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The aim of this study was to investigate clinical adverse reaction of pharmacopuncture. It was searched in four Korean database that case report or case series study related to pharmacopuncture since 2000. Among them, studies reported adverse reaction was selected. The characteristics, types of pharmacopuncture, adverse reaction patterns, follow-up were investigated separately. A total of 10 studies and 17 cases reported adverse reactions after pharmacopuncture treatment. The mean age was 45 ± 12.1 years and musculoskeletal system diseases (47.1%) and neurological diseases (41.2%) were most common. Bee venom (58.8%) and Bufonis Venenum (17.6%) accounted for most of the adverse reactions. And symptom also appeared to be serious, such as dizziness, seizure, unconsciousness, nausea, and dyspnea. Adverse reaction were also seen in Carthmi- Flos, Horminis Placenta, and Juglandis Semen. But symptoms were minor, such as uredo and rash and it disappeared within 24 h after treatment. There is a need to establish institutional procedures for enhanging safety of pharmacopuncture.
The purpose of this study is to find out the historical trend and meanings of modern hotels(1945-1999) in history of Korea hotel. As a social phenomenon of specified time, historical approach for hotel management is to understand it by consideration through a historical trend. Hotel is influenced by the politics, economics, socio-culture. A method of study is a historical research using books, newspapers, articles. After Korea was liberated from Japanese colonial rule in 1945, Station hotels and modern hotel continuously played a very important role in the current hotel management and Korea tourism development. Modern hotels in korea have various socio-cultural meanings and landmark building in city. Hotels faced rapidly changing conditions for management owing to increasing competition and diversified demands of customer from 1945 to 1999. Hotel had a development in quantity and quality. This findings of historical study will contribute to the plans for the future policy in hotel management and the education of hotel history in university.
This study examines the process of urbanization in Chungryangri area as a sub-center in Seoul. The metropolitanization in Seoul has been Hade rapidly with the growth of population in recent years. Based on the analysis of population density, urban land use patterns, and distribution of public facilities in the Study area for last sixty years findings are as follows; 1. The function of this area is one of sub-centers in Seoul. 2. Chung-ryang 1-dong has been emerged as a nuclei of the Chun-ryang ri area. 3. The process of urbanization has been taken place for 4 stages. 1) Before 1942: A period of rural characteristics. 2) 1942-1963: A period of initial stage in the development of the sub-center. 1963-1974: A period of rabid developing stage as a subcenter. 1974-1980: A period of mature stage in the sub-center development. The zone of influence of this area appears to be the linear pattern along the main streets.
Objective: DIt is need to evaluate he changes of the bio-signals through the hot-cold stimulation in the CV4. Methods: The 30 healthy participants were enrolled and randomly allocated, to one of three groups(10 participants for each group): the hot stone therapy(HST) group, or the cold stone therapy(CST) group or no treatment group(NT). All the participants took a rest for 10 minutes for stability before the test. And additional 10 minute rest after measurements of skin test and sEMG. After that two group received hot or cold stone therapy for 30 minutes and one group treated nothing with HRV test. Results: HRV LF value showed a significant increase over time in all three groups, but there was no significant difference between groups but HRV HF value did not show any significant difference with time in all three groups and there was no significant difference between groups. sEMG value showed a significant increase in the left side of the masseter muscle of the HST group and sebum levels was a significant decreased in HST group but no significant meaning was found. Conclusion: There was no objective evidence that hot-cold stimulation produced bio-signals changes in comparison to the control group, but additional studies are needed as the subjects were limited.