력양성의 기초가 되는 대학의 공학교육과 기술사제도 연계방안에 대하여 조사하게 되었다. 특히 발송배전기술사 고시 출제경향분석과 서울과학기술대학교 전기공학과 교과과정에 대한 비교 검토를 통해서 기술사 자격과 대학 교과과정과의 연관성을 분석하여 보았다. 발송배전기술사 출제경향 분석 절차로 1980년대부터 2010년까지 주요 주제에 대한 출제경향 변화를 5년 단위로 분석하였으며, 특히 최근 10년간 자주 출제되는 분야 및 출제비중을 조사하였다. 조사결과를 보면 송전분야 30(%), 기초이론 16(%), 변전분야 14(%), 발전분야 14(%), 기타 관련분야 11(%), 신경향분야(신재생에너지, 가변유연송전시스템 등) 9(%) 순으로 나타났다. 이러한 분석 자료를 기초로 하여 발송배전기술사 고시와 대학 교과과정 연계 시 보완해야할 교과과정과 학습교재를 추천하였으며, 올바른 학습방법에 대하여 제안하였다. Currently the government is promoting the establishment of a system to connect college education, work, and technical qualification regarding the cultivation of engineering industry; however, the data related to it are limited. Thereupon, this paper conducted research on methods to connect the engineer system and engineering education at college which is the basis in the cultivation of engineering manpower. In particular, with comparative examination on the questioning tendency of the Professional Engineer Generation Transmission and Distribution Exam and the curriculum of Electric Engineering at Seoul National University of Science and Technology, this study analyzed the relationship between the engineer’s license and college curriculum. As the procedure of analyzing the questioning tendency of the Professional Engineer Generation Transmission and Distribution Exam, this study analyzed the changes of the questioning tendency on chief topics from the 1980’s till 2010 in the unit of 5 years. Particularly, this study examined frequently asked fields for the recent 10 years and questioning gravity. According to the result of this research, the order was power transmission 30(%), basic theory 16(%), substation 14(%), generation 14(%), other related fields 11(%), and new tendency (new renewable energy and variable flexible AC Transmission System, etc.) 9(%). Based on these data analyzed, this study recommends the curriculum and learning materials to be complemented to connect the Professional Engineer Generation Transmission and Distribution Exam and the college curriculum and also suggests proper learning methods.
The development of science has brought people physiological knowledge. Through this knowledge, people have improved the quality of life by purifying and ingesting beneficial substances in nature. However, many substances have not yet been studied, and among them are substances that we consume as food or take through the intestinal microbes. Cyclic dipeptides (CDPs) are byproducts produced by physicochemical reactions or by microorganisms during fermentation. CDPs form a ring structure through two peptide bonds. Due to these structural characteristics, CDPs have both stability and hydrophobicity. Because of its stability, CDP can be delivered to the intestine without damage even if administered orally, and because it is hydrophobic, it can be easily absorbed by cells and tissues. However, studies on the physiological effects of oral administration of CDP are still lacking. In this study, cyclo (-Phe-Pro) (cFP), one of the CDPs, was administered orally to mice and overall effects on the musculoskeletal system were evaluated. As a result of oral administration of cFP for three weeks, a significant increase in weight was observed in muscles, and significant positive changes were also found in the analysis of cortical and cancellous bones. To analyze the mechanism for the effects on the musculoskeletal system, the expression of various cytokines in plasma and tissues of mice was investigated. The expression of myostatin in muscles was significantly decreased by the administration of cFP. Considering previous reports that myostatin negatively affects the muscle mass, the above results suggest that cFP may regulate the musle mass through myostatin. In addition, whether cFP directly affects the differentiation and growth of myoblasts, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts was investigated. While cFP directly promoted the differentiation of myoblasts, it inhibited the differentiation of osteoclasts. In addtion, indirect effects were examined through experiments using the cell culture medium of myoblasts stimulated by cFP. The cFP-treated myoblast culture medium increased not only the differentiation of myoblasts but also the differentiation of osteoblasts that were not directly affected by cFP. These results indicate that cFP can regulate the musculoskeletal system in a complex mechanism. Recent studies indicate that gut microbiota affects the musculoskeletal system. The anti-microbial effects of cFP can change the gut microbiota, which may in turn affect the musculoskeletal system. Therefore, I investigated whether cFP changes gut microbiota and whether it is related to the musculoskeletal effects shown in this study. Through mouse feces analysis, it was found that oral administration of cFP increased the butyric acid-producing microorganisms and increased the concentration of butyric acid in the intestine. Besides, cell experiments showed that a low concentration of butyric acid increased myoblast differentiation and inhibited osteoclast differentiation. In summary, cFP has positive effects on the musculoskeletal system through various interactions with muscle and bone cells and intestinal microbes. This study may bring a better understanding of the physiological effects of cFP. 과학의 발달은 사람들에게 생리학적 지식을 가져다 주었다. 이러한 지식들을 통해 사람들은 자연에 존재하는 이로운 물질들을 분리 및 정제하여 섭취함으로써 삶의 질을 향상시켰다. 하지만 아직 연구되지 않은 많은 물질들이 존재하며 그들 중에는 우리가 음식으로 섭취하거나 공생하는 장내 미생물들을 통해 자연스레 체내로 받아들이는 물질들이 존재한다. Cyclic dipeptides (CDPs)는 물리화학적 반응에 의해 생성되거나 발효과정에서 미생물들에 의해 발생하는 부산물이다. CDP를 구성하는 두개의 아미노산이 두개의 펩타이드 결합을 통해 링 구조를 형성하는데 이러한 구조적 특성으로 인해 안정성과 소수성을 공통적 특징으로 지닌다. CDP는 구조적 특성에 기인한 안정성 때문에 구강 투여를 하여도 장까지 손상없이 전달 가능하며 소수성기 때문에 체내 흡수 혹은 세포내 흡수도 용이하다. 하지만 아직까지 CDP의 구강 투여가 생리학적으로 어떤 영향을 미치는지에 대한 연구는 미진하다. 본 연구에서 연구자는 CDP 중 하나인 cyclo (-L-Phe-L-Pro) (cFP)를 쥐에게 구강 투여하여 근골격계에 어떤 변화가 일어나는지를 전반적으로 살펴보았다. 3주간 cFP를 구강 투여 해준 결과, 각각의 근육에서 유의미한 무게 증가가 관측되었으며 피질 골과 해면 골 분석에서도 투여 군에서 유의미한 긍정적 지표 변화가 나타났다. 근골격계에서 나타난 변화를 메커니즘적으로 분석하기 위하여 쥐의 혈장 및 조직 에서 다양한 사이토카인 발현을 조사해보았다. 연구 결과에서 근육에서 발현되는 myostatin의 mRNA 발현량이 유의미하게 변화 하였으며 myostatin이 근 성장에 부정적인 영향을 미친다는 이전 연구를 고려해 본다면 위 결과는 cFP가 myostatin 조절을 통해 근 성장을 조절할 가능성을 시사한다. 한편 근모세포, 조골세포, 파골세포 분화 및 생장에 cFP가 직접적으로 영향을 미치는지 조사해보았다. 근모세포의 경우 cFP가 직접적으로 분화를 촉진시킨 방면 파골세포의 분화는 억제시켰다. 또한 cFP에 자극된 근모세포의 세포 배양액을 이용한 실험을 통해 간접적 영향도 확인할 수 있었다. cFP를 처리한 근모세포 세포 배양액은 근모세포의 분화뿐만 아니라 직접적으로 영향을 받지 않던 조골세포의 분화도 증가시켰다. 이러한 결과들을 통해 cFP는 다양한 방식으로 근골격계를 조율할 수 있음을 알게 되었다. 최근 연구들을 통해 장내 미생물 환경이 근골격계에 영향을 미친다는 것이 잘 알려져 있다. cFP의 항균 효과는 장내 미생물 환경을 변화 시킬 수 있으며 이를 통해 근골격계에 영향을 미칠 수 있다. 따라서 본 연구에서 cFP가 장내 미생물을 변화시키는지 그리고 그 변화가 본 연구에서 나타난 근골격계 결과와 관계가 있는지에 대해 살펴보았다. 대변 분석을 통해 cFP 구강 투여가 장내 미생물 중 부티르산을 생성하는 균 총을 증가시키며 장내 부티르산 농도도 증가시킨다는 것을 확인할 수 있었다. 또한 세포 실험을 통해 낮은 농도의 부티르산의 경우 근모세포의 분화를 증가시키며 파골세포 분화는 억제한다는 것을 알 수 있었다. 본 연구를 통해 cFP가 근골격계에 긍정적인 영향을 미친다는 것을 알 수 있었으며 이러한 영향은 다양한 상호작용에 의해 이뤄진다는 것을 알게 되었다. 본 연구 결과가 cFP가 가진 생리학적 영향에 대한 이해를 높이는데 기여할 것이다.